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Contents

Acknowledgements XI

List of Abbreviations XIII

Notes on Transliteration, Translation, and Dates XIV

1 Introduction 1

1.1 Contested Territory: Dār al-Islām and Dār al-Ḥarb in Western Academia and beyond 3

1.2 Research Questions and Scope of This Study 14

1.3 Sources and Methodology 18

1.4 Conceptual Framework: A Spatial Perspective on Islamic Legal Discourse 22

1.5 Typology of Territorial Concepts and Chapter Outline 36

Part 1 Territoriality in Islamic Legal Discourse: A Historical Outline

Introduction to Part 1 41

2 Formation and Development of Territorial Concepts in the Pre-modern Period 43

2.1 The Emergence of the Concepts of Dār al-Islām and Dār al-Ḥarb 44

2.2 The Development of Territorial Concepts in the Pre-modern Period 48

2.3 Residence in Non-Muslim Territory and the Obligation of Hijra 63

2.4 Ibn Taymiyya’s Attempt to Abandon Dualist Conceptions of Territories 70

2.5 On the Applicability of the Shariʿa and the Validity of Non-Muslim Laws 75

2.6 Chapter Summary and Concluding Remarks 84

3 Debates on Territoriality in the Modern Period 87

3.1 Dār al-Islām under Occupation: Discussions about Territoriality in the Colonial Period 87

3.2 Rethinking Territoriality in a World of Nation States 102

3.3 Is Europe Dār al-Islām? The Beginnings of the Contemporary Discourse on Territoriality 112

3.4 Chapter Summary and Concluding Remarks 117

Part 2 The Contemporary Islamic Legal Discourse on Territoriality

Introduction to Part 2 123

4 Dār al-Islām versus Dār al-Kufr: Reinventing Traditional Binaries 125

4.1 Prominent Proponents 127

4.2 Contextualizing Their Approaches 139

4.3 Dār al-Islām versus Dār al-Kufr: A Perennial Dichotomy 140

4.4 The West as a “Territory of Unbelief” 146

4.5 Territoriality from the Perspective of Hizb ut-Tahrir 147

4.6 Jihadists’ Views on Territoriality 150

4.7 Chapter Summary and Concluding Remarks 162

5 Dār al-Islām and the West: A Contractual Relationship 165

5.1 Prominent Proponents 166

5.2 Contextualizing Their Approaches 177

5.3 Normative but Adaptable? Tracing the Origins of Territorial Concepts 184

5.4 Defining the Boundaries of Dār al-Islām 189

5.5 Locating the West 199

5.6 Chapter Summary and Concluding Remarks 213

6 Dār al-Islām Relocated: How “Islamic” is the West? 218

6.1 Prominent Proponents 219

6.2 Contextualizing Their Approaches 237

6.3 “Islam Does Not Know Geographic Boundaries” – Reconsidering the Origins of Dār al-Islām 242

6.4 Deconstructing Traditional Boundaries 245

6.5 The Institutionalization of the Idea: The International Institute of Islamic Thought 258

6.6 Measuring the “Islamicity” of Modern States: The Shariah Index Project 263

6.7 Chapter Summary and Concluding Remarks 279

7 Rethinking Territoriality beyond Dār al-Islām: Alternative Calls for Overcoming Geo-Religious Boundaries 282

7.1 Prominent Proponents 283

7.2 Contextualizing Their Approaches 289

7.3 Dār al-Shahāda: Tariq Ramadan’s Notion of the World as a Unified “Space of Testimony” 290

7.4 Tareq Oubrou’s Call for a New “Geotheology” 301

7.5 Aref Ali Nayed’s Concept of the “Interior Abode of Peace” 305

7.6 Chapter Summary and Concluding Remarks 309

Part 3 Why Territoriality Matters

Introduction to Part 3 313

8 Territoriality, Residence, and Legal Interpretation in the West 317

8.1 Legitimacy of Residence in Non-Muslim Countries 318

8.2 On the Validity of Non-Muslim Laws 341

8.3 Territoriality and the Legitimization of Minority Fiqh 356

8.4 Chapter Summary and Concluding Remarks 387

9 Territoriality, Authority, and Identity 391

9.1 Territoriality and the Question of Religious Authority in a Globalized World 392

9.2 Territoriality and the Construction of Muslim Identity 398

9.3 Chapter Summary and Concluding Remarks 420

10 Conclusion 423

Bibliography 433

Interviews and Personal Communication 468

Index of Subjects 470

Index of Names 474