1. 1Subsidiary character of refugee protection 5
  2. 2Current approaches to IPA application in theory and practice 81
  3. 3Proposed treaty bases for IPA practice 88
  4. 4Baseline criteria for IPA application 168
  5. 5Beyond non-refoulement: other factors relevant to the IPA test 214
  6. 6Proposal for a revised Article 8 of the Qualification Regulation 270
  7. 7The number of applications from select countries refused on the basis of an IPA and percentage of all rejections justified on IPA grounds 322
  8. 8Factors relevant to the IPA test 387

The Internal Protection Alternative in Refugee Law

Treaty Basis and Scope of Application under the 1951 Convention Relating to the Status of Refugees and Its 1967 Protocol