Index

accelerated procedures , procedural aspects
access to ipa
safe and legal67 , 90 , 95 , 110 , 197200 , 211 , 262265 , 268 , 271 , 301 , 303
technical obstacles199 , 260 , 262 , 301
actors of persecution122 , 180 , 153 , 265 , 278 , 281
family members102 , 228 , 253 , 305 , 373
non-state actors11 , 122 , 145 , 153 , 178 , 180
regional authorities278 , 303 , 363
actors of protection98 , 204210 , 263 , 264 , 265 , 363
against private persecution102
multinational forces207
non-state actors of protection204210social protection
adequate standard of living97 , 107 , 184 , 202 , 203employment
Ad Hoc Committee on Statelessness and Related Problems3738 , 39 , 126128 , 137travaux préparatoires
Afghanistan187 , 198 , 207 , 218 , 232234 , 249 , 267 , 303 , 306 , 322 , 323 , 333334 , 344 , 362 , 367368 , 370371 , 377
Afghan unaccompanied minors321 , 323 , 352353 , 373 , 389
age228229 , 234238children
Ahmadiyya172 , 219
armed conflict , generalized violence
Armenia40 , 41 , 219
asile intern16internal protection alternative
asylum, right to160 , 257 , 310 , 314 , 341 , 346
Australia7 , 15 , 47 , 52 , 69 , 81 , 83 , 89 , 98 , 103 , 119 , 122 , 124 , 125 , 144 , 149 , 172 , 174 , 197 , 242 , 249
balancing , proportionality
best interests of the child , children
burden of proof , procedures
Canada15 , 52 , 83 , 98 , 100 , 124 , 125 , 149 , 234 , 246 , 273 , 277 , 278
Cartagena Declaration163165
cessation of refugee status75 , 94 , 111 , 200202 , 223224 , 241
valid objections , past persecution
Chechens6 , 254 , 267 , 320 , 363
children193194 , 226 , 239
best interests of the child234238 , 344348 , 370371
children’s right to be heard285286
unaccompanied minors194 , 269 , 323 , 352353
China102 , 171
civil war13 , 42 , 92 , 128 , 382 , 385generalized violence
Cold War910
Committee against Torture15 , 299
Common European Asylum System , Procedures Directive; Qualification Directive
complementary protection8 , 297318
ipa practice of the ECtHR , ECtHR
versus relief from deportation315318
Congo, Democratic Republic of136 , 204 , 320
Convention against Torture177178
Convention Governing the Specific Aspects of Refugee Problems in Africa (oau Convention)162163
Convention on the Rights of the Child
as an interpretive source for the refugee definition235238
best interests principle235238 , 344346
duty of international cooperation and251
non-refoulement obligations under193194
Norwegian law and339 , 344346
separation from parents and226
Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities229230
country
meaning of125126
country of origin information286293
Court of Justice of the European Union17 , 150 , 174175 , 191 , 201202 , 257 , 283 , 389
credibility8485 , 288 , 372 , 377
ipa as backup reasoning206207 , 294 , 368 , 376
dignity114115 , 180 , 181 , 184 , 249 , 250 , 272 , 383
diplomatic protection , protection
disability, physical or mental229237
discrimination66 , 96 , 108 , 112 , 114 , 167 , 170 , 213 , 217 , 219 , 228 , 231 , 234 , 235 , 239 , 244 , 310311
domestic remedies
exhaustion of85 , 130131 , 381
drafting history , Refugee Convention
Dublin Regulation7 , 183185external protection alternatives; safe country
durability , protection
duty of concealment or discretion173175 , 307
dynamic interpretation3335 , 332human rights law; living instrument
education112 , 172 , 230 , 232233 , 317
effective links , networks
effectiveness, principle of3033 , 152 , 156 , 274 , 382dynamic interpretation; human rights approach; living instrument
elderly , age
empirical legal methods7778 , 384
employment91 , 234 , 254adequate standard of living
equivalency test13
Eritrea5 , 197 , 293
Ethiopia12 , 320 , 322
ethnic cleansing97 , 219221 , 370
European Asylum Support Office (easo)264 , 287 , 271 , 290 , 356
European Convention on Human Rights (echr)
Article 3, torture and inhuman and degrading treatment58 , 59 , 136 , 179192 , 286 , 291 , 297 , 309 , 317 , 318 , 346
Article 8, private and family life195 , 226 , 316317
Article 13, effective remedy284 , 375
socio-economic rights, deprivation of181189
European Court of Human Rights (ECtHR)5859 , 195 , 284 , 286 , 292 , 316 , 374375
ipa jurisprudence297309
margin of appreciation59 , 187188
normative influence on refugee law5859 , 179 , 367European Convention on Human Rights; implied limit
‘even if’ reasoning86 , 294 , 376378credibility
exclusion
the ipa as an unwritten exclusion clause , treaty basis
external protection alternatives (epas)17 , 19Dublin regulation; safe country
family life6 , 225228 , 316
concept of family226227European Convention on Human Rights
female genital mutilation , gender
forced marriage , gender
France5 , 6 , 16 , 83 , 99 , 146 , 207 , 217 , 228 , 267
freedom of movement4 , 6 , 7 , 199 , 204 , 215217 , 219 , 223 , 253 , 305 , 380gender
fundamental rights31 , 66 , 187 , 273 , 333 , 388 , 389
gang recruitment234
gender231234 , 269
actors of protection against private persecution102 , 228 , 304305
female genital mutilation (fgm)99 , 206 , 228 , 234 , 304305 , 364
forced marriage51 , 99 , 206 , 305
freedom of movement for women232233 , 254255
gender-based violence52 , 232 , 250past persecution, sexual violence
generalized violence163 , 165 , 189192
geographic size of ipa , protection
Germany6 , 11 , 12 , 13 , 14 , 40 , 41 , 101 , 171 , 172 , 249 , 260 , 267 , 313
1938 Convention concerning the Status of Refugees coming from Germany41equivalency test
Ghana11 , 14 , 246
good faith , vclt
Greece183184 , 317
Guatemala84
Guiding Principles on Internal Displacement , internal displacement
Handbook on Procedures and Criteria for Determining Refugee Status , unhcr
harmful traditional practices , gender
health care181183 , 188 , 231disability; social protection
home, concept of254
homosexuality , sexual orientation and gender identity
humanitarian law45 , 53 , 107 , 176 , 213 , 220221 , 226
human rights law
as reference for ipa practice104105 , 167
general human rights situation in ipa101 , 114 , 203 , 214 , 272 , 386 , 387
interpreting the Refugee Convention in line with33 , 45 , 4750 , 134 , 381
misuse of130131
human rights courts
jurisprudence of5860
human rights treaty bodies33 , 5152
general comments5558Committee against Torture; Human Rights Committee
Human Rights Committee (hrc)50 , 178179 , 194195 , 215 , 226 , 331 , 389
Hungary5 , 206
implied limit
in human rights law154161
ipa as implied limit22 , 81 , 88 , 114 , 119 , 158161 , 165166 , 384 , 389
India128 , 299
indigenous groups , right to live on traditional lands
indiscriminate violence191192 , 310generalized violence
inhuman or degrading treatment58 , 177189 , 284echr Article 3; serious harm
Inter-American Commission on Human Rights58 , 188
Inter-American Court of Human Rights17 , 49 , 58 , 223
internal displacement5253 , 101 , 126128 , 189 , 224 , 333 , 343 , 356
Guiding Principles on Internal Displacement5254 , 106108 , 224
internal displacement alternative16
Kampala Convention107
Pinheiro Principles224
internal flight alternative16 , 86 , 9394internal protection alternative
internal protection alternative16
academic commentary6977
Cartagena Declaration and163
early practice1115
oau Convention and162163
Qualification Directive and204205 , 255271
state practice145152treaty basis of the ipa
internal relocation15internal protection alternative
internal resettlement16internal protection alternative
international cooperation, duty of251252
International Court of Justice17 , 25 , 31 , 34 , 49 , 56
International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights32 , 49 , 104 , 178179 , 194 , 215 , 223 , 233 , 283 , 297 , 316 , 317318 , 331
International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights32 , 49 , 172 , 251 , 317
International Law Commission28 , 45 , 48
International Refugee Organization4041 , 141 , 243
Iraq199 , 201 , 206207 , 227 , 303 , 304 , 308 , 313 , 320 , 322 , 366 , 368Kurds
Japan15
Kampala Convention , internal displacement
Kosovo207 , 223 , 225 , 254 , 304 , 330 , 332333 , 370
Kurds110 , 199 , 253 , 304 , 308 , 327Iraq; Turkey
lack of nationality , statelessness
League of Nations4041
legal researcher, role of2526
lex specialis , Refugee Convention
living instrument3435 , 144 , 312dynamic interpretation; human rights law
local remedies rule , domestic remedies
manifestly unfounded claims , procedures
margin of appreciation5960 , 349 , 359
Mexico15 , 278
Michigan Guidelines on the Internal Protection Alternative16 , 108112
military recruitment194 , 362
minors , children
national refugees
exclusion from refugee status126128
networks
as a criterion for ipa practice217219 , 254 , 272 , 338 , 386
changes to, post-conflict218219 , 232actors of protection; social protection
New Zealand81 , 86 , 110 , 149 , 172 , 249 , 278
Nigeria84 , 99 , 207 , 216 , 228 , 288 , 304 , 320 , 322 , 330
non-discrimination , discrimination
non-refoulement4 , 21 , 111 , 167 , 168 , 176177 , 195
cat168 , 177178
crc168 , 193194
echr168 , 179192 , 195
iccpr168 , 178179 , 194195
indirect refoulement21 , 111 , 167 , 168 , 183 , 185 , 196 , 200 , 259 , 267 , 365 , 383 , 385
Refugee Convention169176echr Article 3
non-state actors of protection , actors of protection
non-state persecution43 , 75 , 121 , 144 , 328 , 379private persecution
Norway319379
best interests of the child370371 , 345347
early ipa practice327329
Grand Board of Immigration Appeals331334 , 355
humanitarian factors as proxy for reasonableness328329 , 334 , 342342
Immigration Act of 2008334337 , 339341
Internal Flight judgment344348 , 359
ipa as a subsidiary grounds for refusal376378
Landinfo356
procedural issues371375
removal of the reasonableness requirement349351
Pakistan307Ahmadiyya
past persecution94 , 96 , 105 , 240250 , 272
sexual violence175 , 185 , 250cessation
persecution170176
cumulative factors170172
new risks for returning refugees175176
socio-economic rights violations171173duty of concealment or discretion; refugee definition
physical security168 , 210 , 385
positive law , dogmatic legal methods
preparatory work24 , 29 , 3640 , 4344 , 126129
of Norwegian Immigration Act334339 , 365 , 381
principles of refugee law4surrogacy
private persecution , actors of persecution
procedural aspects274296 , 371374
accelerated procedures294296
burden of proof276282 , 371372
notice and right to be heard282286 , 372374children
Procedures Directive261 , 276 , 284285 , 292 , 294295
proportionality21 , 22 , 81 , 114116 , 154158 , 161 , 281 , 383
versus reasonableness272273 , 386388
protection
dimensions of42 , 141145
diplomatic protection141143
durability200203 , 366368
effective196204 , 361369
geographic scope of203204 , 368369
lack of domestic protection as a condition for refugee status121122 , 132134 , 140141
special meaning of143145
unwillingness to avail oneself of94 , 137 , 139 , 378
versus the absence of persecution or risk of serious harm206 , 361364actors of protection; social protection
Qualification Directive
development of255260
framing of ipa concept (2004)260262
framing of ipa concept (2011, recast)262267
proposed Qualification Regulation268270
reasonableness
as a requirement for ipa application91104 , 272273 , 343344
critiques of reasonableness test98102 , 116
diverse roles of reasonableness standard102104
human rights as a yardstick for104108
Refugee Convention
drafting of3640 , 126129
lex specialis for persons in need of protection313 , 389
object and purpose27 , 29 , 3033 , 120 , 151 , 272
relevant sources of interpretation4751
two dimensions of32 , 310
1967 Protocol3839 , 62 , 312dynamic interpretation; living instrument; preparatory work
refugee definition
broad versus narrow scope37 , 42 , 4344 , 128129
holistic interpretation68 , 81 , 8284 , 116 , 161
in regional instruments162165
subjective aspects87 , 136138dynamic interpretation; persecution; protection; treaty basis of the ipa
religion
freedom of religion175 , 219 , 307
minimum religious existence14 , 91 , 268duty of concealment or discretion
return communities, impact of ipa practice on , international cooperation, duty of
right to be heard , procedural aspects
right to leave one’s country4 , 7
right to live on traditional lands216
right to property , right to return home
right to return home7 , 221225
right to seek asylum4 , 85
root causes9
safe country
safe country of origin261
safe third country10 , 18 , 183 , 295 , 380Dublin Regulation; external protection alternatives
safe zone or haven11 , 207 , 220
serious harm , echr Article 3; indirect refoulement; torture; inhuman or degrading treatment
sexual orientation and gender identity84 , 173 , 271 , 288 , 306 , 362duty of concealment or discretion
Slovak Republic6
social protection206 , 218219 , 254networks; non-state actors of protection
socio-economic rights97 , 251252 , 333 , 369
deprivation of171173 , 181189 , 194 , 364365
minimum subsistence level97 , 100 , 309adequate standard of living; echr Article 3; persecution
soft law5154 , 213 , 251252
Somalia101 , 185 , 190 , 198199 , 204 , 207 , 218 , 239 , 300302 , 304 , 307 , 320 , 322 , 365 , 366367 , 385
South Africa15
Spain8485
special meaning of a treaty term28 , 143145
Sri Lanka12 , 15 , 178 , 230 , 303 , 328
state practice , internal protection alternative
stateless persons238240
subjective factors , refugee definition
subsequent practice , vclt
subsidiary character of refugee protection , surrogacy
subsidiary protection , complementary protection
Sudan101 , 215216 , 221 , 308 , 377
surrogacy
as a principle of refugee law4 , 87 , 124 , 165
surrogate role of refugee law5 , 74 , 120135 , 381
Sweden181 , 267 , 302303 , 304305 , 306 , 308 , 313 , 326 , 370
systemic integration4454
positive versus negative aspects46vclt
Tamils , Sri Lanka
Tanzania203 , 300
technical obstacles to return , access
torture177178echr Article 3
trafficking102 , 176 , 234 , 342
travaux préparatoires , preparatory work
treaty basis of the ipa
implied limit on the right to refugee protection88 , 119 , 154162
protection approach8587 , 119
unwritten exclusion clause76 , 8788 , 119 , 152154
well-founded fear approach (or the ‘holistic’ approach)8285 , 119
Turkey1112 , 110 , 199 , 253 , 327Kurds
unaccompanied minors , Afghanistan; children
unduly harsh100 , 101 , 150 , 308reasonableness
United Kingdom5 , 14 , 16 , 83 , 100 , 101 , 102 , 119 , 122 , 144 , 149 , 190 , 206 , 207 , 208 , 247 , 249 , 267 , 277 , 282 , 289 , 292 , 294 , 308
un General Assembly36 , 38 , 107 , 141 , 251
un High Commissioner for Refugees (unhcr)
amicus curiae237 , 345
duty of cooperation with6163 , 358
Executive Committee (ExCom)38 , 63 , 275
Global Consultations process6567
guidance, legal status6069 , 289
Guidelines on internal flight/protection/relocation (2003)35 , 6569 , 9597 , 139 , 173 , 198 , 212 , 217 , 221 , 240241 , 288 , 290 , 336
Handbook on Procedures and Criteria for Determining Refugee Status1213 , 6364 , 9293 , 121122 , 126 , 138139 , 244 , 274275 , 286 , 327
Information Note on Article 1 of the Refugee Convention (1995)65 , 81 , 93
Overview of Protection Issues in Europe: Legislative Trends and Positions Taken by unhcr (1995)93
United States62 , 83 , 84 , 98 , 124 , 170 , 171 , 247 , 250 , 278279
Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties (vclt)23 , 24 , 25 , 2730 , 33
duty of good faith30
general rule of interpretation2728 , 29
subsequent practice56 , 144 , 145152
supplementary means of interpretation29 , 36 , 67 , 148149special meaning of a treaty term; systemic integration
vulnerability46 , 148 , 371
idps as a vulnerable group189 , 302
refugees/asylum seekers as a vulnerable group184 , 185 , 187 , 384
well-founded fear2 , 68 , 8285 , 119 , 135139
subjective aspects of , refugee definition
World War ii9 , 40 , 41 , 42 , 141 , 143 , 311312
women , gender

The Internal Protection Alternative in Refugee Law

Treaty Basis and Scope of Application under the 1951 Convention Relating to the Status of Refugees and Its 1967 Protocol

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