3 Method and Presentation of This Study: A Novel Approach towards 4QSamuela

in 4QSamuela and the Text of Samuel
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A novel approach toward the analysis 4QSamuela is adopted as the method for this study, in view of the importance of comparing the texts not only in terms of genetic relations between texts (or, filiation), but also in terms of characteristic features—that is the degree to which a given text contains (for example) updated, expanded, or sectarian elements. The method that best accomplishes these goals is a comparison of the secondary readings found in the witnesses. Secondary readings are those that are judged to be the result of textual error, exegesis, or other scribal activity. For the portions of 1-2 Samuel that are attested in 4QSamuela a comparison is made with MT, which is the only witness that offers a complete Hebrew text of Samuel, Codex Vaticanus (GB), and GL, which together offer a high frequency of readings attributable to the Old Greek (OG). In the analysis, unique secondary readings are taken into account since they can reflect both characteristic features and textual independence, as opposed to textual filiation. This study organizes the analysis of the secondary readings into five main categories: Textual Error, Linguistic Exegesis, Harmonization, Clarifying Exegesis, and Content Exegesis, which includes theological exegesis. Each chapter devoted to one of the five categories listed above closes with a statistical summary of the substantive evaluations presented in it, as well as a statistical comparison of the agreements reflected in the secondary readings.