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Selected Bibliography

Abitbol, M. (ed. and transl.) 1979, Tombouctou et les Arma, Paris: G.P. Maisonneuve et Larose.

Abitbol, M. 1982, Tombouctou au milieu du xviii-e siècle d’ après la chronique de Mawlāy al-Qāsim. Paris: G.P. Maisonneuve et Larose.

Ag Arias, Altinine. 1970, Iwillimadan Niamey: Centre Nigérien de Recherches en Sciences Humaines.

Alojali, Ghoubeid [Ghubăyd ăgg Alăwjeli] & K.G. Prasse. 1980, Lexique Touareg Français. Copenhagen: Akademisk forlag.

Bates, O. 1914, The Eastern Libyans, London: Macmillan [reprint London: Frank Cass 1970].

Bernus, E. 1970, ‘Récits historiques de l’ Azawagh’, Bulletin de l’ Institut Fondamental d’ Afrique Noire. Série B, 32 (2) (pp. 434–485).

Bivar, A.D.H. 1959, ‘Arabic Documents of Northern Nigeria’, Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies, 22:2 (pp. 324–349).

Brockelmann, Carl. 1937–1942, Geschichte der arabischen Literatur [GAL], Leiden: Brill.

Dubief, J. 1948, ‘Les Ifoghas de Ghadamès: chronologie et nomadisme’, Revue d’ Ibla, 13:1 (pp. 141–159).

Dubief, J. 1956, ‘Les Ouraghen des Kel-Ajjer; chronologie’, Travaux de l’ Institut de Recherches Sahariennes, 14:1–2 (pp. 85–137).

Duveyrier, H. 1864, Les Touaregs du Nord. Exploration du Sahara. 2 vols, Paris: Challamel Ainé.

Eloufrâni, Mohammed Esseghir Ben Elhadj Ben Abdallah. 1889, Nozhet-Elhâdi, Histoire de la dynastie Saadienne au Maroc (1511–1670) (trans. O. Houdas). Paris: Ernest Leroux.

Gautier, Émile-Félix. 1919, La Conquête du Sahara, Paris: A. Colin.

Guignard, E. 1984, Les Touaregs Udalen. Paris: l’ Harmattan.

El-Hachaichi, Mohammed ben Otsmane [Muḥammad b. ʿUthmān al-Hashāʾīshī]. 1903, Voyage au pays des Senoussia: à travers la Tripolitaine et les pays Touareg, Paris: Augustin Challamel.

Hamani, D.M. 1989, Au Carrefour du Soudan et de la Berbèrie: le Sultanat Touareg de l’ Ayer. (Études Nigériennes 55). Niamey: IRSH.

Harrmann, Ulrich. 1998, ‘The Dead Ostrich: life and trade in Ghadames (Libya) in the Nineteenth Century’, Die Welt des Islams, 38 (pp. 9–94).

Hitti, Philip K. 1946, History of the Arabs, London: Macmillan.

Horneman, Frederick. 1802, The Journal of Frederick Horneman’s Travels, from Cairo to Mourzouk, London: G. & W. Nicol.

Hunwick, J.O. 1962, ‘Aḥmad Baba’, Journal of the Historical Society of Nigeria, 2:3 (pp. 311–328, table).

Hunwick, J.O. 1964, ‘A New Source for the Biography of Aḥmad Bābā Al-Tinbuktī (1566–1627)’, Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies, 27:3 (pp. 568–593).

Hunwick, J.O. 1986, ‘Kunta’ in C.E. Bosworth &al. (eds.), Encyclopaedia of Islam. New Edition. Vol. 5. Leiden: E.J. Brill (pp. 393–395).

Hunwick, J.O. (ed.) 1995–2003, Arabic Literature in Africa, Leiden: E.J. Brill.

Hunwick, J.O. 1999, Timbuktu and the Songhay Empire. Al-Saʿdī’s Taʾrīkh al-Sūdān down to 1613 and Other Contemporary Documents (ed. & trans. of ʿAbd al-Raḥmān al-Saʿdī, Taʾrīkh al-Sūdān). Leiden: Brill, 1999.

Kaḥḥālā, ʿUmar Riḍā. 1957, Muʿjam al-muʾallifīn. Beirut: Dār iḥyāʾ al-turāth al-ʿarabī.

Lane, E.W. 1877, Arabic-English Lexicon. London: Williams and Norgate.

Levtzion, N. and J.F.P. Hopkins (eds & trans). 1981, Corpus of early Arabic Sources for West African History. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Lewicki, T. 1959, ‘À propos d’ une liste de tribus berbères d’ Ibn Ḥawḳal’, Folia Orientalia, 1:1 (pp. 128–135).

Lewicki, T. 1971, ‘Du nouveau sur la liste des tribus berberès d’ Ibn Ḥawḳal’, Folia Orientalia, 13 (pp. 171–200).

Lewicki, T. 1981, ‘Les origines et l’ islamisation de la ville Tādmakka’ in Le Sol, la parole et l’ écrit: 2000 ans d’ histoire africaine: mélanges en hommage à Raymond Mauny. Vol. 1, Paris: Société française d’ histoire d’ outre-mer (pp. 439–440).

Lewicki, T. 1992, ‘The role of the Sahara and Saharians in the relationships between north and south’, in I. Hrbek (ed.), General History of Africa. Vol. 3, Africa from the Seventh to the Eleventh Century. Abridged edition, London: James Currey (pp. 146–162).

Lhôte, H. 1951, ‘Sur l’ emplacement de la ville de Tademekka’. Notes Africaines, 51 (pp. 65–69).

Lydon, Ghislaine. 2009, On Trans-Saharan Trails, Islamic Law, Trade Networks, and Cross-Cultural Exchange in Nineteenth-Century Western Africa. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Marty, Paul. 1920, Études sur l’ Islam et les tribus du Soudan. Vol. 1, Les Kounta de l’ Est, Les Berabich, les Iguellad. Vol. 2, La Région de Tombuctou (Islam songaï). Paris (4 vols): Ernest Leroux 1920–1921.

de Moraes Farias, P.F. 2003, Arabic Medieval Inscriptions from the Republic of Mali, Epigraphy, Chronicles and Songhay-Tuāreg History. (Fontes Historiae Africanae, New Series. Sources of African history, 4), Oxford: Oxford University Press / The British Academy.

Motylinski, A. de C. 1904, Le dialecte berbère de R’edamès, Paris: E. Leroux.

Muṣṭafā Khodja, Ben Ka’sem El-Miṣri. 1904, ‘Text Inédit Communiqué par M. René Basset’ in A.C. Motylinski, Le Dialecte Berbère de R’edamès, Paris: E. Leroux.

Nicholson, R.A. 1907, A Literary History of the Arabs. Fisher & Unwin.

Norris, H.T. 1975, The Tuaregs. Warminster: Aris and Philipps.

Norris, H.T. 1982, The Berbers in Arabic Literature. London: Longman.

Norris, H.T. 1986, The Arab Conquest of the Western Sahara. Studies of the historical events, religious beliefs and social customs which made the remotest Sahara a part of the Arab World. London: Longman.

Norris, H.T. 2005, ‘Les relations littéraires arabes entre les Touaregs et les Bidân dans les régions de frontière de l’ Azawâd de l’ Adghagh-n-Ifôghâs (Mali) et du Hawd (Mauritanie)’. Awal, 31 (pp. 101–127).

Norris, H.T. 2006, ‘Écrits touaregs en arabe classique, un héritage méconnu’, in Hélène Claudot-Hawad (ed.), Berbères ou Arabes? Le Tango des spécialistes, Paris: Non Lieu (pp. 263–282).

Ould Ely, Sidi Amar [Sīdī ʿUmar b. ʿAlī]. 1995–1996, Handlist of Manuscripts in the Centre de Documentation et de Recherches Historiques Aḥmed Bābā, Timbuktu. London: Al-Furqān Islamic Heritage Foundation.

The Qur’an (trans. M.A.S. Abdel Haleem). Oxford: Oxford University Press 2004.

Richardson. James. 1848, Travels in the Great Desert of Sahara in the years of 1845 and 1846 containing a narrative of Personal Adventures, During a tour of nine months through the desert, amongst the Touaricks and other tribes of Saharan people, including a description of the Oases and Cities of Ghat, Ghadames and Mourzuk. Vol. 1, London: Bentley.

Richer, Ange (Dr.). 1924, Les Touaregs du Niger: Region de Tombuctou Gao: les Oulliminden. Paris: Larose.

Rodd, Francis Rennell. 1926, ‘A paper on the Origins of the Tuareg’, Journal of the Royal Geographical Society, 67:1, Jan (pp. 27–52).

Rodd, Francis Rennell. 1926, People of the Veil, being an Account of the Habits, Organisation and History of the Wandering Tuareg Tribes which inhabit the Mountains of Air, or Asben, in the Central Sahara. London: Macmillan.

Saad, Elias N. 1983, Social History of Timbuktu: The Role of Muslim Scholars and Notables 1400–1900 (Cambridge Studies in Islamic Civilization). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

al-Shaykhly, Ṣabāḥ Ibrāhīm Saīd. 1980, ‘Arab Military and Commercial Penetration of the Maghrib and its Sahara, the Western Sudan and Southern Europe during the 5th/11th century, a Reinterpretation in the Light of Medieval Arabic Sources’. Ph.D. Thesis, Victoria University, Manchester.

Thomas, David. 2008, ‘Burda’, in Ian Richard Netton (ed.), Encyclopedia of Islamic Civilisation and Religion. London: Routledge (pp. 110–112).

Trimingham, J.S. 1962, A History of Islam in West Africa. London: Oxford University Press.

Vycichi, W. 1966, ‘Étude sur la langue de Ghadamès (Sahara)’. Genève-Afrique, 5:2 (pp. 248–260).

Whitcomb, T. 1975, ‘New Evidence on the Origins of the Kunta’. Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies, 38:1 (pp. 103–123) & 38:2 (pp. 403–417).

Wright, J. 2012, A History of Libya. London: Hurst and Company.

Yūshaʿ, Bashīr Qāsim. 1972, Ghadāmis Malāmiḥ wa-Ṣuwar. Misurāta: Maṭābiʿ al-Fātiḥ.

Yūshaʿ, Bashīr Qāsim. 1986, Fihrist Makhṭuṭāt Ghadāmis al-Muṣawwara. Tripoli: Markaz al-Jihād al-Lībiyy lil-Dirāsat al-Taʾrīkhiyya [An index of photographed manuscripts from Ghadāmis].

Yūshaʿ, Bashīr Qāsim. 1995, Ghadāmis. Wathāʾiq Tijāriyya wa-Taʾrīkhiyya wa-Ijtimāʿiyya, No. 1. Tripoli: Markaz al-Jihād al-Lībiyy lil-Dirāsāt al-Taʾrīkhiyya. [A book of commercial, historical and sociological documents].

al-Ziriklī, Khayr al-Dīn. 1984, al-Aʿlām, 6th edn. Beirut: Dar al-ʿilm li’l-malāyīn.

Zouber, Mahmoud Abdou. 1977, Ahmad Bābā, Paris: G.-P. Maisonneuve et Larose.

Unpublished Theses

  • ʿAbdal-ʿAzīz ʿAbdallah Baṭrān, 1971, ‘Sidi al-Muk̲h̲tar al-Kunti and the recrudescence of Islam in the Western Sahara and the Middle Niger, c. 1750–1811’, University of Birmingham.

  • Sabah Ibrahim Said Al-Sheikhly, 1980, ‘Arab Military and Commercial Penetration of the Maghrib and its Sahara. The Western Sūdān and Southern Europe during the 5th/11th Century: a Reinterpretation in the Light of Medieval Arabic Sources’, University of Manchester.

  • Saʿīd Aḥmad, 1996, ‘Commerce et commerçants dans le Sahara central: les échanges entre le vilāyet de Tripoli et les pays d’ Afrique central de 1835 à 1911’, Université de Provence-Aix-Marseille.