Abbreviations, Terminology, and Symbols

in Historical Aspects of Standard Negation in Semitic

Abbreviations

See Michel (2001: 15–21) for abbreviations of Old Assyrian primary sources and Schwiderski (2004) for abbreviations of Old and Official Aramaic primary sources. For additional abbreviations, see AHw 3: ix–xvi.

AbB 1

Kraus (1964)

AbB 2

Frankena (1966)

AbB 3

Frankena (1968)

AbB 5

Kraus (1972)

AbB 6

Frankena (1974)

AbB 7

Kraus (1977)

AbB 9

Stol (1981)

AbB 11

Stol (1986)

AbB 12

van Soldt (1990)

AbB 13

van Soldt (1994)

AbB 14

Veenhof (2005)

Ad

Römer (1967a)

Ag

Groneberg (1997)

AHw

von Soden (1965–1981)

al

Lane ([1863–1893] 1968)

alm

Finet (1956)

Anz

Vogelzang (1988)

aoatt

Veenhof (1972)

aret 1

Archi (1985)

aret 2

Edzard (1981)

aret 3

Archi and Biga (1982)

aret 4

Biga and Milano (1984)

aret 5

Edzard (1984)

aret 11

Fronzaroli and Catagnoti (1993)

aret 13

Fronzaroli (2003)

aret 15

Pomponio (2008)

aret 16

Catagnoti (2010)

arm 1

Dossin (1946)

arm 2

Jean (1950)

arm 3

Kupper (1950)

arm 9

Birot (1960)

arm 10

Dossin (1978)

arm 26/1

Durand (1988)

as

Praetorius (1879)

athe

Kienast (1960)

Bel

Römer (1967b)

bp

Bordreuil and Pardee (2009)

cad

Oppenheim, Rainer, et al. 1956–2011

cat

Rainey (1996)

cdg

Leslau (1987)

ch

Roth (1997)

cias

Pirenne, Beeston, and Höfner (1977–1986)

cih

Corpus Inscriptionum Semiticarum, iv: Inscriptiones Himyariticas et Sabaeas continens. Paris, 1889–1929

cl

Cerulli (1936)

Cow

van Dijk (1972)

Cu

Westenholz (1997: 267–269)

dnwsi

Hoftijzer and Jongeling (1995)

ds

Biella (1982)

dtgt

Leslau (1941)

dulat

Del Olmo Lete and Sanmartín ([2003] 2015)

ea

Rainey, Schniedewind, and Cochavi-Rainey (2015)

edcg

Leslau (1956)

edg

Leslau (1979)

edh

Leslau (1963)

eg

Dillmann ([1857] 2005)

el

Eisser and Lewy (1930–1935)

Er

Westenholz (1997: 189–201)

ess 1

Leslau (1965a)

ess 3

Leslau (1968)

ess 4

Leslau (1981)

ess 5

Leslau (1983a)

Etn

Haul (2000); cf. n. 18 on p. 24

faos 8

Kienast and Sommerfeld (1994)

faos 19

Kienast and Volk (1995)

Gaf

Leslau (1945c: 101–138)

gag

von Soden ([1952] 1995)

gal

Wright ([1859–1862] 1951)

gdr

Leslau (1945c)

ge

George (2003)

gea

Muraoka and Porten (1998)

gg

Hetzron (1977: 137–255)

Gir

Walker (1983)

gkt

Hecker (1968)

Glg

ge, cf. n. 18 on p. 24

gm

Arbach (1993), volume 3

gts

Praetorius (1871)

gvg

Brockelmann ([1908–1913] 1966)

hae

Renz and Röllig (1995–2003)

Haram

Stein (2007)

hl

Johnstone (1977)

hs

Garad and Wagner (1998)

htas

Wagner (1983a)

hto

Stroomer (2004)

Ja

Jamme (1962)

j-m

Joüon and Muraoka ([1991] 2006)

jl

Johnstone (1981)

K

Guidi (1889)

kai2

Donner and Röllig ([1964] 1968)

kai5

Donner and Röllig (2002)

lapo

16–18 Durand (1997–2000)

LiHöTig

Littmann and Höfner (1962)

liq

Ricks (1989)

lm

Arbach (1993), volume 1

lob

Izre’el and Cohen (2004)

ls

Leslau (1938)

lv

Leslau (1958)

M

Garbini (1974)

Maʕīn

Bron (1998)

mto

Stroomer (1999)

Ns

Westenholz (1997: 173–187)

Nw

Lambert (1990)

nw4

Arnold (1991)

oacc

Larsen (1976)

oacp

Larsen (1967)

pea

Littmann (1910–1915)

Piq

Cowley (1983)

ppg

Friedrich and Röllig ([1951] 1999)

pru 3

Nougayrol (1955)

pru 4

Nougayrol (1956)

pru 5

Virolleaud (1965)

pru 6

Nougayrol (1970)

ptct

Conti Rossini (1942)

Q

al-Qurʔān; cf. section 1.3.4

rés

Ryckmans (1928–1950)

rga

Leslau (1995)

rie

Bernand, Drewes, and Schneider (1991)

rima 1

Grayson (1987)

rime 2

Frayne (1993)

sae 4

Müller (1902)

sae 6

Müller (1905)

sae 7

Müller (1907)

Sin

Römer (1966)

sd

Beeston, Ghul, Müller, and Ryckmans (1982)

sg

Beeston (1984)

sss 2

Bittner (1916)

sss 3

Bittner (1917)

Tar

Praetorius (1879: 502–503)

ted

Kane (2000)

tgt

Raz (1983a)

udb

Cunchillos, Vita, and Zamora (2003a)

ug

Tropper ([2000] 2012)

x.bsb

Stein (2010)

zhs

Kolmodin (1912)

Terminology

All text in Semitic is romanized and italicized. Primary sources published in transliteration or transcription (including for example Aramaic, Phoenician, Ancient South Arabian, Modern South Arabian, Akkadian, and many Ethiosemitic languages) are quoted verbatim with the exception of word dividers in Akkadian, Ugaritic, and Ancient South Arabian. The Ugaritic grapheme {ʔi}, for example, which has the syllabic values ʔi, ʔī, ʔê, and (v is for vowel), is always transliterated ʔi. However, the quotation of some transliterated and transcribed symbols are adapted for the sake of coherence. For example, Alif is transcribed as ʔ and s1, s2, and s3 as s, š, and ś respectively.

Primary sources that are published in non-Roman script (including for example Hebrew, Arabic, and Amharic), as well as Akkadian cited in the body text, are normalized according to different Semitological systems: Hebrew according to Encyclopedia of Hebrew Language and Linguistics, Arabic according to the Deutsche Morgenländische Gesellschaft, and Ethiosemitic according to Encyclopaedia Aethiopica.

Text references refer to the page, verse, or line, depending on publication, where the negator is found, and not to the page, verse, or line where the quotation begins (and ends). The negator in a quotation environment is emboldened in the investigation.

Verbal grammatical morphemes are referred to by templates making use of prs for East Semitic and qtl for West Semitic (by convention, rather than C1C2C3, ḳtl, or k’tl). Thus, for East Semitic, von Soden’s Präteritum, Präsens, Stativ, Perfekt, and Imperativ, or Huehnergard’s preterite, durative, verbal adjective, perfect, and imperative, are referred to as iprus, iparras, paris, iptaras, and purus. The West Semitic counterparts to iprus and purus are referred to as yvqtvl and qvtvl. Without going into the discussion of history of the gemination of the second radical of the imperfective, the East Semitic exponent is referred to as iparras by convention, but its West Semitic counterpart is referred to simply as yvqatvl, provided that at least ablaut undoubtedly is original.

Although morphologically (historically) corresponding to iprus-u, the imperfective of Central Semitic will be referred to as yvqtvlu, and the West Semitic ‘correspondence’ to paris will be referred to as qvtvla. The catch-all term ‘prefix conjugation(s)’ refers to iprus, iparras, yvqatvl, or yvqtvlu and yvqtvl. Yqtl is used for the prefix conjugation when the underlying verbal grammatical morpheme is unknown, as sometimes in Ugaritic and Ancient South Arabian, and yqtln refers to yqtl with n-augmentation in Sabaic.

Symbols

[abc] emendation

[…] intentional omission

[x] illegible letter (one)

[—] illegible letters (more than one)

(abc) translational interpolation

{abc} orthographic transliteration

/abc/ phonemic transcription

Partly visible letters in the primary source texts, marked by corner brackets or circellus, are accepted without notice.