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Index

ʿAbbās I, Shah 125, 208, 214, 333–35, 343–46, 350–51, 358
ʿAbbas II, Shah 143–44, 167–68, 211, 214, 235, 238, 320, 341, 343, 350–54, 360
ʿAbbās Mīrzā Qājār 182
ʿAbbāsid revolutionrevolution, Hashemite
ʿAbd Allah b. Jaʿfar 53
ʿAbd Allāh b. Masʿūd 37
ʿAbd Allāh b. Muʿāwiya 42–43
ʿAbd Allāh b. ʿUmar 37
ʿAbd Allāh b. al-Zubayr 37
ʿAbd al-Bāqī, Mīr Niẓām al-Dīn 344
ʿAbd al-Ghaffār, Amir 338
Abdāls 122, 302, 348
ʿAbdi Beg 306–07, 318–19
ʿAbdoh-Borujerdi, Shaykh Mohammad-Taqi 269
Abu Hāshim b. Muhammad b. al-Hanafiyya 37, 45
Abū Isḥāq Kāzirūnī 337
Abu Muslim 38, 58, 98, 154, 311
Abu’l-Qāsem Khan, Hājj Mirzā 126
Abu Sahl Ismaʿil b. ʿAli al-Nawbakkhti 63–69, 71–78, 86–90, 94, 99, 203–04
Abu Salama 43
Abuʾl-Saraya 49–50, 53
Abu’l-Soʿud, Mohammad b. Mohy al-Din ʿEmādi 325–26
Ādamiyyat, F. and Nāṭiq, H. 167
ʿadl (divine justice) 18
ʿAdl, Mostafa, Mansur al-Saltana 264, 269
ʿadliyya (Ministry of Justice) 258, 261, 268–69
Afshār-Yazdi. Dr. Mahmud 272
Aḥmad b. Ebrāhim Nawbakhti 204
Ahmadinejad, Mahmud 282, 284–86, 291
ahkām-e avvaliyya/thānaviyya (primary/secondary rules) 390, 421
ahkām-e hokumati (governmental ordinances) 197, 277, 416–17
Aḥmad Ardabīlī, Mullā 227–28, 230, 378
Ahwāz 55–56, 69, 78, 82, 83n35
AkhbārīʿAlāʾ al-Dawla Zu’l-Qadr 313–14
Āl-e Ahmad, Sayyed Jalāl 443–46
ʿAlāʾ al-Dīn Khalvati, Mawlānā 338
ʿAli b. Abi Tālib 3, 88, 126
ʿAlī’s Covenant (ʿahd) 147, 149, 169, 173
shiʿa (party) of 1, 97
ʿAli b. Babuya 70, 100, 102
ʿAli b. Hasaka 61
ʿAlī Kurdī, Mawlānā 338
ʿAli b. Mahzyar 53, 55, 79, 82
ʿAlī b. Muḥammad al-ʿĀmilī 238–39
ʿAli b. Muhammad al-Hādi, the Tenth Imam 4, 53–57
ʿAli b. Moḥammad b. Forāt 203, 204
ʿAli b. Musā al-Ridā, the Eighth Imam 50–52
ʿAli Pasha 317
ʿAli Shir Navāʾi 312
ʿAli b. Yaqtin 44, 49, 55
Alvand Mirzā Āq Qoyunlu 313
ʿĀmeri, Javād 269
ʿAmid-Zanjāni, ʿAbbas-ʿAli 286
Amini, ʿAli 273
Amir-Moezzi, M. A. 93, 461
Amīr Qavām al-Dīn Nurbakhsh 342
Amir Zakariyā Tabrizi Kojoji 313, 318
Anatolia 12, 122–23, 301–24, 331–32, 353
Anṣārī, Shaykh Murtaḍā 178, 367, 373, 377, 379
Āqā Abuʾl-Fatḥ Iṣfāhānī 350
Āqā Ḥusayn Khwānsārī 235, 351
Āqā Jamāl Khwānsārī 235–36, 245, 248, 252
Āqā Muḥammad Khān Qājār 170, 252, 254–55
Āqāsi, Hājji Mirzā 126–27, 184–85
ʿĀqeli, B. 169
Āq Qoyunlu 208, 301–04, 310–14, 318–24, 339
Arāki, Ayatollah Mohammad ʿAli 431
Ardabil 210, 230–31, 302–04, 309, 312
Assembly of Constitutional Experts 15
Assembly of Leadership Experts 277, 282, 284–85, 418–19, 430
Aubin, Jean 207–08, 301, 317–19
Āzari-Qomi, Auatollah 434
Bābā Shāhqoli (Şahkulu) 314–18
Badr al-Din (Beddreddin) of Samawna 12, 123, 302
Bahā’ al-Dawla, Buyid ruler 108
Bahāʾ al-Dīn ʿĀmilī, Shaykh-e Bahāʾi 234–35
Bahman Yašt  24
Bani Sadr, Abo’l-Hasan 281n36, 368n30, 415, 420, 428
Banu Hāshim 3, 37
Baqā’i Kermāni, Mozaffar 192
Bar Association (Kānun-e Vokalā-ye Dādgostari) 285–86, 290–91
Bārfurūshī, Muḥammad Nadīm 170
Bashiriyyeh, Hosayn 447
Bāyezid II, Ottoman Sultan 312, 314–16, 324
Bāzargān, Mehdi 194, 275, 285, 376, 409, 414, 448
Beheshti, Ayatollah Mohammad 192, 194–96, 274, 276, 295, 444–45, 453, 464
Berger, Peter 121
Bihbihāni, Āqā Muhammad Bāqir 254
Bihbihāni, ʿAli b. Muhammad Bāqir 255
Bonyād-e Mostazʿafin (Foundation for the Disinherited) 194
Burūjirdī, Ḥājj Āqā Ḥusayn Ṭabāṭabāʾī 369, 375–77
Buyids 101–02, 107–08
Caesaropapism, Safavid 8, 12–13, 254n25, 255
Chālderān 209, 307, 324–25
Chardin, Jean 211, 352, 354
charismatic leadership, of the Holy Imams 4, 42–61, 74–75
of Imam Khomeini 14, 187–99
of Shah Esmāʿil 301–23
chiliasm 5, 13, 17, 20–26, 41–46, 57–61, 66, 72, 84, 96–98, 101, 109, 135, 189
Christianity, comparisons with 3, 23, 31–33, 391, 406–07
with Lutheranism 239–40
Civil Code of Iran 270–73, 292
clerical estate 11–12, 207–46
Constitution, ideological 273–74
of the Islamic Republic of Iran 274–85, 287
of Pakistan 274
constitutionalism 187–88, 360–68
anti-constitutionalism 362–65
Ottoman 259–60
Shiʿite 259–63, 292
Corbin, Henri 96
counter-constitutionalism, Shiʿite 13, 292–94
dādgāhha-ye enqelāb-e eslāmi (Courts of Islamic Revolution) 275
Daniel 25, 28, 31
Book of 24, 26, 28
daǧǧāl (Antichrist/Anti-Mahdi) 33
Damāvandī, Muḥammad Ḥusayn 175–76
Danishpazhouh, M. T. 154
Dāvar, ʿAli Akbar 268–73, 285
Dāvari, Rezā 446
Davvāni, Jalāl al-Din 168
Dead Sea Scrolls 27–28
deliverance (faraj) 80–81, 82n32, 123
Dereš ha-Torah 30
Devotees (fedāʾiyān) of Islam 189
Dhahabīyya 340–41
Divānkhāna 180, 258
dominationauthirty
Du Mans, Rafael 237–38, 334–35
Ebn Ruh Nawbakhti, Hosayn, the third emissary 64, 69–72, 203–6
Edris Bedlisi 317, 324, 324
Emāmi-Kāshāni, Ayatollah Mohammad 278, 429–30
Enoch 30
Book of 24–25
Erzinjān 304, 309–10, 313
Esmāʿil I, Shah 5–8, 12, 124, 138, 207–09, 215, 223–4, 301–26, 332, 337–44, 356–57
as Lord of Uprising (sahib-e khoruj) 310–11
Esmāʿil II, Shah 12, 333, 347, 357–58
Ezra 30–31
Essenes 24–25, 30–31
Fadl b. Shādhān 52n45, 55, 59–60
Fakhr al-Dīn Samākī 235
Fanon, Franz 410
Fardid, Ahmad 446
Faris b. Hatim b. Mahuya al-Qazwini 59, 72
Fatemi-Qomi, Sayyed Mohammad 264–65, 269
Fath ʿAli Shah 126, 170–71, 178–82, 254
Fatima bt. Muhammad 3, 126
Fayḍ Kāshānī, Mullā Muḥsin 148–19, 232, 234–35, 238–39
Fazl Allāh Ruzbehān Khonji 322–24
Forāt family 62, 70, 203, 205
Forughi, Mohammad-ʿAli Khan Zokāʾ al-Molk 263, 265, 269, 273
frašo-kereti (renewal of the world) 24
Ganji, Akbar 446
General Vicegerency (niyāba ʿāmma) 8–9, 13, 34, 37, 40, 43, 137–43, 152, 171–79, 188, 227, 379–84
Ghāzān Khan 11
ghayba[t]Occultation
Ghīyāth al-Dīn Manṣūr 235
Ghojdovān 319–20
ghuluw (religious extremism) 3, 61, 330–37, 359–60
Grand SophiEsmāʿil I
Guardian Council (shurā-ye negahbān) 196, 277–85, 418–22, 426–32
compared to other constitutional courts 281, 283
conflict with the majles 282, 418–26, 433–40
al-Hādi, Caliph 51
Ḥāfiz Ḥusayn Karbalāʾī 341, 346–47
Hāʾirī, A.-H. 166–67
Hakamizadeh, ʿAli-Akbar 189
Ḥallāj, Ḥosayn b. Manṣur 204
Halm, H. 91
Harun al-Rashid 47, 49
Hasan b. ʿAli al-ʿAskari, the Eleventh Imam 4, 60–62, 69, 74–75, 86–88, 107
Ḥasan al-Baṣri 37
Hasan al-Harsh 49
Hasan b. Musa al-Nawbakhti 65
Ḥasan ibn Zayn al-Dīn 228
Hāshemī, Fāʾeża 436
Hāshemi-Rafsanjāni, Akbar 193, 280, 282, 284–85, 415
Hāshemi-Shāhrudi, Sayyed Mahmud 278, 285–92
Haydar Safavi 302–05, 309, 313
Haydaris 346–47
ḥayraperplexity
Hazin Lāhiji 245
Head of Judiciary Power 287–88
Heideggerian post-modernists/Islamists 446
Heyʾathā-ye Moʾtalefa-ye Eslāmi, (Coalition of Islamic Societies) 191
Hidden [Twelfth] Imam 74–121
decrees/rescripts of 76–77, 79
emissaries of 10, 203–06
and the Hidden God 18, 107 Occultation
Hierocracy, emergence of 61–70, 83
consolidation under the Safavids 150, 153, 222–46
independence under the Qājārs 170–79, 187, 246, 254–55
in comparative perspective 397–402, 406
hierocratic authority 61–73, 85, 137–145, 150, 153, 179–82, 231, 262, 268, 275 General Vicegerency, Mandate of the Jurist and marjaʿiyyat
Ḥilla 12, 122, 135–37, 152, 157, 330
al-Ḥillī,ʿHasan b. Yūsuf, b. al-Muṭāhhar, the Allāma 135, 139, 229–30, 330
al-Ḥillī, Fakhr al-Muhaqqiqin 137
al-Ḥillī, the Muhaqqiq 134–35, 379
Hilli, Mir Niʾmatallah 152, 226
al-Ḥillī, Sadīd al-Dīn Yūsuf, b. al-Muṭāhhar 135
Hishām b. al-Hakam 53
historicization 1, 6, 17, 33, 128
Hezb Allāh (party of God) 412
Hezb-e Zahmatkeshān-e Irān 192
Hobsbawm, E. 392
Hodgson, Marshall G. S. 1, 9, 18, 46, 467
hokumat-e eslāmiIslamic government
ḥokūmat-e qānūn 433, 451
Holbach, Baron d’ 391
holy seat (al-nāḥiya al-muqaddasa) [of the late Imams) 55–56, 62, 69–73, 75n6, 77–84, 92, 106, 203–05
Hosayn b. ʿAbd Allāh Shervāni 323
Hosayn b. Ruh al-NawbakhtiEbn Ruh
Hosyan Kiyā Chalāvi 313
Hosaynia Ershād 195
hudā (divine guidance) 1, 4–5, 77, 86, 143–44, 156
and Imamate 63–66
and Occultation 77, 86, 94–100, 104–12, 116–19
and Prophecy 111, 143–56, 168
Hujjat al-islām (Proof of Islam) 156
Hülegü 11, 135
Ḥurr al-ʿĀmilī 232
Husyan b. ʿAli 3, 5, 79, 84, 120–28, 190, 310, 316
martyrdom oftheodicy of suffering
Ḥusayn-ʿAlī Mīrzā Farmānfarmā 171
Husayn b. Musa 101
Husayn Vāʿiz Kāshifi, Mullā 123
Ibn al-ʿAlqamī 135
Ibn al-ʿAmri, Abu Jaʿfar Muhammad b. ʿUthman, the second emissary 62–64, 69, 75–76, 79–80, 83–85, 88, 91–92, 203–04
Ibn Bābuya (Bābawayh) al-Qummi, Shaykh al-Saduq10 73, 93, 102–08, 118–19
Ibn Hazm 31
Ibn Qiba al-Rāzi, Muhammad b. ʿAbd al-Rahman 61, 65–67, 73, 78, 86–87, 92–95, 99
Ibn Tabātabā, Muhammad ibn Ibrahim 49
Ibn Taymiyya 136
Ibrāhīm b. ʿAbduh 81
Ibrāhim b. Musā 49–50
Ibrāhīm al-Qaṭīfī 226–27
Idris 30
Il-Khanids 11, 134
ijtihād 176–85, 215, 229–33
Imam KhomeiniKhomeini, Ruhollāh
Imamate 1, 42–121
and theodicy 108–17
as Proof of God (ḥujjat Allāh) 66, 75, 79, 88–89, 94–95, 105, 107, 113, 140, 264
as continuous (mostamerr) 12, 187–99, 417
Iravāni, Shaykh Mohammad-Rezā 269
ʿirfān (gnosis) 17, 233, 235–43, 251, 345, 351, 354, 360, 447
irshād (spiritual guidance) 345
ʿĪsā b. Mūsā 84
Iṣfahānī Ayatollah Sayyid Abuʾl-Ḥasan 368
Isḥāq b. Yaʿqūb 78
Iskandar Munshī 358
Islamic government (ḥokumat-e eslāmi) 177, 193–96, 376, 381, 385, 389, 403, 413, 424, 445
Islamic ideology 195–96, 274, 375, 378, 384, 442–44, 448
Islamicization 14, 197–98, 285–93, 390, 414, 432–33
Of Anatolia 122, 302
Islamicity (islāmiyyat) 369
ʿiṣma (infallibility) 52
Ismāʿīlīyya 58, 64, 66, 107, 339–40
Jabal ʿAmil 7, 12, 136, 217–19, 232, 234, 331, 347
Jaʿfar al-Sādiq, the Sixth Imam 4, 42–54, 58–61, 97, 99
Jaʿfar b. ʿAli, “the liar” 4, 59–60, 72, 79–81, 83, 91, 94
Jaʿfar b. Moḥammad b. Motayyel 204
Jaʿfar Kamareh’i, Shaykh 236
Jaʿfar Safavi, Shaykh 302–03
Jaʿfariyan, Rasul 14, 18, 152, 154, 327
Jaʿfariyya 80–81
Jāmeʿa-ye Ruhāniyun-e Mobārez, (Society of Militant Clergy) 191, 383
Jannati, Ahmad 278, 282
Janissaries 314
Jihādiyya  178–79, 183
Jonayd, Safavid Shaykh 12, 302–04, 309, 313, 315
Judaism, ancient 23–25
judiciary organization 179–82
Islamicization 273–93, 432
secularization 263–73
Jurisprudence (feqh), Shiʿite 15, 176–79, 263–66, 29–93, 414, 416–17, 420
traditionalist 10–11, 149–50
rationalist 11, 111, 181–82, 254, 393–94
and legal modernization 257–93
Jurisprudence Research Center (Markaz-e Tahqiqāt-e Feqhi) 290
Jurists’ law 14, 16, 141, 198, 292–93, 414, 423–25
Kaʿb al-Aḥbār 27, 30, 34
Kadivar, Mohsen 15, 290, 436–37, 445, 453
Karaki, Shaykh ʿAli al- 7–8, 12, 138–44, 150–54, 223–30, 234–35, 246, 325, 337, 357, 377
Karaki, Shaykh ʿAbd al-ʿAlī 227
Karaki, Mīr Sayyid Ḥusayn 227
Karbalā 121–28, 310, 341, 387–88, 403–03
Karaites 29
Karim Khan Zand 248
Mehdī Karrūbī, Ḥojjat al-Eslām 434
Kāshāni, Mohammad-ʿAli 269
Kashfi, Sayyid Jaʿfar 166, 172–73, 254
Kāshif al-Gitā’, Sayyid Jaʿfar 178
Kāshmarī Tūrshīzī, Mīrzā Yūsuf Shams al-Afāḍil 365
Kasravi, Ahmad 407
Kasrawān uprising 136
Kaysāniyya 34, 45, 48
Kemāl Pāshāzāda 324–26
khalifas (representatives), networks in Anatolia 302–04, 31, 314–17
khalīfat al-khulafāʾ 214, 318, 333–34
Khāliṣī, Shaykh Muḥammad 371–74
Khalkhālī, ʿImad al-ʿUlamāʾ 364–65
Khalvatīyya 339
Khamanei, Ayatollah Sayyed ʿAli 196, 276, 421–22, 425, 430–34
Khāraqānī, Sayyid Asadallāh 369–71
Kharāj  138, 144–45, 226–27
Khātami, Sayyed Mohammad 284–85, 432–40, 445–46
Khaṭṭābiyya 84
Khatun-abadi, Mir Muhammad Baqir 248–51
Khawārij (secceeders) 3
Khazʿali, Ayatollah Abo’l-Qāsem 278, 383
Khomeini, Ruhollāh 9, 15, 128, 273–93, 402–06, 414–25
khoruj (uprising) 123
Khu’i, Ayatollah Abu’l-Qāsem 388, 436
khums collection 56, 59, 63, 76–77
exemption during the Occultation 79, 85
Kingsley, Charles 391
Kufa 3, 5, 34, 37, 40, 43, 55–57, 121, 374
Kulayni, Muhammad b. Yaʿqub b. Ishāq 10, 63, 81, 92, 99
Kuthayyar 34
Lābuddiyya  95
Lāhijān 304, 309, 319
Sufis of 317–19, 333–34
Lāhījī, ʿAbd al-Razzāq 143–44
Lala Beg Shāmlu 310
Lāleh, Amīr Sayyid Aḥmad 340–41
Lāleh, Hājj Mīr Muḥammad 341
Lāleh, Amīr Shihāb al-Dīn 341
Lambton, A. K. S. 166
Lārijāni, Sādeq Ardeshir 278
Law of Judiciary Organization, 1911 268
Law of Punishment and Talion (qānun-e hodud va qesās) 287, 290
Law of General and Revolutionary Courts 288
Leadership (rahbari) 277
legitimacy 6, 8, 15, 133–35, 146, 169, 193, 197, 223, 254, 378, 389, 422, 440
lack/crisis of 143–45, 150, 411, 437, 450
legitimism, ʿAlid 3, 13, 96
Lewy, G. 392
Lord of the Age (Ṣāḥeb-al-Zamān) 204
lutf (divine grace) 5, 18, 110–11
Lotfi, Shaykh ʿAbd al-ʿAli 269
Maccabean revolt 24–25
Madani, S. J. 390
Madelung, Wilferd 51, 91, 134
Mahdavi-Kani, Mohammad-Rezā 278
Mahdi 33–34, 36–39, 57–58
al-Mahdi, Caliph 44, 51
Mahdi b. Firuz (kudak-e dānā) 58
Mahdi’s Deputy (nāʾib) 307, 309
Mahdism 4, 12, 33, 36–39, 120, 123, 133
Majles-e Shurā-ye Eslāmi 197, 278–92, 415, 417, 419–29, 434, 438–40, 445, 452
Majles-e Shurā-ye Melli 188, 261–63, 266–75
Majlisī, Muḥammad Bāqir 149, 169, 232–34, 236, 238–54, 352, 354, 358–59
Majlisī, Muḥammad Taqi 235, 238, 341, 353
majmaʿ-e tashkhis-e maslahat-e nezām-e eslāmi, (Council for the determination of the Interest of the Islamic Order)Maslahat Council
Malāmatīyya 347–49
Mandate of the Jurist (velāyat-e faqih) 9, 155, 176–79, 192–99, 377–90, 414–20
Absolute (motlaqa) 196–97, 276
Manichaeism 28–29, 55
Māmaqāni, Asadollāh 270, 366–68, 374, 458
al-Ma’mun, ʿAbd Allāh, Caliph 50–52
manṣūr  39
Martha (Halima Begum) 303
mawāli (non-Arab clients) 55
al-Mansur, Caliph Abu Jaʿfar ʿAbd Allah ibn Muhammad 43, 45, 51
Mansur, Hasan-ʿAli 191
Marāghī, Sayyid Mīr ʿAbd al-Fattāḥ Ḥusaynī 177–78
marjaʿ iyyat[-e taqlid]  277, 384–87, 418, 426, 429–32, 366–68, 375
Marino Sanudo 305–6
martyrdomtheodicy of suffering
Mashhad 170, 366, 401
Maslahat Council 197–98, 276–77, 280–85, 289, 422–34
Matin-Daftari, Ahmad 266, 269, 273
Māzandarāni, Ayatollah ʿAbdallāh 266, 288
Māzandarāni, Ḥājj Shaykh Muhammad mujtahid 366
mazālem (court of grievances) 108, 184, 258
Mazdak 58
Meshkini, Ayatollah ʿAli 389, 434
Messianism 5, 23–41
“realized” 33
Michele Membré 307
millennialismchiliasm
Ministry of Islamic Guidance
Minorsky, Vladimir 247, 250, 256
Mīr Dāmād 234, 237
Mīr Makhdūm Shīrazī 358
Mīrmīrān Yazdī 344
mirrors for princespolitical philosophy
Mirzā ʿAbd al-Hasan Mullā-bāshi 253
Modarres, Sayyed Hasan 262–63, 265, 272
Modarressi, Hossein 60, 65, 78, 86
modernity and tradition 445–51
Mohammad ʿAli Shah 260
Mohammad Beg Shāmlu 310
Mohammad Karrahi 313
Mohammad Reza Shah Pahlavi 273, 398–402
Mohammad Shaybāni Khan 322
Mohammadi-Gilāni, Mohammad 278
Mojahedin-e Khalq 198, 409–11
Mojtahed-Shabestari, Mohammad 15, 445–51, 453
Mollābāshi 13, 247–56
Mo’men, Ayatollah Mohammad 278, 389
Momen, Moojan 301
Morād Beg Bāyandor 313
monarchy (saltanat) 8–9, 138, 142–9, 151, 155, 179, 183, 259, 303, 321, 366
clerical 13, 15, 273–94
Montazeri, Hosyan-ʿAli 15, 194–98, 276, 416, 422, 424, 434–37, 444, 452–53, 471
Moshir al-Dawla, Hasan Pirniā 263–66, 273
Mosleh al-Din Mohammad Lāri 325
Mosaddeq [al-Saltana], Mohammad 263–64, 266–67, 272–73, 396
Mostashar al-Dawla, Yusof Khan 259
Motahhari, Mortaza 444
Moʾtamen al-Molk Pirniā 266
al-Mufid, Shaykh Muhammad b. Muhammad b. Nuʿmān 11, 52, 108–12
Mufawwida 60, 98, 115
Muhammad’s prophecy 26, 28–29, 32–33, 104
Muḥammad Shah Qājār 180–81, 254
Muhammad b. ʿAbd Allāh, al-Nafs al-Zakiyya 44–47
Muḥammad b. Abī Zaynab, Abūʾl-Khaṭṭāb 79
Muhammad ibn Ahmad ibn Dawud 102
Muhammad b. ʿAli al-Jawad, the Ninth Imam 56
Muḥammad b. ʿAlī b. Mahzyār al-Ahwāzī 79, 82–84
Muhammad al-Amin, Caliph 44, 49
Muḥammad Amīn Astarābādī, Mullā 232
Muhammad b. Bābā 61
Muhammad al-Bāqir, Fourth Imam 4, 42, 46, 51, 97
Muḥammad b. al-Ḥanafiyya 34, 37, 45, 154
Muhammad Husayn Māzandarāni 255
Muhammad Husayn Tabrizi 248, 250
Muhammad b. Ibrahim al-Nuʿmani 100
Muhammad b. Ismāʿil 58
Muhammad b. Ismaʿil ibn Baziʿ 44
Muḥammad b. Jaʿfar al-Asadī 81
Muhammad b. Jaʿfar al-Dibaj 50
Muḥammad Khabūshānī, Shaykh 340
Muḥammad b. Makkī al-ʿĀmilī, al-Shahīd al-Awwal 136–38
Muhammad Qadri Pasha 257
Muḥammad Ṣādiq Ardistānī 245
Muhammad al-Samari, the fourth emissary 72
Muḥammad b. Shādhān b. Naʿīm 79, 81
Muḥammad Ṭāhir Qumī 354
Muḥammad Taqī Mīrzā Ḥusām al-Salṭana 173
Muharram passion playstaʿzieh
mujtahid 13, 127, 152–53, 166, 176, 178–82, 192, 215, 220, 266–67, 385
committee of five 262, 266
al-Muhtadi, Caliph 57
Muhtasham Kāshāni 124
Muʿizz al-Din Muhammad Isfahāni, Amir 153
Mukhtār al-Thaqafi 37
Mullā Maḥmūd Tabrīzī 256
Mullā-bāshi  247–56
Mullā-bāshi ʿAli Akbar 253
Mullā Muhammad Amin 255
al-Muqtadir, Caliph 62, 69
murshid-e kāmil (the perfect guide) 331, 333–34
al- Murtadā, Sayyid/Sharif 11, 102, 108, 111–12, 117, 133
al-Mutawakkil, Caliph 56–57
Muʿtazila 18, 64–65, 73, 98
al-Muʿtazz, Caliph 57
Musa al-Kāzim, the Seventh Imam 4, 9, 44, 47–51, 54, 74, 91
Musavi-Ardabili, ʿAbdol-Karim 198, 276n29, 288, 422–23, 435, 453
mysticism, inner-worldlyʿirfān
Nadir Shah 183, 247–48, 253, 359, 393
Na ʾini, Mirzā Muhammad Husayn 190, 368
Najaf 7, 48, 157,-58, 191–93, 263, 266, 401, 414
Najafī, Shaykh Muḥammad Ḥasan 178
Najm al-Din Zargar Rashti 318–19
Naqshbandīyya 338–39
Narāqī, Mullā Aḥmad 171–74, 176–77
nasb (divine appointment) 4, 140
Nāsir al-Din Shah 126, 256, 258
naṣṣ(designation) 52, 66
National Front 285, 396
Nawwāb, Mīrzā Mahdī 184–86
Nawbakhti family 10, 44, 61–70, 76, 203–06
Nawusiyya 46
Neo-Mazkadism 57–58, 98
Niʿmatullāh Jazāʾirī of Shūshtar 239
Niʿmatullāhīyya 343–47
Nishapur 52, 55–56, 58, 60, 81
niyāba ʿāmmaGeneral Vicegerency
niyāhat-i khāṣṣa (special vicegerency) 172–3
Nuqṭavīyya 335–37
Nūrallāh Shūshtarī, Qāḍī 342
Nūrbakhsh, Sayyid Muḥammad 340
Nūrbakhshīyya 341–43
Nūrī, ʿAbdallāh 290, 437
Nūrī, Mullā ʿAli 246
Nūrī, Shaykh Fazlollāh 188, 190, 261–62, 363–69, 387
Nuṣayrī uprising 137
ʿObayd Allāh Khan 322–23
Occultation (ghayba[t]) 1, 4–5, 10, 34–35, 42, 45–48, 70–121
permissibility of congregational prayer 226
two occultations 90
Öljetü 11, 134
ʿorfiyyāt (customary law) 257, 262, 312, 416
orthodoxy and heterodoxies 1–2, 17–18 sect, Sunnism
Ostādi, Rezā 278
ozans 310
Ozun Hasan Āq Quyunlu 142, 302–03, 313
Pahlavis 9, 187–88, 192, 368, 387, 385, 396–401, 405–06
Paraclete 31
parousia (ẓuhūr) 79, 81, 84, 96–97, 101
Pari Khān Khānum 124
Pashutan/Peshyotan 35, 57
perplexity (ḥayra) 63, 73, 76–77, 81, 99–100
Perso-Russian Wars 167, 183
prayer leader (imam jumʿa, pish-namāz)  211, 220–22, 222, 385–86, 389
political ethic 5–6, 17, 102, 134, 166–76, 182–86
political philosophy 170–82, 134, 143–45, 167
political theology 5, 9, 14–17 Mandate of the Jurist
politics, civic (al-siyāsa al-madaniyya) 134 political philosophy
Popper, Karl 453
public lawqānun
Qāʾāni 126–27, 239
qāḍī  211, 213–14, 220, 222, 342
Qāḍī Aḥmad Ghaffārī 223
Qāḍī Aḥmad Qumī 358
Qāḍī Jahān 357
qāḍī muʿaskar 214, 358
Qāḍī Nūrullāh Shūshtarī 342
Qāḍī Saʿīd Qumī 227, 250–51, 352
qāʾim (redresser/riser) 4, 34–35, 37, 46, 48, 57–58, 74–75, 91–92, 98, 109
Qāʾim-Maqām Farāhānī, Mīrzā Abūʾl-Qāsim 182–84
al-Qāhir, Caliph 203
Qahtāni 36
Qājārs 8, 13, 120, 166–87, 246, 249, 254–55, 268, 394
Qalandar-e Qumī, Babā Sulṭān 348
Qalandariyya 122, 302, 347–50
Qaragöz Pasha 314
Qarāmān 309
al-Qasim ibn Yaqtin 61
Qazvīnī, Muḥammad Shafīʿ 186
Qezelbāsh (Qizilbash) 7, 125, 154, 302–25, 331–35, 357–58
qānun (public law) 8, 134, 142–43, 145–6, 151, 155, 159–86, 190, 257–94, 321, 326, 433, 438, 451–52
Qānun-e Jazā-ye ʿOrfi (Customary Penal Law) 265
Qānun-e Mojāzāt-e ‛Omumi (Public Penal Law) 266
Qānun-e Osul-e Mohākemat-e Hoquqi (Law of the Principles of Civil Procedure) 265
Qarib-Gorgāni, Shams al-‘Olamā’ 265
Qarmatian Ismāʿilis 64, 66
Qumm 4, 10–11, 50, 55–56, 81, 366, 368, 375–76, 383, 389
Qummī, Mīrzā Abūʾl-Qāsim 170–71, 254
Qumran communityEssenes
Rabbāni-Amlashi, Ayatollah 389
Rabbāni-Shirāzi, Ayatollah ʿAbd al-Rahim 278
al-Rādi, Caliph 71
al-Radi, Sharif 102
Raḍī al-Dīn b. Ṭāwūs 135
Rahner, Karl 453
rationalization 1, 18, 97, 117–20, 450
rawrzakhwāni  126–27
Rayy 58, 63–66, 87, 102, 342
reformism (Shiʿite) 15, 368, 373. 406–10, 445–53
religious associations 408–09
revolution, Hashemite 38–39, 42–43
Constitutional (1906–11) 9, 190, 261, 270, 361–67, 395–96
ideological 361–90
Islamic (1979) 377–90
in comparative perspective 391–95, 406–07
Mahdist 33, 37–39, 136, 138, 301–29, 404
its failed export to Anatolia 314–17
myth of 402–03
Revolutionary Council 420
Revolutioanry Courtsdādgāhha-ye enqelāb-e eslāmi
revolutionary traditionalismtraditionalism, revolutionary
Reza Shah Pahlavi 188–89, 396–97
Rezvāni, Gholām-Rezā 278
al-Riḍā (the one agreed-upon) [from the house of Muhammad] 43–44, 49, 52, 57
Rostam Beg Āq Quyunlu 303–04
Rukn al-Dawla, Buyid ruler 107
Rustam al-Ḥukamā’ 183–84
Sabzavārī, Mullā Hādī 246
Sabzavārī, Mullā Muḥammad Bāqir 144–50, 168–69, 235, 238–39, 351
Sadat-Afjaʾi, Mohammad-Reza 264
sadr 152–53, 208–13, 250
Sadr (Sadr al-Ashrāf), Mohsen 169
Sadr-Hājj-Sayyed-Javādi, Rezā 285
Sadr al-Din Shirāzi, Mullā Sadrā 235–37, 240–43
Shādhān b. Khalil 55
Saffāḥ  39
Safi al-Din Ardabili 12, 308
Sāfi, Shah, Safavid 212–13, 234, 345, 351, 356
Sāfi-Golpāygāni, Ayatollah Lotfollāh 198, 278–81, 418
sāhib al-amr (Lord of Time) 156
Ṣāliḥī Najafābādī, Niʿmatallāh 388
Sāmarrā’ 56, 62, 75
Sāneʿi, Yusof 278, 435, 437, 453
Sanjābi, Karim 285
al-Sayyid al-Himyari 45–46
sayyeds 11–12, 157 clerical estate
Selim I, Sultan 315, 323–26
Semmel B. 392, 406
Shadhan b. al-Khalil 55
Shāh Ḥusayn Iṣfāhānī 340
Shāh ʿInāyatullāh Iṣfāhānī 358
Shāh Khalīlullāh 344–45
Shāh Niʿmatullāh Valī 343–44
Shāh Qāsim Fayḍ-bakhsh 341–42
Shāh Ṭāhir 339–40
shāh-sevanī  333
Shalmaghani, Moḥammad 70–72, 205–06
Shams al-Din Lāhiji 318, 342
Shams al-Dīn Muḥammad Āvī 136
Shāpur b. Ardashir 108, 114
sharʿi courts (mahāzer) 258–59, 262, 265, 267, 269, 271
shariʿa[t] (sacred law) 13, 66, 86, 133–36, 141–45, 155–56, 230, 257–66, 274–75, 280–81, 287–93, 343
shariʿa-based constitutionalism (mashruta-ye mashruʿa) 188, 190, 261–62, 272
Shariʿat Sangalajī, Rezaqoli 189, 368, 373, 407
Shariʿati, ʿAli 195, 378, 399, 408–11, 443–48, 453
Sharīʿat-madārī, Ayatollah Mohammad Kāzem 383
Shāygān, A. 272
Shaykh ʿAbd al-Karīm Ḥaʾirī (d. 1937) 368
shaykh al-islām  152, 158, 208, 211–13, 221–22, 227, 232–38, 244, 248, 251, 253, 326, 351
Shehanshāh, Ottoman Prince 316
Shīrangī, Mīr Jamāl al-Dīn 209
Sifāra (office of emissary) [of the Hidden Imam] 72
sipāhi cavalrymen 309, 314–16
Soboul, A. 391
Soltān-ʿAli Safavi 303–04
Sorel, George 402
Sorush, ʿAbdol-Karim 15, 445–49, 453, 474
Special Court for Clergy 277–78, 436–37
state-hieroracy dualism 8, 120, 170–76, 187, 399, 405
Ṣūfī virtuosi 347–50
ṣūfīgarī (Ṣūfī probity) 333
Sufism 251–52, 301–29
revival in the 17th century 350–55
suppression 337–50 ʿirfān
Sultan-Hosyan Bayqarā 312
Sultan Ahmed, Ottoman 309, 315, 317–18, 324
Sultān-Ḥusayn, Shah 169, 212, 236, 244, 247–52, 256, 354
Sultan-Mohammad, Ottoman Prince 316
Sultan Morād Āq Qoyunlu 313, 333, 339
Sultan-Morād, Ottoman Prince 324
Sultan Qorqud 314–16
Sultan Yaʿqub Āq Qoyunlu 303, 313
sultanatemonarchy
Suleymān, Shah 235–36, 238, 244, 252
Sűleymān the Lawgiver 151, 324, 326
Sunnism 5, 7, 355–60
Supplemental Fundamental Law of 1907 262, 264, 266, 268, 292
Supreme Jurist (vali-ye faqih) 15, 196, 291, 294, 377, 381–84, 415, 420, 425
Supplement to the Fundamental Law 1907 262
Tabatabaʾi, Javad 447
Tabatabāʾi, Mohammad Hosayn 444
Ṭabāṭabāʾī Qummī, Ḥājj Āqā Ḥusayn 368
tabarrāʾis 310, 387
Tāheri-Khorramābādi, Sayyed Hasan 278
Tahmāsp, Shah 7–8, 124, 151–55, 159, 208
Tahmāp II 253
Taqavi (Sadat-Akhavi), Sayyed Nasrallah 264–65
taqiyya (dissimulation) 205, 253, 386
taqlīd (emulation) 156, 189, 228–33, 365, 376, 450
takiyeh  126
Taleqani, Sayyed Mahmud 444
Taqī Khān Amīr Niẓām, Mirzā 186
Tawwābun (penitents) 3, 121
taʿzieh  126–28
Theocracy 9, 414, 425–32
theodicy of suffering 1, 121–29, 310, 387–88
and Messianism 121
Teymurtāsh, Sardār Muʿazzam 268, 272
Thiqat al-Islām Tabrizi 261
timār  309, 314, 316
Tonekāboni, Mirzā Tāher 265
traditionalism 65, 99–102, 118, 188–89, 261–62, 269, 362–65, 368
Akhbārī 17, 149–50, 223, 232–35, 383
revolutionary 376–77, 386, 398, 407–09, 444–45 jurisprudence, traditionalist
TurkmenQezelbāsh
al-Ṭūsī, Shaykh al-Tā’ifa, Hasan 11, 93, 108, 112–27
al-Ṭūsī, Naṣīr al-Dīn Muḥammad 134, 229
ʿulamāʾ, emergence of 52–61 hierocracy
Umayyad Caliphate 3–4
Umm Kulthum bt Ibn al-ʿAmri 64, 72, 75, 204–05
ʿUthman b. Saʿid al-ʿAmri, the first emissary 59–60
Uzbek empire 322–23
value-rationalization 2, 118
velāyat (authority), House of 9, 13, 155, 165, 169
velāyat-e faqih 268 Mandate of the Jurist
waqf 153, 157, 208–09, 250
wāqifiyya 48–49, 74–75, 90–91
wakil (agent[of the Imams) 4, 55, 81
Watt, W. Montgomery 31
Weber, Max 1–3, 7–9, 14, 17, 19, 23–24, 26, 39, 41, 97, 117, 121, 129, 142, 191, 241, 253–54, 257, 272, 297, 391, 394, 414, 475
Wellhausen, Julius 3, 475
Westoxification (gharbzadegi) 443, 446
World-rejection, anti-political 143–45, 228–29
and ʿirfān 240–43
world religions 1–3, 5–6, 13–14, 16–17
their bearers/carriers (Träger) 9–10
Yaghmā Jandaqi 126
Yahya ibn ʿUmar 57
Yaqtin b. Musa 43–44
Yaʿqub Khan 344
Yār Ahmad Khuzāni 318–19
Yazdi, Ayatollah Mohammad 278, 288–89, 426–32, 434–35
Yazid 37–38, 123–24, 126–28, 310, 388, 404
Yunus b. ʿAbd al-Rahman 55
Yunus b. Bahman 55
Zadokite/Sadducee (siddiq) 29–30
Zayd b. Musā 49
Zaydi uprisings 44–49, 51, 57
Zaydiyya 51
Zayn al-Dīn al-ʿĀmili, al-Shahid al-Thāni 140–41
Zayn al-Din Mahmud Vāsefi 322
ẓuhūr (manifestation) 79, 306

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