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ContentsAcknowledgements XIList of Abbreviations XIIINotes on Transliteration, Translation, and Dates XIVIntroduction 1Contested Territory: Dār al-Islām and Dār al-Ḥarb in Western Academia and beyond 3Research Questions and Scope of This Study 14Sources and Methodology 18Conceptual Framework: A Spatial Perspective on Islamic Legal Discourse 22Typology of Territorial Concepts and Chapter Outline 36Territoriality in Islamic Legal Discourse: A Historical OutlineIntroduction to Part 1 41Formation and Development of Territorial Concepts in the Pre-modern Period 43The Emergence of the Concepts of Dār al-Islām and Dār al-Ḥarb 44The Development of Territorial Concepts in the Pre-modern Period 48Residence in Non-Muslim Territory and the Obligation of Hijra 63Ibn Taymiyya’s Attempt to Abandon Dualist Conceptions of Territories 70On the Applicability of the Shariʿa and the Validity of Non-Muslim Laws 75Chapter Summary and Concluding Remarks 84Debates on Territoriality in the Modern Period 87Dār al-Islām under Occupation: Discussions about Territoriality in the Colonial Period 87Rethinking Territoriality in a World of Nation States 102Is Europe Dār al-Islām? The Beginnings of the Contemporary Discourse on Territoriality 112Chapter Summary and Concluding Remarks 117The Contemporary Islamic Legal Discourse on TerritorialityIntroduction to Part 2 123Dār al-Islām versus Dār al-Kufr: Reinventing Traditional Binaries 125Prominent Proponents 127Contextualizing Their Approaches 139Dār al-Islām versus Dār al-Kufr: A Perennial Dichotomy 140The West as a “Territory of Unbelief” 146Territoriality from the Perspective of Hizb ut-Tahrir 147Jihadists’ Views on Territoriality 150Chapter Summary and Concluding Remarks 162Dār al-Islām and the West: A Contractual Relationship 165Prominent Proponents 166Contextualizing Their Approaches 177Normative but Adaptable? Tracing the Origins of Territorial Concepts 184Defining the Boundaries of Dār al-Islām 189Locating the West 199Chapter Summary and Concluding Remarks 213Dār al-Islām Relocated: How “Islamic” is the West? 218Prominent Proponents 219Contextualizing Their Approaches 237“Islam Does Not Know Geographic Boundaries” – Reconsidering the Origins of Dār al-Islām 242Deconstructing Traditional Boundaries 245The Institutionalization of the Idea: The International Institute of Islamic Thought 258Measuring the “Islamicity” of Modern States: The Shariah Index Project 263Chapter Summary and Concluding Remarks 279Rethinking Territoriality beyond Dār al-Islām: Alternative Calls for Overcoming Geo-Religious Boundaries 282Prominent Proponents 283Contextualizing Their Approaches 289Dār al-Shahāda: Tariq Ramadan’s Notion of the World as a Unified “Space of Testimony” 290Tareq Oubrou’s Call for a New “Geotheology” 301Aref Ali Nayed’s Concept of the “Interior Abode of Peace” 305Chapter Summary and Concluding Remarks 309Why Territoriality MattersIntroduction to Part 3 313Territoriality, Residence, and Legal Interpretation in the West 317Legitimacy of Residence in Non-Muslim Countries 318On the Validity of Non-Muslim Laws 341Territoriality and the Legitimization of Minority Fiqh 356Chapter Summary and Concluding Remarks 387Territoriality, Authority, and Identity 391Territoriality and the Question of Religious Authority in a Globalized World 392Territoriality and the Construction of Muslim Identity 398Chapter Summary and Concluding Remarks 420Conclusion 423Bibliography 433Interviews and Personal Communication 468Index of Subjects 470Index of Names 474