This chapter discusses the events concerning the Nation of Islam and connected schism groups between late 1963 and early 1965. After Malcolm X’s suspension and then separation from the Nation between December 1963 and March 1964, the country saw the emergence of several new Muslim organizations with a strong Nation influence but often different views on the role of African Americans in society. The most influential of these groups were Malcolm’s own organizations, the Muslim Mosque, Inc. and the Organization of Afro-American Unity. Malcolm, meanwhile, embraced Sunni Islam and, after making his hajj, made an extended visit to Africa and the Middle East, during which conflicts between his followers and Nation members sometimes escalated into violence. By early 1965 the Nation, which seems to have lost several members over the course of the previous year, began putting more pressure on Malcolm, who was ultimately assassinated in February.

A History of Conversion to Islam in the United States, Volume 2

The African American Islamic Renaissance, 1920-1975