ContentsAcknowledgements VIIList of Illustrations IXIntroduction 1Sikh Migration in the Context of Global Migration 1Shanghai in the Translocal Networks 6Revisiting Sikh Diaspora and British Imperial History 13Rescuing Shanghai Sikhs from Nation 19Sources and Structure 23Establishing the Sikh Police Unit in Shanghai 25Hong Kong as the Reference 26The Rise and Decline of the Localization Policy in the smp 31A Martial Race in Motion 35“They were Unsuitable for Shanghai”: Rejecting the Sikh Scheme 44New Bottle with Old Wine: Revival of the Sikh Scheme 49Conclusion 53The Journey of Isser Singh: A Sikh Migrant in Shanghai 61A Peasant’s Son in the Punjab 61Optimizing the Migration Plan 68The Road to Shanghai 72Accommodating the Sikhs 74Policing Hongkou 82“A Man Who Gives Considerable Trouble” 88An Unending End 93Conclusion 94Kill Buddha Singh: The Indian Nationalist Movement in Shanghai, 1914–1927 100Go to North America! 101The Rise of the Ghadar Party 105The Politicization of Sikhs in Shanghai 108Turning to the Left 113From Hankou to Shanghai: The Ghadar Hubs in China 117“I kill Him Because He was a Bad Man” 123The Rise of a Surveillance Network 131Conclusion 137A Lone Islet or A Center of Communications? Shanghai Sikhs and The Indian National Army 140The Birth of the ina and the Reconciliation of Shanghai Sikhs 140The ina in Crisis and the Hardship of Shanghai Sikhs 147Subhas Chandra Bose and the Total Mobilization 149The Mobilization of the Sikhs in Shanghai 154The End of a Legend 156Conclusion 158Circulation, Networks, and Subalterns in Global History 163Bibliography 173Index 203