1. Subsidiary character of refugee protection 5

  2. Current approaches to IPA application in theory and practice 81

  3. Proposed treaty bases for IPA practice 88

  4. Baseline criteria for IPA application 168

  5. Beyond non-refoulement: other factors relevant to the IPA test 214

  6. Proposal for a revised Article 8 of the Qualification Regulation 270

  7. The number of applications from select countries refused on the basis of an IPA and percentage of all rejections justified on IPA grounds 322

  8. Factors relevant to the IPA test 387

The Internal Protection Alternative in Refugee Law

Treaty Basis and Scope of Application under the 1951 Convention Relating to the Status of Refugees and Its 1967 Protocol