Index9/11 attacks8, 11, 28, 3435, 52, 101, 106, 111, 113, 119, 132, 137, 191193, 200, 208aat (Administrative Appeal Tribunal)179, 212214AccompliceComplicityAccountants31, 43, 48, 60, 98, 112Actus reusElement (Physical)Advocating terrorism113116, 144145, 155Afghanistan150151afp (Australian Federal Police)81, 104, 175, 184, 213Agreement on the Swiss banks’ code of conduct2324Al Barakaat107, 159163Al Capone3, 184Al Qaida (Al Qaeda)107, 140, 145, 148, 151, 158, 167, 175177, 181, 193194, 196Al-shabab107amld (eu Anti-money Laundering Directive)27, 3031, 41, 67, 204, 207Analytical Support and Sanctions Implementation Monitoring Team notes p.151, 174Appeal12, 3940, 90, 133, 135, 155, 159164, 166, 168170, 174, 183, 214215, 230aat, Court, poac, Reviewasio102, 111, 146148, 155, 179, 188, 214, 236AssistanceCooperationAttempt65, 82, 84, 97, 102, 114, 116, 139, 151, 157ato (Australian Taxation Office)38, 5960, 88, 109, 205206, 214austrac38, 4950, 62, 94, 104, 109, 111, 185186, 190, 201, 204, 212216, 220222Australian Law Reform Commission5354, 79, 232Autonomous Sanctions Act 2011148, 153, 175, note p.171Availability principle39Bank1926, 3134, 4252, 60, 106107, 122, 173, 176, 185, 204, 215221, 223, 228, 234Commonwealth Bank of Australia, swiftBank secrecy28, 3941, 52Basel Statement of principles2526, 34bcbs (Basel Committee on Banking Supervision)2526, 216217Belgium74, 96, 165166, notes pp.26, 34, 74Belief70, 7274, 132mistaken87, 173Bill of Rights10, 181, 231, 236, note p.11Bin Laden150151, 193Beneficial ownership3031, 3537, 206208Best practiceGuidelinesBit-coinsVirtual currencyBordercontrol16, 195cross-border109110, 194, note p.200Bottom of the harbour5961Burden of proofProofCanada20, 46, 164, 171, 224225, note p.26Cash19, 42, 43, 76, 109110, 203, 233234courier109110transaction2324, 37, 83, 86, 90Cash Transaction Reports Act 1988 (Cth)25, 6162, 82Casino4243, 110cddkycCharity43, 107109, 112, 125, 127, 133, 138, 140141, 165ngo and npoAustralian Charities and Not-For-Profits Commission Act 2012 (Cth)108, 111Civil29, 60, 100, 114115, 120121, 131, 133, 187, 213, 231, 236, note p.222Forfeiture5253, 111, 135, 199, 222, 228Confiscationlaw20, 36, 74, 75, 9697, 136society28, 31, 5051, 57, 109, 217, 237Commission of inquiry / Royal Commission2021, 5860, 193Costigan21, 5960McCabe/Lafranchi59Moffitt58Stewart59Williams58Woodward58Committee7, 11, 22, 24, 46, 50, 53, 104, 147148, 158, 180, 230, 235, notes pp.5556, 63Baselbcbspjc-is (Parliamentary Joint Committee on Intelligence and Security)156157, 172, 179ssc-lca (Senate Standing Committee on Legal and Constitutional Affairs)53, 83slrc (Security Legislation Review Committee)124, 131, 172un Human Rights Committee165167un Sanctions CommitteectcCommon law10, 20, 49, 71, 75, 92, 96, 229Commonwealth Bank of Australia (cba)2, 184, 213Commonwealth Secretariat46, 103, 203, note p.48Compel116119Compensation55, 166167, 173, 221Competence to legislate45, 8, 62Competition39, 47, 204207Compliance30, 4448, 60, 62, 167, 173, 187, 189191, 201, 204, 217, 218, 221, note p.49non-compliance4448, 209210, 213Complicity32, 116, 128, 142, 237Conceal, Concealment6367, 78, 88, 97, 136, 139, 183, 191, 218, 225226Confidential, Confidentiality20, 2334, 3941, 52, 60, 112, 163, 171, 212216, 220222, 234237Confiscation3, 18, 22, 2425, 2729, 33, 36, 49, 5155, 59, 61, 111, 135, 143, 183, 198199, 206, 222Civil forfeitureConsolidated listAustralia168, 171un148, 165166, 172Conspiracy20, 2223, 61, 6465, 81, 8993Conviction12, 22, 36, 5253, 62, 75, 77, 88, 143, 185186, 198199, 201, 222, 225, 233Cooperation23, 26, 3031, 45, 4750, 54, 151, 197, 202, 224administrative assistance27, 39, 41, 50, 215domestic38international8, 1113, 27, 3041, 101, 105, 120, 224225mutual assistance7, 11, 12, 25, 2729, 34, 36, 39, 55, 6769, 120, 179, 207Corruption3, 15, 21, 28, 46, 5152, 58, 226, 229, 232Costs55, 113, 234, 236Compliance32, 38, 41, 51, 185, 187191, 202204, 217, 219Low-cost attack194195Terrorist111, 194cotuna(Charter of the United Nations Act 1945 (Cth)10, 113, 120121, 125, 127, 129135, 143144, 148150, 153154, 157158, 162, 164, 166168, 171173, 175, 177179, 213Council of Europe24, 2627, 29, 34, 39, 41, 46, 101, 180, 207, 225, 235Convention on Laundering, Search, Seizure and Confiscation of the Proceeds from Crime, (ets 141)4, 24, 2627, 3334, 36, 39, 56, 6263, 65, 67, 7178Convention on Laundering, Search, Seizure and Confiscation of the Proceeds from Crime and on the Financing of Terrorism (ets 198)29, 36, 56Convention on Mutual Administrative Assistance in Tax Matters (ets 127)207Protocol amending the Convention on Mutual Administrative Assistance in Tax Matters, (ets 208)207Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms (echr)10, 236Convention for the Protection of Individuals with regard to Automatic Processing of Personal Data (ets 108)225CourtCourt of Criminal Appeal7778Federal Court of Australia (fca)12, 40, 166, 172174, 213High Court of Australia (hca)59, 62, 88, 101, 154, 164, 229230, note p.4Supreme Court85, 88, 93, 131, 145Criminal law principles / standards5, 13, 39, 51, 54, 57, 71, 8384, 98, 208, 222233, 238Criminal organisationOrganisationctc (Counterterrorism Committee)2829, 37, 148, 150151, 161167cted (Counter-Terrorism Committee Executive Directorate)28, 30CustomerkycData16, 5556, 111, 189190, 219222, 224, 235Collection of40, 50, 56, 58, 140141, 185, 188, 196197, 220, 223, 234237reliable/non-reliable16, 5556, 111, 140, 195, 199200, 202Processing of50, 189, 222225, 234237Protection of41, 214216, 224225, 235Transmission of35, 40, 4950, 109, 212213, 219222, 224225Dealingwith assets79, 81, 8789, 93, 9798, 123, 129131, 134136, 148157, 187, 228Propertywith money / proceeds of crime9, 6674, 7679, 81, 85, 8998, 121, 128136, 208, 226DelistingListDemocracy / Democratic order3, 7, 1011, 13, 15, 26, 5657, 103, 118, 158, 161, 168, 173, 178183, 208237De-risking217234Diligence / Customer due diligence (cdd)kycDisclosure of informationInformationDonation128, 138, 192dprk (Democratic People’s Republic of Korea)28, 48, 62, 148, 151152, 202Drug traffickingTraffickingDual criminality39Egmont Group50Element (of an offence)119120, 136, 179Mental / Fault (mens rea)51, 54, 66, 68, 7081, 8385, 87, 8998, 111, 116118, 121131, 133134, 136, 182, 225226Physical (actus reus)70, 7680, 88, 9394, 116, 118, 121124Enhanced diligencekyceta (Euskadi Ta Askatasuna)197eu (European Union)3, 15, 2021, 2627, 3031, 3334, 36, 39, 41, 6768, 95, 109, 111112, 134, 140, 158172, 176, 198200, 204, 207, 224225, 231, 234235ecjEurope21, 24, 4648, 50, 59, 68, 7475, 96, 101, 137, 140141, 165166, 175176, 178, 187, 190, 193, 196, 204, 219, 231Council of Europe and euechrCouncil of EuropeEuropean Court of Human Rights (ECtHR)166, 178, 180, 231, 237European Court of Justice (ecj)157164, 166172, 174, 178181, 224, 231, 234European Data Protection Supervisor (edps)224225, 235Europol175, 199, 215, 224, 234235, note p.56EvaluationMutual Evaluation Report (mer)Reportself40, 45Evidentiary rules22, 39, 51Extradition7, 11, 12, 36, 39, 179Far-right101102, 175fatf (Financial Action Task Force)2, 8, 11, 13, 2630, 3457, 62, 67, 9697, 106109, 133, 135, 138139, 152, 183, 185, 191192, 195, 198, 206210, 212, 215217, 220, 23440 Recommendations8, 2730, 3334, 3648, 52, 104, 1009 Special Recommendations8, 29, 34, 104113, 140, 194195, 203Rec vi (Alternative remittance)106, 110113Rec vii (Wire transfers)106107, 110113Rec viii (Non-profit organisations107113, 138139Rec ix (cash couriers)109113Enforcement mechanism4448Weapons of mass destruction (wmd)Fair trialRightsFinancial inclusion30, 48, 217, 234Financial Intelligence Unit (fiu)31, 4951, 104, 190, 195, 212222, 224austracaustracFincen - Financial Crimes Enforcement Network (usa)4951ukfiu50FinancingFundsa terrorist30, 123125, 129, 134a terrorist organisation81, 125142, 183, 225Counter-terrorism (ctf)12, 6, 810, 13, 24, 29, 99, 104, 107, 112113, 128, 135142, 143181, 183184, 191198, 200, 226self137, 140, 175176, 194, 233Proliferation (wmd)29, 30, 3437, 42, 44, 48, 51, 56, 105, 148, 151152, 184, 202, 205, 208209terrorism9, 2830, 3538, 40, 4345, 56, 99142, 186188, 190202, 205, 209, 211, 219220, 225227, 234, 237Fiscal excuse207Foreign (terrorist) fighters30, 35, 104, 113, 124, 148, 175176ForfeitureCivil forfeitureFrance95, 101, 141, 169, 194, 197, note p.26ParisFraud26, 5960, 68, 76, 77, 140, 205207TaxFreezing of assets28, 36, 105, 129131, 134, 148153, 164, 167175, 192Fundamental rightsRightsFundingFinancingFundsCollecting funds90, 102, 114, 121128, 131, 194Making funds available106, 122131, 134135, 148, 174G-7 2, 13, 26, 34, 210Gate keeper19Global Counter-Terrorism Forum (gctf)29, 51Global Forum on Transparency35Government14, 24, 26, 33, 41, 101, 109, 114, 117120, 121, 137, 140, 178, 183, 198, 209, 210, 215, 217, 221, 232, 236Australian15, 35, 5253, 6062, 6970, 71, 103104, 111, 114, 125, 147, 175, 186191, 199, 210, 214, 236, 241, note p.107Guidelines16, 29, 3132, 3435, 38, 51, 85, 108, 153, 169, 187, 231Harm3, 6, 10, 15, 114115, 119120, 163, 220, 225228hcaCourtHigh-risk country42, 48Hijacking7, 99, 120, 191, 194Home-grown8, 137, 176, 194Hostage99, 100, 115, 120, 203Human traffickingTraffickingHumanitarian aid128133, 150, 225iccprunimf (International Monetary Fund)46, 48, 56, 204205InchoateOffenceInclusion (financial)30, 48, 217, 234Independent National Security Legislation Monitor (inslm)133, 232Information12, 24, 3031, 3740, 45, 4950, 5556, 60, 86, 94, 96, 107, 147148, 156, 166167, 170, 193, 197, 201, 203, 205, 212, 214216, 219, 220, 223224, 234Classified169, 171, 179, 200Confidential163, 171, 215216, 220Disclosure of12, 96, 214, 220ExchangeSharingSpontaneous28, 39, 215, 224technologiesInternetInfrastructure118, 137, 141, 226PropertyInstitutionsFinancial13, 19, 2325, 27, 3133, 3639, 41, 43, 4647, 4950, 56, 79, 85, 90, 9496, 98, 106, 108, 110, 135, 137, 143144, 146, 173, 184186, 188, 191, 195197, 202204, 207, 216, 218223, 233234, 237BanksNon-financial3738, 4243, 49, 188, 197, 223Charity, ngo’s and nposInstrument of crime9, 25, 61, 66, 81, 8889, 91, 97, 111becoming an6667, 7173, 7879, 8791, 97Interconnectivity3031, 224, 234, 237, note p.48International mutual assistanceCooperationIntentElement (mental)Internet16, 35, 37, 40, 42, 47, 106, 115, 194, 197, 234interpol30, 315, note p.48Interpretative note30, 35Intimidate117119Iran28, 48, 62, 148, 151153, 166, 168169, 202isil (Islamic State in Iraq and the Levant)151Italy101, 197, note p.26Jihadist104, 140141, 175176Joint commission22, 93KnowledgeElement (mental)kyc (Know-your-customer)2324, 37, 42, 85, 195, 204, 221Customer due diligence (cdd)23, 26, 37, 108, 110, 212, 217218, note p.222Enhanced diligence42, 110, 143Law enforcement1, 3, 9, 13, 1721, 26, 31, 3334, 3839, 45, 4950, 5256, 5862, 68, 72, 79, 9698, 103104, 106107, 111, 133, 141, 171, 177, 180181, 185, 188189, 193198, 201202, 208, 211215, 217222, 224226, 234, note p.14Lawyer43, 59, 98, 112Left-wing175Legality principleRightLiability22, 96, 98, 229absolute / strict51, 70, 7374, 8388, 98, 123, 129131corporate12, 36, 93, 94, 135Liberation Tamil Tigers of Eelam (ltte)131, 132List5, 3032, 36, 48, 72, 85, 106, 117, 118, 143, 146, 148, 150153, 155, 158163, 165169, 171, 174, 187, 202, 205207, 212, 229, 236Black list1, 4647, 135, 168, 180, 192193, 196, 211, 218Delisting154181Listing9, 104, 116, 124, 127, 131, 133, 140, 146180, 193, 231, 233Consolidated listLone-wolf176, 194Mass surveillance234237Mental element (mens rea)ElementMerida ConventionunMistake96, 106, 187, 196of fact7273mistaken belief87, 173Moral panic1, 111Money trailPaper trailMoney launderingdevelopment of aml apparatus155, 5898, 99112, 121, 135139, 182237integration stage19layering stage19offence5898placement stage19Mutual assistanceCooperationmerReportncct (Non-Compliant Countries and Territories)4748, 204, 207NegligenceElement (mental)ngo (non-governmental organisations)31, 43, 50, 57, 107109, 119, 138Charitiesnpo (non-profit organisations)43, 107109, 186CharitiesNotaryLawyerNugan Hand Ltd59, note p.21oecd (Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development)34, 234Offence1, 3, 56, 89, 17, 51, 54, 57, 72, 8385, 96, 103, 118, 179180, 182, 197, 202, 228229CorporateliabilityDerivative156, 174177Inchoate22, 177, 182, 225FiscalTaxPolitical12Participation5, 20, 36, 68, 72, 89, 95, 102, 127129, 151, 167Predicate2627, 30, 36, 44, 49, 53, 6365, 6770, 72, 7678, 81, 88, 105, 138139, 152, 184, 199, 205207, 226Receiving stolen goods6971Serious6, 12, 27, 30, 36, 44, 49, 6768, 7172, 75, 80, 98, 101, 105, 110, 138139, 182, 192, 197, 208, 213, 220221, 224, 229, 234235Subsidiary68, 79, 8193, 205206TerrorismTerrorismTip-off214Offshore4648, 204, 216ompi (Organisation des Modjahedines du peuple d’Iran)pmoiOrganisationCriminal35, 8, 1623, 26, 3233, 35, 44, 4647, 5152, 5457, 5859, 67, 79, 81, 89, 95, 117, 128, 136, 138139, 145, 183184, 188, 195, 197199, 206, 225228International27, 34, 166120private13, 216, 231Charity, ngo, npoTerrorist10, 24, 101, 104, 106109, 113, 116, 122142, 143158, 167180, 192198, 211, 231, 237Organised crime211, 1322, 2526, 28, 33, 36, 5162, 72, 9398, 109, 134, 136137, 139, 141, 183184, 191192, 194195, 197198, 202203, 206, 208211, 213, 222, 225226, 231232, 234, 236Organised Crime Strategic Framework22Organised financial crime203, 205206Outlawed motorcycle gangs (omgs)21Overall Implementation Assessment (oia)30Ownership30, 31, 35, 37, 6465, 206, 222Palermo ConventionunPanama Papers2, 31, 206207Paper trail19, 24, 41, 51, 61, 139, 203, 228Paris26, 31, 34, 141, 194Participation4, 13, 72, 128129, 143, 217, 231OffencePassenger Name Record (pnr)224225patriot Act204, note p.23Penalty, penalties6, 1213, 20, 61, 6668, 70, 73, 7576, 7880, 87, 9498, 128, 131, 133136, 187, 202, 213214, 222, 225228Physical element (actus reus)Elementpjc-is (Parliamentary Joint Committee on Intelligence and Security)156, 172, 179, notes pp.147, 148pmoi (People’s Mojahedin Organisation of Iran)158, 167172, 231poac (Proscribed Organisations Appeal Commission (uk))168169Political motive7, 102103, 117120, 177Politically exposed persons (peps)3738, 42Population108, 117, 119, 121, 132, 194Precautionary principle133, 174, 187188, 203Predicate offenceOffencePrepaid card31, 42, 194Prescriptive approach136, 185191, 196Preventative, Preventive (character, measures, effects)6, 9, 13, 26, 28, 3234, 72, 7679, 93, 9799, 103, 129, 136, 140141, 146, 175, 182183, 185, 174, 177, 196, 198200, 233, 236Prevention79, 13, 15, 1718, 2339, 4344, 50, 53, 55, 61, 87, 102, 104, 110, 112, 117, 125, 133, 135142, 148, 152, 163, 166167, 174, 177, 184, 188, 194200, 203, 205, 211, 214, 225226, 230, 236PrivacyRightsPrivate sector12, 13, 26, 28, 3032, 3638, 42, 4651, 106109, 112, 183185, 189, 208, 212213, 216222Pro-active49, 81, 98, 200201, 222223, 232Proceeds of crimeDealingProfiling177178Profits3, 1519, 25, 43, 44, 51, 5456, 5961, 88, 117, 183, 189190, 206, 219220, 234Proof65, 70, 7475, 83, 85, 87Burden of22, 51Reversal of20, 5253, 222, 228230Standard of57, 72, 85, 135, 187Property6, 9, 19, 36, 52, 61, 6375, 7879, 81, 8589, 9596, 102, 111, 114, 116, 118, 122, 135, 151, 193, 222, 227RightProportional, proportionality42, 56, 156, 187, 22, 236Principle159, 186, 229Proscription (of terrorist organisations)10, 131, 143150, 154181, 209, 231Providing fundsFinancingrbaRiskReasonable7475, 80, 156, 222, 229belief73, 87doubt79, 85, 228grounds144154, 158to conclude8283, 85to suspect6667, 69, 71, 74, 8587Receiving stolen goodsOffenceReckless, RecklessnessElement (mental)RecommendationsfatfRecords28, 60, 195196, 230keeping23, 38, 85, 108Refugee176, 231Register, Registries31, 38, 147, 224Registration12, 108109, 213, 140, 213Remittance4243, 106107, 110, 112, 140Report23, 27, 30, 32, 34, 38, 45, 47, 49, 54, 58, 62, 82, 109110, 134, 165, 185187, 189, 197, 199, 202, 207, 212, 214, 221, 230str (Suspicious Transaction Reports)32, 39, 41, 43, 141, 184186, 199, 214, 216, 218, 221, 233234mer (Mutual Evaluation Report)3545, 46, 62, 202ReportingcostsCostMandatory reporting/reporting requirements27, 41, 49, 61, 8294, 105, 111, 185, 196, 212, 218, 221, 229Over-reporting187, 218Repression26, 198199Reputation23, 44, 163, 166, 174, 213Review34, 5253, 62, 103, 124, 131, 141, 158, 161166, 168169, 172, 175, 179, 193, 214, 215, 232Administrative process154158, 162, 171173, 179, 212214Independent / judicial1, 10, 13, 39, 61, 156, 159164, 167171, 175, 178181, 212213, 222, 230232RightsParliamentary process156Security Legislation Review CommitteeslrcRight183, 226, 229Bill of RightsAppeal, of12, 133, 183judicial/interdependent review1, 10, 13, 159164, 172, 175, 178180, 193, 212, 222, 230, 231Fair hearing159, 168170, 181, 228Fair trial40, 54, 170, 179Fundamental / Human1, 7, 910, 40, 54, 158165, 170171, 175, 178181, 193, 210212, 230237Legality32, 95, 156, 164, 179, 222, 225Presumption of innocence54, 179, 181, 222225, 229Privacy12, 41, 215, 222224, 234237, 183, 200Property10, 54, 78, 159, 173, 183, 222, 226, 228230Proportionality156, 159, 186, 229to effective legal remedies54, 159to silence54to travel151, 165, 179Rule of law211Right wingFar-rightRisk6, 11, 14, 18, 26, 31, 37, 4042, 48, 5051, 57, 7475, 7781, 89, 9699, 108, 113, 119, 124125, 127128, 131136, 155, 177, 179, 182, 186188, 194, 196198, 201203, 205, 213, 220226, 235High-risk countryassessment37, 109, 124, 146, 183189, 196, 219assessment analysis37, 187avoidance225base approach (rba)2930, 4142, 51, 186191, 196, 202, 216218de-risking217, 234management186189, 196, 202of becoming an instrument of crime6, 6667, 7172, 7481, 9092, 9798, 124, 135Safe Harbour Agreement224225SanctionCriminalPenaltiesEconomic/financial2830, 57, 70, 113, 129, 148153, 196, 209, 215, 221, 234Sanctions Committeeun Sanctions CommitteeTargeted financial2830, 151152Secrecy60, 163, 200, 214Bank20, 2425, 28, 3943, 52Security3, 9, 15, 44, 136, 146, 163, 166, 170, 172, 177179, 181, 208, 219221, 225, 230, 232233, 236237asio, inslm, pjc-isAgencies116, 180, 188, 200, 218, 232, 234Self-assessment4546Self-evaluation46self-fundedFinancingSharingagreements55assets5455information12, 28, 31, 35, 3941, 4950, 165166, 207, 213215, 220, 224Cooperationslrc (Security Legislation Review Committee)124, 131, 157, 172, notes pp.103, 104, 117, 123125, 134, 171, 177, 180SmurfingStructuringSoft law34, 208212, 216217Software32, 218222Somalia107Spain29, 34, 95, 197Standard of proofProofStatement of principlesBaselStatement of reasons147, 155, 166, 168, 170171, 230strsReportStrasbourg ConventionCouncil of EuropeStructuring8293Suspicion1, 9, 49, 54, 7374, 176177, 185186, 214, 223swift (Society for Worldwide Interbank Financial Telecommunication)48, 200Swiss Bankers Association (sba)2324Switzerland24, 26, 29, 3234Taliban150151Tax2, 19, 35, 38, 40, 5962, 89, 96, 109110, 136, 177, 189, 191, 204, 206208atoadvisorsAccountantsavoidance/minimalisation31, 5962, 88, 206208crime/offence3, 30, 39, 44, 6061, 81, 8889, 203, 205208evasion2, 31, 36, 4344, 49, 61, 6768, 91, 205208, 234fiscal excuse39, 207fraud23, 5962, 206207Taxation5, 40, 60, 62, 97, 136, 207tftp (Terrorism Finance Tracking Programme)200, 230Terrorism2, 713, 14, 24, 2627, 30, 37, 42, 44, 48, 54, 98, 100, 102103, 107, 112113, 116117, 121, 123125, 127129, 132, 134, 137141, 143, 146151, 154, 157158, 166, 170, 172, 176178, 181186, 192197, 203, 211213, 230235legislation6, 10, 99, 102104, 110120, 121, 146, 158, 161, 173177, 181, 209, 222, 230232offence103104, 111, 113143, 175, 191FinancingTerroristact9, 13, 99105, 108, 112, 113120, 122125, 127129, 131142, 145, 151, 167, 172, 177, 180, 192, 194, 197, 200, 211, 225, 227, 237attack2, 8, 10, 24, 31, 52, 99, 101102, 111, 113, 126127, 137, 140, 188, 192, 194, 196197, 200, 208, 236character117118financingFinancingperson8, 1213, 30, 35, 101, 106107, 112, 123125, 129, 136, 138142, 144146, 158, 167, 174176, 180181, 188, 191192, 194, 196, 200, 223Foreign (terrorist) fightersorganisation See Organisations training137, 141, 147, 151, 194Third-risk country37, 225, 235Threat23, 7, 9, 11, 1416, 28, 33, 44, 57, 58, 102104, 116117, 146, 172, 175176, 182183, 186, 194195, 201211, 226, 235, 237Threshold3132, 37, 6768, 72, 8283, 86, 94, 107, 109110, 145, 185186, 196, 218, 223TraffickingDrug1, 3, 11, 14, 1819, 23, 2527, 33, 41, 44, 5859, 67, 79, 93, 117, 137, 183184, 189190, 197198Human3, 5, 1819, 27, 137, 184, 198, 208Transaction19, 2327, 3132, 3743, 4749, 51, 56, 6163, 8184, 86, 88, 9094, 106110, 132, 136, 138141, 143, 150, 153, 184187, 189196, 198199, 205, 207, 212, 218223, 233234CashStructured transactionStructuringSuspicious / suspect transaction26, 3132, 3738, 41, 43, 94, 105, 141, 184185, 191, 193, 195196, 199, 207, 214, 218219, 221, 233Suspicious transaction reports (str)ReportTransparency3031, 35, 108, 172, 178180, 195, 206, 213, 230231, 237Trust31, 37, 43, 61, 207Typologies34uk (United Kingdom)2526, 52, 95, 101, 103, 144, 219Unexplained wealth laws5253, 199un (United Nations)25, 159CommitteesCounter-terrorismctcSanctions150151, 154, 158159, 161, 163166Human Rights165167un Security Council (un sc)2, 8, 11, 13, 2830, 56, 100101, 104, 113, 146, 148, 151153, 157, 160162, 165, 167, 208, 211, 215, 231unscrs (un Security Council Resolutions)125, 129, 144unscr 1267 (1999)10, 148, 150164, 172, 179unscr 1373 (2001)8, 11, 2829, 101102, 113, 125, 131132, 148, 150154, 158, 167, 169, 173, 179, 211unodc (United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime)15, 18, 199200, 202TreatiesCharter of the United Nations28, 101, 148, 154, 160162, 165, 231iccpr(International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights)10, 165167, 211, 231, 236uncac(Convention against Corruption) (Merida)28, 56, 63uncat(Convention against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment)10, 12uncft(International Convention for the Suppression of the Financing of Terrorism)8, 11, 101, 113116, 211untoc(Convention against Transnational Organised Crime) (Palermo)5, 20, 28, 49, 52, 55, 56, 63Vienna (1988) (Convention against Illicit Traffic in Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances)11, 20, 25, 3336, 4951, 5556, 63, 67, 72usa (United States)8, 18, 23, 26, 4647, 49, 74, 106, 111, 119, 132, 137, 141, 169, 171, 181, 198, 200, 204, 209, 219, 224vat206207Vienna ConventionunViolencepolitically motivated101103Virtual currency (vc)29, 37, 42, 140Virtual currency payment products and services (vcppss)37, 42WarfareEconomic183, 192, 208Weapons of mass destruction (wmd)29, 35, 4344, 48, 56, 105, 148, 151152, 183184, 195196, 208FinancingWilful blindness (dolus eventualis)70, 74Element (mental)Wire transfer19, 23, 42, 90, 105107, 110113, 138, 193, 218, 228Wolfsberg Group5051, 216World Bank234Yugoslavia101102