ContentsAcknowledgements XIList of Figures XIVAbbreviations and Spelling XIXIntroduction 1The Traditional View 1A New View 2Periodization, Methodology, and Structure 3Social Networks 4Archival Research in Florence and Rome 5Insights into a Rich Cultural and Intellectual World 6Florentine Patricians and Their Changing Social and Political Position (1530–1670) 8Introduction 8The Forming of the Duchy of the Medici in Florence 81531–1537 – The Reign of the First Duke Alessandro de’ Medici and Changing Political Institutions 8The Nomination of Duke Cosimo i, the Patricians’ Loss of Political Power, the Arrival of Non-Florentine Courtiers and the Patricians’ Quest to Regain Political Influence (1537–1609) 10Cosimo’s Quest for Political Independence 10The Patricians’ Counterquest for Political Recognition 14The Patricians’ Run on Noble Titles, Their Social Domination over the ‘Uomini Nuovi’ and Their Growing Political Power (1609–1670) 17Social and Economic Power of Seventeenth-Century Patricians 22The Patricians’ Contribution to the Economic Stability of Tuscany in the Seventeenth Century 27Cittadini or Noble Courtiers? 28Patrician Careers in Tuscany, Rome and Malta 32Conclusion 37Florentine Patricians in Their Role as Ambassadors and Chamberlains and Their Influence on the Social and Cultural Representation of the Medici in Florence, Rome and at Other Courts 39Introduction 39Patricians as Diplomats 39Patricians as Ambassadors 42Giovanni Niccolini (Tuscan Ambassador in Rome from 1587 until 1610) 45Piero Guicciardini (Tuscan Ambassador in Rome from 1611 until 1621) 60Other Patrician Ambassadors and Their Direct Influence on the Course of Events at the Court of Madrid and Rome 82A Florentine Patrician as Chamberlain of a Medici Prince and His Influence on the Social Representation of the Medici in Rome: Filippo Niccolini and His Decisions Regarding the Entry of Cardinal Giovan Carlo de’ Medici into Rome (1645) 85The Decoration of the Carriage: Polished or Gilded Ironwork? 86The Uniforms and the Ceremonial Mace: Recycling, but Not Too Obvious 88The Decoration of Palazzo Madama 89The Public Entry of Cardinal Giovan Carlo de’ Medici into Rome (1645) 90Conclusion 93Patricians as Patrons and Collectors during the Reigns of Ferdinand i, Cosimo ii, the Regents and Ferdinand ii de’ Medici 95Introduction 95Patricians as Patrons and Collectors during the Reigns of Ferdinand i and Cosimo ii de’ Medici 95Giovanni Niccolini (1544–1611) 96Piero Guicciardini (1569–1626) 106Michelangelo Buonarroti the Younger (1568–1647) 114Niccolò dell’Antella (1560–1630) 134Patricians as Patrons and Collectors during the Reigns of the Regents and Ferdinand ii de’ Medici 137Giovan Battista Strozzi the Younger (1596–1636) 137Tommaso Guadagni (1582–1652) 142Giovanni (1600–1661) and Lorenzo (1602–1656) di Jacopo Corsi 147Filippo Niccolini (1586–1666) 151Conclusion 161The Shared Cultural World of the Medici Princes and the Florentine Patricians: Musical Performances, European Networks, and Cultural Academies 165Introduction 165PART IGiovanni de’ Medici and the Alterati 166Giovan Carlo de’ Medici and Filippo Niccolini 169Niccolini as Supervisor of Giovan Carlo’s Cultural Projects 169Niccolini’s Correspondence with Musicians: New Baroque Influences from Rome 173Niccolini’s Contacts to Clients of Queen Christina of Sweden 191Leopoldo de’ Medici (1617–1675) and His Cultural Contact with Florentine Patricians 192The Acquisition of Books and Works of Art on Paper 194Leopoldo’s Interest in Theatre Life at Different Italian Courts 199Relations with European Men of Letters 201PART IIPatricians, Artists, and Their Literary, Linguistic, and Theatrical Experiments at Florentine Cultural Academies and Confraternities 203Literary and Linguistic Academies 205Theatrical Academies 217Conclusion 224The Brokerage Activities of Michelangelo Buonarroti the Younger and the Exchange of Cultural Gifts 226Introduction 226PART ISocial Networks 228Patronage Networks 230Patrons, Clients, and Friends 230Dyadic, Non-corporate Groups 233Brokerage Networks 234Brokerage Networks in Theory 234How Did a Broker Make Profit? 237Dyadic Chains 239Maintaining Patronage Relationships: Exchanging Courtesies and Gifts 241PART IIThe Social Network of Michelangelo Buonarroti the Younger 246The Exchange of Gifts and Genealogical Information between Buonarroti and Florentine Patricians at Different Italian and European Courts 254Books, Manuscripts, and Genealogical Information 254Poems and Songs 256Food Gifts 258Buonarroti’s Own Works as Gifts 259The Brokerage Activities of Michelangelo Buonarroti the Younger 260Social and Geographic Mobility of Artists 263Cultural Brokerage Services and Arranging Gifts 267Improving Patron-client Contacts and Bringing Commissions to Completion 274Job Requests 283Conclusion 288The Patricians’ Contribution to Cultural Events the Medici Organised for Public Ceremonies and in Honour of Visiting Guests 290Introduction 290Theatre Plays in Honour of Visiting Guests 291Theatre Plays in Honour of Fakhr ad-Din 291Theatre Plays in Honour of Other Important Guests 296The Patricians’ Contribution to the Organisation of Memorial Ceremonies 297The Memorial Ceremonies of 1598, 1610, and 1612 297The Patricians’ Contribution to the Organization of Marriages 302The Marriages of 1600 and 1608 302Descriptions of Marriages and Memorial Ceremonies 309The Marriages of 1637 and 1661 310Conclusion 314Conclusion 315Archival Sources Referring to Chapter 2 319Archival Sources Referring to Chapter 4 334Archival Sources Referring to Chapter 5 351Archival Sources Referring to Chapter 6 407Glossary 409Copyright of Figures 413Bibliography 417Index 468

Florentine Patricians and Their Networks

Structures Behind the Cultural Success and the Political Representation of the Medici Court (1600-1660)

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