Indexaccelerated procedures, procedural aspectsaccess to ipasafe and legal67, 90, 95, 110, 197200, 211, 262265, 268, 271, 301, 303technical obstacles199, 260, 262, 301actors of persecution122, 180, 153, 265, 278, 281family members102, 228, 253, 305, 373non-state actors11, 122, 145, 153, 178, 180regional authorities278, 303, 363actors of protection98, 204210, 263, 264, 265, 363against private persecution102multinational forces207non-state actors of protection204210social protectionadequate standard of living97, 107, 184, 202, 203employmentAd Hoc Committee on Statelessness and Related Problems3738, 39, 126128, 137travaux préparatoiresAfghanistan187, 198, 207, 218, 232234, 249, 267, 303, 306, 322, 323, 333334, 344, 362, 367368, 370371, 377Afghan unaccompanied minors321, 323, 352353, 373, 389age228229, 234238childrenAhmadiyya172, 219armed conflict, generalized violenceArmenia40, 41, 219asile intern16internal protection alternativeasylum, right to160, 257, 310, 314, 341, 346Australia7, 15, 47, 52, 69, 81, 83, 89, 98, 103, 119, 122, 124, 125, 144, 149, 172, 174, 197, 242, 249balancing, proportionalitybest interests of the child, childrenburden of proof, proceduresCanada15, 52, 83, 98, 100, 124, 125, 149, 234, 246, 273, 277, 278Cartagena Declaration163165cessation of refugee status75, 94, 111, 200202, 223224, 241valid objections, past persecutionChechens6, 254, 267, 320, 363children193194, 226, 239best interests of the child234238, 344348, 370371children’s right to be heard285286unaccompanied minors194, 269, 323, 352353China102, 171civil war13, 42, 92, 128, 382, 385generalized violenceCold War910Committee against Torture15, 299Common European Asylum System, Procedures Directive; Qualification Directivecomplementary protection8, 297318ipa practice of the ECtHR, ECtHRversus relief from deportation315318Congo, Democratic Republic of136, 204, 320Convention against Torture177178Convention Governing the Specific Aspects of Refugee Problems in Africa (oau Convention)162163Convention on the Rights of the Childas an interpretive source for the refugee definition235238best interests principle235238, 344346duty of international cooperation and251non-refoulement obligations under193194Norwegian law and339, 344346separation from parents and226Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities229230countrymeaning of125126country of origin information286293Court of Justice of the European Union17, 150, 174175, 191, 201202, 257, 283, 389credibility8485, 288, 372, 377ipa as backup reasoning206207, 294, 368, 376dignity114115, 180, 181, 184, 249, 250, 272, 383diplomatic protection, protectiondisability, physical or mental229237discrimination66, 96, 108, 112, 114, 167, 170, 213, 217, 219, 228, 231, 234, 235, 239, 244, 310311domestic remediesexhaustion of85, 130131, 381drafting history, Refugee ConventionDublin Regulation7, 183185external protection alternatives; safe countrydurability, protectionduty of concealment or discretion173175, 307dynamic interpretation3335, 332human rights law; living instrumenteducation112, 172, 230, 232233, 317effective links, networkseffectiveness, principle of3033, 152, 156, 274, 382dynamic interpretation; human rights approach; living instrumentelderly, ageempirical legal methods7778, 384employment91, 234, 254adequate standard of livingequivalency test13Eritrea5, 197, 293Ethiopia12, 320, 322ethnic cleansing97, 219221, 370European Asylum Support Office (easo)264, 287, 271, 290, 356European Convention on Human Rights (echr)Article 3, torture and inhuman and degrading treatment58, 59, 136, 179192, 286, 291, 297, 309, 317, 318, 346Article 8, private and family life195, 226, 316317Article 13, effective remedy284, 375socio-economic rights, deprivation of181189European Court of Human Rights (ECtHR)5859, 195, 284, 286, 292, 316, 374375ipa jurisprudence297309margin of appreciation59, 187188normative influence on refugee law5859, 179, 367European Convention on Human Rights; implied limit‘even if’ reasoning86, 294, 376378credibilityexclusionthe ipa as an unwritten exclusion clause, treaty basisexternal protection alternatives (epas)17, 19Dublin regulation; safe countryfamily life6, 225228, 316concept of family226227European Convention on Human Rightsfemale genital mutilation, genderforced marriage, genderFrance5, 6, 16, 83, 99, 146, 207, 217, 228, 267freedom of movement4, 6, 7, 199, 204, 215217, 219, 223, 253, 305, 380genderfundamental rights31, 66, 187, 273, 333, 388, 389gang recruitment234gender231234, 269actors of protection against private persecution102, 228, 304305female genital mutilation (fgm)99, 206, 228, 234, 304305, 364forced marriage51, 99, 206, 305freedom of movement for women232233, 254255gender-based violence52, 232, 250past persecution, sexual violencegeneralized violence163, 165, 189192geographic size of ipa, protectionGermany6, 11, 12, 13, 14, 40, 41, 101, 171, 172, 249, 260, 267, 3131938 Convention concerning the Status of Refugees coming from Germany41equivalency testGhana11, 14, 246good faith, vcltGreece183184, 317Guatemala84Guiding Principles on Internal Displacement, internal displacementHandbook on Procedures and Criteria for Determining Refugee Status, unhcrharmful traditional practices, genderhealth care181183, 188, 231disability; social protectionhome, concept of254homosexuality, sexual orientation and gender identityhumanitarian law45, 53, 107, 176, 213, 220221, 226human rights lawas reference for ipa practice104105, 167general human rights situation in ipa101, 114, 203, 214, 272, 386, 387interpreting the Refugee Convention in line with33, 45, 4750, 134, 381misuse of130131human rights courtsjurisprudence of5860human rights treaty bodies33, 5152general comments5558Committee against Torture; Human Rights CommitteeHuman Rights Committee (hrc)50, 178179, 194195, 215, 226, 331, 389Hungary5, 206implied limitin human rights law154161ipa as implied limit22, 81, 88, 114, 119, 158161, 165166, 384, 389India128, 299indigenous groups, right to live on traditional landsindiscriminate violence191192, 310generalized violenceinhuman or degrading treatment58, 177189, 284echr Article 3; serious harmInter-American Commission on Human Rights58, 188Inter-American Court of Human Rights17, 49, 58, 223internal displacement5253, 101, 126128, 189, 224, 333, 343, 356Guiding Principles on Internal Displacement5254, 106108, 224internal displacement alternative16Kampala Convention107Pinheiro Principles224internal flight alternative16, 86, 9394internal protection alternativeinternal protection alternative16academic commentary6977Cartagena Declaration and163early practice1115oau Convention and162163Qualification Directive and204205, 255271state practice145152treaty basis of the ipainternal relocation15internal protection alternativeinternal resettlement16internal protection alternativeinternational cooperation, duty of251252International Court of Justice17, 25, 31, 34, 49, 56International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights32, 49, 104, 178179, 194, 215, 223, 233, 283, 297, 316, 317318, 331International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights32, 49, 172, 251, 317International Law Commission28, 45, 48International Refugee Organization4041, 141, 243Iraq199, 201, 206207, 227, 303, 304, 308, 313, 320, 322, 366, 368KurdsJapan15Kampala Convention, internal displacementKosovo207, 223, 225, 254, 304, 330, 332333, 370Kurds110, 199, 253, 304, 308, 327Iraq; Turkeylack of nationality, statelessnessLeague of Nations4041legal researcher, role of2526lex specialis, Refugee Conventionliving instrument3435, 144, 312dynamic interpretation; human rights lawlocal remedies rule, domestic remediesmanifestly unfounded claims, proceduresmargin of appreciation5960, 349, 359Mexico15, 278Michigan Guidelines on the Internal Protection Alternative16, 108112military recruitment194, 362minors, childrennational refugeesexclusion from refugee status126128networksas a criterion for ipa practice217219, 254, 272, 338, 386changes to, post-conflict218219, 232actors of protection; social protectionNew Zealand81, 86, 110, 149, 172, 249, 278Nigeria84, 99, 207, 216, 228, 288, 304, 320, 322, 330non-discrimination, discriminationnon-refoulement4, 21, 111, 167, 168, 176177, 195cat168, 177178crc168, 193194echr168, 179192, 195iccpr168, 178179, 194195indirect refoulement21, 111, 167, 168, 183, 185, 196, 200, 259, 267, 365, 383, 385Refugee Convention169176echr Article 3non-state actors of protection, actors of protectionnon-state persecution43, 75, 121, 144, 328, 379private persecutionNorway319379best interests of the child370371, 345347early ipa practice327329Grand Board of Immigration Appeals331334, 355humanitarian factors as proxy for reasonableness328329, 334, 342342Immigration Act of 2008334337, 339341Internal Flight judgment344348, 359ipa as a subsidiary grounds for refusal376378Landinfo356procedural issues371375removal of the reasonableness requirement349351Pakistan307Ahmadiyyapast persecution94, 96, 105, 240250, 272sexual violence175, 185, 250cessationpersecution170176cumulative factors170172new risks for returning refugees175176socio-economic rights violations171173duty of concealment or discretion; refugee definitionphysical security168, 210, 385positive law, dogmatic legal methodspreparatory work24, 29, 3640, 4344, 126129of Norwegian Immigration Act334339, 365, 381principles of refugee law4surrogacyprivate persecution, actors of persecutionprocedural aspects274296, 371374accelerated procedures294296burden of proof276282, 371372notice and right to be heard282286, 372374childrenProcedures Directive261, 276, 284285, 292, 294295proportionality21, 22, 81, 114116, 154158, 161, 281, 383versus reasonableness272273, 386388protectiondimensions of42, 141145diplomatic protection141143durability200203, 366368effective196204, 361369geographic scope of203204, 368369lack of domestic protection as a condition for refugee status121122, 132134, 140141special meaning of143145unwillingness to avail oneself of94, 137, 139, 378versus the absence of persecution or risk of serious harm206, 361364actors of protection; social protectionQualification Directivedevelopment of255260framing of ipa concept (2004)260262framing of ipa concept (2011, recast)262267proposed Qualification Regulation268270reasonablenessas a requirement for ipa application91104, 272273, 343344critiques of reasonableness test98102, 116diverse roles of reasonableness standard102104human rights as a yardstick for104108Refugee Conventiondrafting of3640, 126129lex specialis for persons in need of protection313, 389object and purpose27, 29, 3033, 120, 151, 272relevant sources of interpretation4751two dimensions of32, 3101967 Protocol3839, 62, 312dynamic interpretation; living instrument; preparatory workrefugee definitionbroad versus narrow scope37, 42, 4344, 128129holistic interpretation68, 81, 8284, 116, 161in regional instruments162165subjective aspects87, 136138dynamic interpretation; persecution; protection; treaty basis of the ipareligionfreedom of religion175, 219, 307minimum religious existence14, 91, 268duty of concealment or discretionreturn communities, impact of ipa practice on, international cooperation, duty ofright to be heard, procedural aspectsright to leave one’s country4, 7right to live on traditional lands216right to property, right to return homeright to return home7, 221225right to seek asylum4, 85root causes9safe countrysafe country of origin261safe third country10, 18, 183, 295, 380Dublin Regulation; external protection alternativessafe zone or haven11, 207, 220serious harm, echr Article 3; indirect refoulement; torture; inhuman or degrading treatmentsexual orientation and gender identity84, 173, 271, 288, 306, 362duty of concealment or discretionSlovak Republic6social protection206, 218219, 254networks; non-state actors of protectionsocio-economic rights97, 251252, 333, 369deprivation of171173, 181189, 194, 364365minimum subsistence level97, 100, 309adequate standard of living; echr Article 3; persecutionsoft law5154, 213, 251252Somalia101, 185, 190, 198199, 204, 207, 218, 239, 300302, 304, 307, 320, 322, 365, 366367, 385South Africa15Spain8485special meaning of a treaty term28, 143145Sri Lanka12, 15, 178, 230, 303, 328state practice, internal protection alternativestateless persons238240subjective factors, refugee definitionsubsequent practice, vcltsubsidiary character of refugee protection, surrogacysubsidiary protection, complementary protectionSudan101, 215216, 221, 308, 377surrogacyas a principle of refugee law4, 87, 124, 165surrogate role of refugee law5, 74, 120135, 381Sweden181, 267, 302303, 304305, 306, 308, 313, 326, 370systemic integration4454positive versus negative aspects46vcltTamils, Sri LankaTanzania203, 300technical obstacles to return, accesstorture177178echr Article 3trafficking102, 176, 234, 342travaux préparatoires, preparatory worktreaty basis of the ipaimplied limit on the right to refugee protection88, 119, 154162protection approach8587, 119unwritten exclusion clause76, 8788, 119, 152154well-founded fear approach (or the ‘holistic’ approach)8285, 119Turkey1112, 110, 199, 253, 327Kurdsunaccompanied minors, Afghanistan; childrenunduly harsh100, 101, 150, 308reasonablenessUnited Kingdom5, 14, 16, 83, 100, 101, 102, 119, 122, 144, 149, 190, 206, 207, 208, 247, 249, 267, 277, 282, 289, 292, 294, 308un General Assembly36, 38, 107, 141, 251un High Commissioner for Refugees (unhcr)amicus curiae237, 345duty of cooperation with6163, 358Executive Committee (ExCom)38, 63, 275Global Consultations process6567guidance, legal status6069, 289Guidelines on internal flight/protection/relocation (2003)35, 6569, 9597, 139, 173, 198, 212, 217, 221, 240241, 288, 290, 336Handbook on Procedures and Criteria for Determining Refugee Status1213, 6364, 9293, 121122, 126, 138139, 244, 274275, 286, 327Information Note on Article 1 of the Refugee Convention (1995)65, 81, 93Overview of Protection Issues in Europe: Legislative Trends and Positions Taken by unhcr (1995)93United States62, 83, 84, 98, 124, 170, 171, 247, 250, 278279Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties (vclt)23, 24, 25, 2730, 33duty of good faith30general rule of interpretation2728, 29subsequent practice56, 144, 145152supplementary means of interpretation29, 36, 67, 148149special meaning of a treaty term; systemic integrationvulnerability46, 148, 371idps as a vulnerable group189, 302refugees/asylum seekers as a vulnerable group184, 185, 187, 384well-founded fear2, 68, 8285, 119, 135139subjective aspects of, refugee definitionWorld War ii9, 40, 41, 42, 141, 143, 311312women, gender

The Internal Protection Alternative in Refugee Law

Treaty Basis and Scope of Application under the 1951 Convention Relating to the Status of Refugees and Its 1967 Protocol

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