Chapter 5 Phonological Universals and the Acquisition Order of Mandarin Tones1

In: Second Language Acquisition of Mandarin Chinese Tones
Author: Hang Zhang

Purchase instant access (PDF download and unlimited online access):

€29.95$34.95
  • Abramson, A.S. (1979). “The Coarticulation of Tones: An Acoustic Study of Thai.” In Studies in Tai and Mon-Khmer Phonetics and Phonology in Honour of Eugénie J.A. Henderson, edited by T.L. Thongkum, P. Kullavanijaya, V. Panupong, and K. Tingsabadh. Bankok: Indigenous Languages of Thailand Research Project, 127134.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Adjemian, C. (1976). “On the Nature of Interlanguage Systems.” Language Learning. 26 (2): 297320.

  • Alderete, J. (1997). “Dissimilation as Local Conjunction.” In Proceedings of the North East Linguistics Society 27, edited by K. Kusumoto, 1732. Amherst, MA: GLSA Publications.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Alderete, J. (2003). “Phonological Processes: Dissimilation.” In International Encyclopedia of Linguistics, edited by W. Frawley, 323324. 2nd ed. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Alderete, J. and S. Frisch. (2007). “Dissimilation in Grammar and the Lexicon.” In The Cambridge Handbook of Phonology, edited by Paul de Lacy, 379398. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Alderete, J., P. Tupper, and S. Frisch. (2013). “Phonological Constraint Induction in a Connectionist Network: Learning OCP-Place Constraints from Data.” Language Sciences. 37: 5269.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Archibald, J. (1998). “Second Language Phonology, Phonetics, and Typology.” Studies in Second Language Acquisition. 20: 189211.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Arvaniti, A. (2011). “The Representation of Intonation.” In The Blackwell Companion to Phonology, edited by M. Oostendorp, C.J. Ewen, E.V. Hume, and K. Rice, 757780. Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Bao, Z.M. (1999). The Structure of Tone. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

  • Barlow, J. and J. Gierut. (1999). “Optimality Theory in Phonological Acquisition.” Journal of Speech, Language and Hearing Research. 42: 14821498.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Beckman, M. (1986). Stress and Non-Stress Accent. Dordrecht: Foris Publications.

  • Beckman, M. and J. Pierrehumbert. (1986). “Intonational Structure in Japanese and English.” Phonology Yearbook. 3: 255309.

  • Bent, T. (2005). Perception and Production of Non-Native Prosodic Categories. PhD diss., Northwestern University.

  • Bluhme, H., and R. Burr. (1971). “An Audio-Visual Display of Pitch for Teaching Chinese Tones.” Linguistics. 22: 5157.

  • Boersma, P. and B. Hayes. (2001). “Empirical Tests of the Gradual Learning Algorithm.” Linguistic Inquiry. 32: 4586.

  • Boersma, P. and C. Levelt. (2000). “Gradual Constraint-Ranking Learning Algorithm Predicts Acquisition Order.” In Proceedings of Child Language Research Forum 30, edited by E.V. Clark, 229237. Stanford: CSLI Publications.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Boersma, P. and D. Weenink. (2011). “Praat: Doing Phonetics by Computer” [Computer Program]. Version 5.2.17. Accessed November 2011. http://www.praat.org.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Bolinger, D. (1951). “Intonation: Levels versus Configurations.” Word. 7: 199210.

  • Broselow, E. (2004). “Unmarked Structures and Emergent Rankings in Second Language Phonology.” International Journal of Bilingualis. 8 (1): 5165.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Broselow, E., S. Chen, and C. Wang. (1998). “The Emergence of the Unmarked in Second Language Phonology.” Studies in Second Language Acquisition. 20: 261280.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Broselow, E., R. Hurtig, and C. Ringen. (1987). “The Perception of Second Language Prosody.” In Interlanguage Phonology, edited by G. Ioup and S. Weinberger, 350362. Cambridge, MA: Newbury House Publishers.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Broselow, E. and Z. Xu. (2004). “Differential Difficulty in the Acquisition of Second Language Phonology.” International Journal of English Studies. 4 (2): 135163.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Brunelle, M. (2003). “Tonal Coarticulation Effects in Northern Vietnamese.” In 15th International Congress of Phonetic Sciences (ICPhS 15), edited by Maria-Josep Solé, Daniel Recasens, and Joaquín Romero, 26732676. Barcelona: Futurgraphic.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Cao, W. (2002). Hanyu yuyin jiaocheng [A Course of Chinese Phonology]. Beijing: Beijing Language and Culture University Press.

  • Cardoso, W. (2007). “The Variable Development of English Word-Final Stops by Brazilian Portuguese Speakers: A Stochastic Optimality Theory Account.” Language Variation and Change. 19: 219248.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Cardoso, W. (2011). “Onset‐Nucleus Sharing and the Acquisition of Second Language Codas: A Stochastic Optimality Theoretic Account.” Studia Linguistica. 65 (2): 198231.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Casas-Tost, H. and S. Rovira-Esteva. (2015). “Mapping Chinese Language Pedagogy from 1966 to 2013: A Bibliometric Study of the Journal of Chinese Language Teachers Association.” Journal of the Chinese Language Teachers Association. 50 (2): 3158.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Chan, M.K.M. (1995). “Students’ Tone Production and Audio-Visual Feedback.” Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the Chinese Language Teachers Association, Anaheim, California, 18–20 November, 1995.

  • Chao, Y.R. (1930). “A System of Tone Letters.” Le Maître Phonétique. 45: 2427.

  • Chao, Y.R. (1933). “Tone and Intonation in Chinese.” Bulletin of the Institute of History and Philology. 4: 121134.

  • Chao, Y.R. (1948). Mandarin Primer. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.

  • Chao, Y.R. (1951). “The Cantian Idiolect: An Analysis of the Chinese Spoken by a Twenty-Eight Months-Old Child.” In Semitic and Oriental Studies, edited by W.J. Fischel, 2744. Berkeley: University of California Press.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Chao, Y.R. (1968). A Grammar of Spoken Chinese. Berkeley: University of California Press.

  • Chao, Y.R. (1980). Yu Yan Wen Ti. Beijing: Shangwu Press.

  • Chen, A. (2013). Universal Biases in the Perception of Mandarin Tones, from Infancy to Adulthood. LOT Dissertation Series, Netherlands Graduate School of Linguistics, Landelijke.

  • Chen, C-Y. (1983). “A Fifth Tone in the Mandarin Spoken in Singapore.” Journal of Chinese Linguistics. 11 (1): 92119.

  • Chen, C-Y. (2005). “Proposed Modifications in Teaching Materials for Mandarin Phonology.” Journal of the Chinese Language Teachers Associatio. 40 (2): 6778.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Chen, G-T. (1974). “Pitch Range of English and Chinese Speakers.” Journal of Chinese Linguistics. 2: 159171.

  • Chen, M.Y. (2000). Tone Sandhi: Patterns Across Chinese Dialects. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

  • Chen, Q-H. (1997). “Toward a Sequential Approach for Tonal Error Analysis.” Journal of the Chinese Language Teachers Association. 32 (1): 2139.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Chen, Q-H. (2000). Analysis of Mandarin Tonal Errors in Connected Speech by English-Speaking American Adult Learners. PhD diss., Brigham Young University.

  • Chen, S. (1973). “The Third Tone and See-Saw Pairs.” Journal of the Chinese Language Teachers Association. 8 (3): 145149.

  • Chen, T.H. and D.W. Massaro. (2008). “Seeing Pitch: Visual Information for Lexical Tones of Mandarin-Chinese.” Journal of the Acoustical Society of America. 123 (4): 23562366.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Chen, Y. (2012). “Tonal Variation.” In The Oxford Handbook of Laboratory Phonology, edited by A.C. Cohn, C. Fougeron, and M.K. Huffman, 103114. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Chen, Y. and Y. Xu. (2006). “Production of Weak Elements in Speech: Evidence from F0 Patterns of Neutral Tone in Standard Chinese.” Phonetica. 63 (1): 4775.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Cheng, C.C. (1973). A Synchronic Phonology of Mandarin Chinese. The Hague: Mouton de Gruyter.

  • Chomsky, N. (1965). Aspects of the Theory of Syntax. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

  • Chomsky, N. (1975). Reflections on Language. New York: Pantheon.

  • Chomsky, N. (1981). Lectures on Government and Binding. Dordrecht: Foris Publications.

  • Chomsky, N. (1995). The Minimalist Program. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

  • Chomsky, N. (1999). “On the Nature, Use, and Acquisition of Language.” In Handbook of Child Language Acquisition, edited by T. Bhatia and W. Ritchie, 3354. San Diego: Academic Press.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Chomsky, N. and M. Halle (1968). The Sound Pattern of English. New York: Harper and Row.

  • Chou, C-P., P. Link, and X-D. Wang. (1997). Oh, China! Princeton: Princeton University Press.

  • Chuang, C.K. and S. Hiki (1972). “Acoustical Features and Perceptual Cues of the Four Tones of Standard Colloquial Chinese.” The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 52 (1A), 146.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Chung, K.S. (2013). “Karen Chung Talks about the Echo Method.” Podcast on Talking Taiwan website. Accessed July 4, 2013. http://www.talkingtaiwan.com/about/.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Clumech, H. (1980). “The Acquisition of Tone.” In Child Phonology, edited by G.H. Yeni-komshian, J.F. Kavanagh, and C.A. Ferguson, 257275. Vol. 1. New York: Academic Press.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Contreras, D. (2013). The Echo Method and the Teaching of the Four Mandarin Chinese Tones. Senior honors thesis, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill.

  • Cooper, A. and Y. Wang. (2012). “The Influence of Linguistic and Musical Experience on Cantonese Word Learning.” Journal of the Acoustical Society of America. 131 (6): 47564769.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Cooper, A. and Y. Wang. (2013). “Effects of Tone Training on Cantonese Tone-Word Learning.” Journal of the Acoustical Society of America. 134 (2): 133139.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Cooper, W.E. and J.M. Sorensen. (1981). Fundamental Frequency in Sentence Production. New York: Springer-Verlag.

  • Corder, S.P. (1967). “The Significance of Learners’ Errors.” International Review of Applied Linguistics. 5: 161170.

  • Delattre, P.C. (1965). Comparing the Phonetic Features of English, French, German, and Spanish. Heidelberg: Julius Groos Verlag.

  • Duanmu, S. (2000). The Phonology of Standard Chinese. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

  • Eckman, F.R. (2004). “From Phonemic Differences to Constraint Rankings: Research on Second Language Phonology.” Studies in Second Language Acquisition. 26: 513549.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Elliot, C.E. (1991). “The Relationship Between the Perception and Production of Mandarin Tones: An Exploratory Study.” University of Hawai‘i Working Papers in ESL. 10 (2): 177204.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Epstein, S., S. Flynn, and G. Martohardjono. (1996). “Second Language Acquisition: Theoretical and Experimental Issues in Contemporary Research.” Behavioral and Brain Sciences. 19: 677758.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Flege, J.E. (1993). “Production and Perception of a Novel, Second-Language Phonetic Contrast.” Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 15891608.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Flemming, E. (2008). “The Role of Pitch Range in Focus Marking.” Slides from a talk given at the Workshop on Information Structure and Prosody, Studiecentrum Soeterbeeck, Ravenstein, Netherlands.

  • Gandour, J. (1983). “Tone Perception in Far Eastern Languages.” Journal of Phonetics. 11: 149175.

  • Gandour, J., S. Potisuk, and S. Dechongkit. (1994). “Tonal Coarticulation in Thai.” Journal of Phonetics. 22: 477492.

  • Gandour, J., S. Potisuk, S. Dechongkit, and S. Ponglorpisit. (1992). “Tonal Coarticulation in Thai Disyllabic Utterances: A Preliminary Study.” Linguistics of the Tibeto-Burman Area. 15: 93110.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Gandour, J., D. Wong, L. Hsieh, B. Weinzapfel, D. Van Lancker, and G. Hutchins. (2000). “A Crosslinguistic PET Study of Tone Perception.” Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience. 12: 207222.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Garding, E., P. Kratochvil, J. Svantesson, J. Zhang. (1986). “Tone 4 and Tone 3 Discrimination in Modern Standard Chinese.” Language and Speech. 29 (3): 281293.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Goldsmith, J.A. (1976). “An Overview of Autosegmental Phonology.” Linguistic Analysis 2: 2368.

  • Gordon, M. (2001). “A Typology of Contour Tone Restrictions.” Studies in Language. 25: 405444.

  • Gussenhoven, C. (2004). The Phonology of Tone and Intonation. Research Surveys in Linguistics. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

  • Han, M.S. and K. Kim. (1974). “Phonetic Variation of Vietnamese Tones in Disyllabic Utterances.” Journal of Phonetics. 2: 223232.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hancin-Bhatt, B. (1998). “Optimality and Stages of L2 Syllables.” Paper presented at the Second Language Research Forum, Honolulu, HI.

  • Hancin-Bhatt, B. (2000). “Optimality in Second Language Phonology: Codas in Thai ESL.” Second Language Research. 16 (3): 201232.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hancin-Bhatt, B. (2008). “Second Language Phonology in Optimality Theory.” In Phonology and Second Language Acquisition, edited by J. Edwards and J. Zampini, 117146. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hancin-Bhatt, B. and R. Bhatt. (1997). “Optimal L2 Syllables: Interaction of Transfer and Developmental Effects.” Studies in Second Language Acquisition. 19: 331378.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hao, Y-C. (2012). “Second Language Acquisition of Mandarin Chinese Tones by Tonal and Non-Tonal Language Speakers.” Journal of Phonetics. 40: 269279.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Haraguchi, S. (1988). “Pitch Accent and Intonation in Japanese,” in Autosegmental Studies on Pitch Accent, edited by H. van der Hulst and N. Smith. 123150. Dordrecht: Foris Publications.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Harrison, P.A. (1999). The Acquisition of Phonology in the First Year of Life. PhD diss, University College London.

  • Harrison, P.A. (2000). “Acquiring the Phonology of Lexical Tone in Infancy.” Lingua. 110: 581616.

  • Hayes, R. (1999). “Reranking Stages in OT Analysis of the Acquisition of Japanese as a Second Language.” Carolina Working Papers in Linguistics 1.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • He, Q., Y-N. Wu, and P. Yang. (2008). Me and China. New York: McGraw-Hill.

  • Hirose, H. (1997). “Investigating the Physiology of Laryngeal Structures.” In The Handbook of Phonetic Sciences, edited by W.J. Hardcastle and J. Laver, 116136. Oxford: Blackwell.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hirst, D. and A. Di Cristo. (1998). “A Survey of Intonation Systems.” In Intonation Systems: A Survey of Twenty Languages, edited by D. Hirst and A. Di Cristo, 144. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hockett, C.F. (1947). “Peiping Phonology.” Journal of the American Oriental Society. 67: 253267.

  • Hockett, C.F. (1951). Progressive Exercises in Chinese Pronunciation. New Haven: The Institute of Far Eastern Languages, Yale University Press.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hu, Z-L. (2008). “Zuowei waiyu de hanyu jiaoxue” [Teaching Chinese as a Foreign Language]. Foreign Language Education in China. 1 (2): 310.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hyman, L.M. (1993). “Register Tones and Tonal Geometry.” In The Phonology of Tone, edited by H. v.d. Hulst and K. Snider, 75108. New York: Mouton de Gruyter.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hyman, L.M. (2007). “Universals of Tone Rules: 30 Years Later.” In Tones and Tunes: Studies in Word and Sentence Prosody, edited by T. Riad and D. Gussenhoven, 134. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hyman, L.M. and K. VanBik. (2004). “Directional Rule Application and Output Problems in Hakha Lai Tone.” Language and Linguistics. 5 (4): 821861.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Jiang, L-P. (2012). Experiencing Chinese. 2nd ed. Beijing: Higher Education Press.

  • Jones, D. (1972). An Outline of English Phonetics. 9th ed. Cambridge: Heffer and Sons.

  • Jongman, A. and C. Moore. (2000). “The Role of Language Experience in Speaker and Rate Normalization Processes.” In Proceedings of the 6th International Conference on Spoken Language Processing, 62–65.

  • Jongman, A., Y. Wang, C.B. Moore, and J.A. Sereno. (2006). “Perception and Production of Mandarin Chinese Tones.” In Handbook of Chinese Psycholinguistics, edited by P. Li, L.H. Tan, E. Bates, and O. Tzeng, 209217. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Jun, S-A. (1990). “The Prosodic Structure of Korean – in Terms of Voicing.” In Proceedings of the Seventh International Conference on Korean Linguistics 7, edited by E-J. Baek, 87–104. Toronto: University of Toronto Press.

  • Jun, S-A. (1993). The Phonetics and Phonology of Korean Prosody. PhD diss., The Ohio State University.

  • Jun, S-A. (1996). The Phonetics and Phonology of Korean Prosody. New York: Garland Publishing.

  • Jun, S-A. (2005). Prosodic Typology. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

  • Kager, R. (1999). Optimality Theory. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

  • Kiriloff, C. (1969). “On the Auditory Discrimination of Tones in Mandarin.” Phonetica. 20: 6367.

  • Kubozono, H. (1999). “Mora and Syllable.” In The Handbook of Japanese Linguistics, edited by N. Tsujimura, 3161. Oxford: Blackwell.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kubozono, H. (2011). “Japanese Pitch Accent.” In The Blackwell Companion to Phonology, edited by M. Oostendorp, C.J. Ewen, E.V. Hume, and K. Rice, 28792907, Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Ladd, D.R. (2008). Intonational Phonology. 2nd ed. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

  • Lado, R. (1957). Linguistics across Cultures. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press.

  • Lado, R. (1968). Linguistics across Cultures – Applied Linguistics for Language Teachers. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press.

  • Laniran, Y. and C. Gerfen. (1997). “High Raising, Downstep and Downdrift in Igbo.” Presentation at the 71st Annual Meeting of the Linguistic Society of America, Chicago. 2–5 Jan., 1997.

  • Leather, J. (1987). “F0 Pattern Inference in the Perceptual Acquisition of Second Language Tone.” In Sound Patterns in Second Language Acquisition, edited by A. James and J. Leather, 5981. Dordrecht: Foris Publications.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Leather, J. (1990). “Perceptual and Productive Learning of Chinese Lexical Tone by Dutch and English Speakers.” In New Sounds 90: Proceedings of the Amsterdam Symposium on the Acquisition of Second Language Speech, edited by J. Leather and A. James, 305341. Amsterdam: University of Amsterdam.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Leben, W. (1973). Suprasegmental Phonology. PhD diss., Massachusetts Institute of Technology.

  • Lee, Y.S., D. Vakoch, and L. Wurm. (1996). “Tone Perception in Cantonese and Mandarin: A Cross-Linguistic Comparison.” Journal of Psycholinguistic Research. 25 (5): 527542.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Levenson, E.A. (1979). “Second Language Lexical Acquisition: Issues and Problems.” Interlanguage Studies Bulletin. 4: 147160.

  • Li, C. and S. Thompson (1977). “The Acquisition of Tone in Mandarin-Speaking Children.” Journal of Child Language. 4: 185199.

  • Liberman, M. (1975). The Intonational System of English. PhD diss., Massachusetts Institute of Technology.

  • Liberman, M. and A. Prince. (1977). “On Stress and Linguistic Rhythm.” Linguistic Inquiry, 8: 249336.

  • Lim, B-J. (2001). “The Production and Perception of Word-Level Prosody in Korean.” In IULC Working Papers, edited by C. Clopper and K. de Jong. Vol. 1.1. Indiana University.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Lin, M. and J. Yan. (1991). “Tonal Coarticulation Patterns in Quadrasyllabic Words and Phrases of Mandarin.” In Proceedings of the XIIth International Congress of Phonetic Sciences. 3: 242–45.

  • Lin, S-Y. (1993). College Chinese. Boston: Cheng and Tsui.

  • Lin, W.C.J. (1985). “Teaching Mandarin Tones to Adult English Speakers: Analysis of Difficulties and Suggested Remedies.” RELC Journal. 16 (2): 3147.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Liu, X. (2011). New Practical Chinese Reader. 2nd ed. Beijing: Beijing Language and Culture University Press.

  • Liu, Y. (2010). Communication. Tokyo: Hakusuisha (白水社).

  • Liu, Y., T-C. Yao, N-P. Bi, Y-H. Shi, and L-Y. Ge. (2009). Integrated Chinese. 3rd ed. Boston: Cheng and Tsui.

  • Lombardi, L. (2003). “Second Language Data and Constraints on Manner: Explaining Substitutions for the English Interdentals.” Second Language Research. 19 (3): 225250.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Lu, J-M. (1992). “On the Perception and Production of Mandarin Tones by Adult English-Speaking Learners.” Dissertation Abstracts International. 53(7), 2350A. University Microfilms No. 9233909.

  • Ma, J-F., Y. Su, and Y. Zhai (2005). Hanyu Kouyu Sucheng I [Short-Term Spoken Chinese]. 2nd ed. Beijing: Beijing Language and Culture University Press.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Ma, J-F., Y, Su, and Y. Zhai. (2005). Hanyu Kouyu Sucheng I. Seoul: Darakwon.

  • Major, R. (2001). Foreign Accent: The Ontogeny and Phylogeny of Second Language Phonology. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.

  • McCarthy J. (1986). OCP Effects: Gemination and Antigemination.” Linguistic Inquiry. 17: 207264.

  • McCarthy J. (2008). Doing Optimality Theory: Applying Theory to Data. Oxford: Blackwell.

  • McCarthy, J. and A. Prince (1993). Prosodic Morphology I: Constraint Interaction and Satisfaction. Technical Report. No. 3, Rutgers University Center for Cognitive Science.

  • McCarthy, J. and A. Prince (1994). “The Emergence of the Unmarked: Optimality in Prosodic Morphology.” Papers from the Annual Meeting of the North East Linguistic Society. 24: 333–79.

  • McCarthy, J. and A. Prince (1995). “Faithfulness and Reduplicative Identity.” In Papers in Optimality Theory, edited by J. Beckman, L. Dickey, and S. Urbanczyk, 249384. University of Massachusetts Occasional Papers 18. Amherst: Graduate Linguistic Student Association.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • McGinnis, S. (1996). “Tonal Distinction Errors by Beginning Chinese Language Students: A Comparative Study of American English and Japanese Native Speakers.” In Chinese Pedagogy: An Emerging Field, edited by S. McGinnis, 8191. Columbus: Foreign Language Publications.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Mei, T-L. (1977). “Tones and Tone Sandhi in 16th Century Mandarin.” Journal of Chinese Linguistics. 5: 237260.

  • Miracle, W.C. (1989). “Tone Production of American Students of Chinese: A Preliminary Acoustic Study.” Journal of the Chinese Language Teachers Association. 24 (3): 4965.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Moore, C.B. and A. Jongman. (1997). “Speaker Normalization in the Perception of Mandarin Chinese Tones.” Journal of the Acoustical Society of America. 102 (3): 18641877.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Nemser, W. (1971). “Approximative Systems of Foreign Language Learners.” International Review of Applied Linguistics in Language Teaching. 9: 115123.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Nespor, M. and I. Vogel. (1986). Prosodic Phonology. Dordrecht: Foris Publications.

  • Ning, C. (1993). Communicating in Chinese. New Haven: Far Eastern Publications / Yale University.

  • Ning, C. and J.S. Montanaro. (2012). Encounters. New Haven: Yale University Press.

  • Norman, J. (1988). Chinese. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

  • Ohala, J.J. (1978). “Production of Tone.” In Tone: A Linguistic Survey, edited by V.A. Fromkin, 339. New York: Academic Press.

  • Ohala, J.J. (1981). “The Listener as a Source of Sound Change.” In Papers from the Parasession on Language and Behavior, edited by C.S. Masek, R.A. Hendrick, and M.F. Miller, 178203. Chicago: Chicago Linguistic Society.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Palmer, A. (1969). “Thai Tone Variants and the Language Teacher.” Language Learning. 19: 287299.

  • Park, J-G. and E-H. Baek. (2007). Chinese Master (Step I). Seoul: Darakwon.

  • Pater, J. (2009). “Weighted Constraints in Generative Linguistics.” Cognitive Science. 33: 9991035.

  • Pierrehumbert, J.B. (1980). The Phonology and Phonetics of English Intonation. PhD diss., Massachusetts Institute of Technology.

  • Pierrehumbert, J.B. and M. Beckman. (1988). Japanese Tone Structure. Linguistic Inquiry Monograph 15. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

  • Pike, K. (1948). Tone Languages. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press.

  • Pinker, S. (1984). Language Learnability and Language Development. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

  • Pinker, S. (1994). The Language Instinct. London: Penguin.

  • Potisuk, S., J. Gandour, and M.P. Harper. (1997). “Contextual Variations in Trisyllabic Sequences of Thai Tones.” Phonetica. 54: 2242.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Prince, A. and P. Smolensky. (1993/2004). Optimality Theory: Constraint Interaction in Generative Grammar. Malden, MA & Oxford: Blackwell. [Revision of 1993 technical report, Rutgers University Center for Cognitive Science. Available on Rutgers Optimality Archive, ROS-537]

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Qiu, X-Y. (2009). Chinese Pronunciation Practice for Foreigners. Beijing: Higher Education Press.

  • R Core Team. (2000). R Language Definition. Vienna: R Foundation for Statistical Computing.

  • Ross, C., B-Z. He, P-C. Chen, and M. Yeh. (2010). The Routledge Course in Modern Mandarin Chinese. New York: Routledge.

  • Selinker, L. (1972). “Interlanguage.” International Review of Applied Linguistics. 10: 209231.

  • Selkirk, E. (1984). Phonology and Syntax: The Relation between Sound and Structure. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

  • Shang, X-Y. (2000). “Duiwai hanyu cihui dengji dagang jia yi ji ci shengdiao guilü de diaocha” [A Survey of the Tonal Patterns and Stress Patterns of Entries of Levels A and B in the Outline of Chinese Proficiency (Graded Vocabulary)]. Chinese Teaching in the World. 52: 4347.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Shen, X. (1989). “Toward a Register Approach in Teaching Mandarin Tones.” Journal of the Chinese Language Teachers Association. 24: 2747.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Shen, X. (1990). “Tonal Coarticulation in Mandarin.” Journal of Phonetics. 18: 281295.

  • Shen, X. (1992). “On Tone Sandhi and Tonal Coarticulation.” Acta Linguistica Hafniensia. 24: 131152.

  • Shen, X., M. Lin, and J. Yan. (1993). “F0 Turning Point as an F0 Cue to Tonal Contrast: A Case Study of Mandarin Tones 2 and 3.” Journal of the Acoustical Society of America. 93: 22412243.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Shepherd, M.A. (2003). Constraint Interactions in Spanish Phonotactics: An Optimality Theory Analysis of Syllable-Level Phenomena in the Spanish Language. MA thesis, California State University, Northridge.

  • Shi, J. (2007). “On Teaching Tone Three in Mandarin.” Journal of the Chinese Language Teachers Association. 42 (2): 110.

  • Shi, P.W. and M. Li. (1997). “Sansheng wenti yanjiu” [On the Third Tone]. In Language Studies and Teaching Chinese as a Foreign Language, edited by J.M. Zhao, 125154. Beijing: Beijing Language and Culture University Press.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Shih, C. (1987). “The Phonetics of the Chinese Tonal System.” AT&T Bell Laboratories Technical Memorandum. MH 11225.

  • Shih, C. and H. Lu. (2010). “Prosody Transfer and Suppression: Stages of Tone Acquisition.” Speech Prosody 2010 Conference Proceedings. Chicago. Accessed March 2016. http://speechprosody2010.illinois.edu/papers/100968.pdf.

  • Shih, C. and R. Sproat. (1992). “Variations of the Mandarin Rising Tone.” In Proceedings of the IRCS Workshop on Prosody in Natural Speech. 92 (37): 193–200. Philadelphia: The Institute for Research in Cognitive Science, University of Pennsylvania.

  • Smolensky, P. (1993). “Harmony, Markedness, and Phonological Activity.” Handout to talk presented at the Rutgers Optimality Workshop 1, New Brunswick, NJ.

  • So, C.K.L. (2006). Effects of L1 Prosodic Background and AV Training on Learning Mandarin Tones by Speakers of Cantonese, Japanese, and English. PhD diss., Simon Fraser University.

  • Stemple, J.C., L.E. Glaze B. Gerdeman-Klaben. (2000). Clinical Voice Pathology, Theory and Management. 3rd ed. San Diego: Singular Publishing Group.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Stragray, J.R. and D. Downs. (1993). “Differential Sensitivity for Frequency among Speakers of a Tone and a Nontone Language.” Journal of Chinese Linguistics. 21 (1): 143163.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Sun, S. (1998). The Development of a Lexical Tone Phonology in American Adult Learners of Standard Mandarin Chinese. Honolulu: University of Hawai’i Press.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Suzuki, K. (1998). A Typological Investigation of Dissimilation. PhD diss., University of Arizona.

  • Sweet, H. (1877). Handbook of Phonetics. Oxford: Clarendon Press.

  • Tai, J.H-Y. (1978). Phonological Changes in Modern Standard Chinese in the People’s Republic of China Since 1949. Office of Research, United States Information Agency, Washington, DC.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Tao, L. and L-J. Guo. (2008). “Learning Chinese Tones: A Developmental Account.” Journal of the Chinese Language Teachers Association. 43 (2): 1746.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Tesar, B. and P. Smolensky. (1998). “Learnability in Optimality Theory.” Linguistic Inquiry 29: 229268.

  • Tesar, B. and P. Smolensky. (2000). Learnability in Optimality Theory. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

  • Todo, A. (藤堂明保). (1980). Chinese Phonology. Tokyo: Koseikan.

  • Triskova, H. (2016). “De-stressed Words in Mandarin: Drawing Parallel with English.” In Integrating Chinese Linguistics Research and Language Learning and Teaching, edited by H. Tao, 121144. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Tsung, C. (1987). “Half-Third First: On the Nature of the Third Tone.” Journal of the Chinese Language Teachers Association. 22 (1): 87101.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Venditti, J. (2005). “The J_ToBI Model of Japanese Intonation.” In Prosodic Typology, edited by S.A. Jun, 172200. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Venditti, J., K. Maekawa, and M. Beckman. (2008). “Prominence Marking in the Japanese Intonation System.” In Handbook of Japanese Linguistics, edited by S. Miyagawa and M. Saito, 456512. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Villafaña, C. (2000). “Emergence of the Unmarked in Interlanguage Coda Production.” Working Papers of the George Mason University Linguistics Club. 33–48.

  • Wang, R-J. (2005). Hanyu Zhengyin Jiaocheng. Beijing: Beijing University Press.

  • Wang, X.C. (2006). “Perception of L2 Tones: L1 Lexical Tone Experience May Not Help.” In The Proceedings of the Third International Conference on Speech Prosody, edited by R. Hoffmann and H. Mixdorff, 85–88. Dresden Germany: TUD press.

  • Wang, Y., A. Jongman, and J.A. Sereno. (2001). “Dichotic Perception of Mandarin Tones by Chinese and American Listeners.” Brain and Language. 78: 332348.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Wang, Y., J.A. Sereno, A. Jongman, and J. Hirsch. (2003). “fMRI Evidence for Cortical Modification during Learning of Mandarin Lexical Tone.” Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience. 15 (7): 19.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Wang, Y., M. Spence, A. Jongman, and J. Sereno. (1999). “Training American Listeners to Perceive Mandarin Tones.” Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 106: 36493658.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Wang, Y-J. (1995). “Ye tan meiguo ren xuexi hanyu shengdiao” [On American Learners’ Tone Acquisition], Language Teaching and Research. 2: 126140.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Wang, Y-J. (1997). “Yangping de xietong fayin yu waiguoren xuexi yangping” [The Coarticulation of Tone 2 and the Acquisition of Tone 2 by Foreigners]. Language Teaching and Research. 4: 94104.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Wang, Z.J. and S.L. Feng. (2006). “Shengdiao duibifa yu Beijing hua shuangyinzu de zhongyin leixing.” [A Study of Stress Patterns in Disyllabic Words of Beijing Dialect] Yuyan Kexue [Linguistic Sciences] 5 (1): 322.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Wen, B. and F. Yan. (2015). “The Merging between the Second Tone and the Third Tone in Mandarin Acquisition by L2 Learners.” Journal of the Chinese Language Teachers Association. 50 (1): 1941.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • White, C. (1981). “Tonal Pronunciation Errors and Interference from English Intonation.” Journal of the Chinese Language Teachers Association. 16 (2): 2756.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • White, L. (2003). Second Language Acquisition and Universal Grammar. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

  • Winke, P.M. (2007). “Tuning into Tones: The Effect of L1 Background on L2 Chinese Learners’ Tonal Production.” Journal of the Chinese Language Teachers Association. 42 (3): 2155.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Wong, P.C.M. and T.K. Perrachione. (2007). “Learning Pitch Patterns in Lexical Identification by Native English-Speaking Adults.” Applied Psycholinguistics. 28: 565585.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Wu, C-H. (2011). The Evaluation of Second Language Fluency and Foreign Accent. PhD diss., University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign.

  • Wu, S-M., Y-M. Yu, Y-H. Zhang, and W-Z. Tian. (2011). Chinese Link. 2nd ed. Upper Saddle River: Prentice Hall/Pearson.

  • Xu, Y. (1994). “Production and Perception of Coarticulated Tones.” Journal of the Acoustical Society of America. 95 (4): 22402253.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Xu, Y. (1997). “Contextual Tonal Variations in Mandarin.” Journal of Phonetics. 25: 6183.

  • Xu, Y. (1998). “Consistency of Tone-Syllable Alignment across Different Syllable Structures and Speaking Rates.” Phonetica. 55: 179203.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Xu, Y. (1999). “Effects of Tone and Focus on the Formation and Alignment of F0 Contours.” Journal of Phonetics. 27: 55105.

  • Xu, Y. (2001). “Sources of Tonal Variations in Connected Speech.” Monograph series, Journal of Chinese Linguistics. 17: 131.

  • Yang, B. (2012). “The Gap between the Perception and Production of Tones by American Learners of Mandarin: An Intralingual Perspective.” Chinese as a Second Language Research. 1 (1): 3152.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Yang, B. (2015). Perception and Production of Mandarin Tones by Native Speakers and L2 Learners. Verlag Berlin Heidelberg: Springer.

  • Yang, B. and N. Yang. (2017). “Development of Disyllabic Tones in Different Learning Contexts.” International Review of Applied Linguistics in Language Teaching. Accessed 23 November 2017. doi:10.1515/iral-2016-0004.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Yang, C-S. (2011). The Acquisition of Mandarin Prosody by American Learners of Chinese as a Foreign Language (CFL). PhD diss., Ohio State University.

  • Yip, M. (1980). The Tonal Phonology of Chinese. PhD diss., Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Published 1990, New York: Garland Publishing.

  • Yip, M. (1988). “The Obligatory Contour Principle and Phonological Rules: A Loss of Identity.” Linguistic Inquiry. 19 (1): 65100.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Yip, M. (2002). Tone. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

  • Young-Scholten, M. (1994). “On Positive Evidence and Ultimate Attainment in L2 Phonology.” Second Language Research. 10 (3): 193214.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Yue-Hashimoto, A.O.-K. (1980). “Word Play in Language Acquisition: A Mandarin Case.” Journal of Chinese Linguistics. 8 (2): 181204.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Zhang, H. (2007). A Phonological Study of Second Language Acquisition of Mandarin Chinese Tones. MA thesis, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill.

  • Zhang, H. (2010). “Phonological Universals and Tone Acquisition.” Journal of the Chinese Language Teachers Association. 45 (1): 3965.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Zhang, H. (2013). The Second Language Acquisition of Mandarin Chinese Tones by English, Japanese, and Korean Speakers. PhD diss., University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill.

  • Zhang, H. (2014). “The Third Tone: Allophones, Sandhi Rules, and Pedagogy.” Journal of the Chinese Language Teachers Association. 49 (1): 117145.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Zhang, H. (2015). “Positional Effects in Second Language Chinese Tones.” Journal of Chinese Language Teaching. 12 (2): 130.

  • Zhang, H. (2016a). “Dissimilation in the Second Language Acquisition of Mandarin Chinese Tones.” Second Language Research. 32 (3): 427451.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Zhang, H. (2016b). “The Effect of Theoretical Assumptions on Pedagogical Methods: A Case Study of Second Language Chinese Tones.” International Journal of Applied Linguistics. 27 (2): 363382.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Zhang, H. (2016c). “Focal Prominence Marking in Second Language Chinese Tones.” In Integrating Chinese Linguistics Research and Language Learning and Teaching, edited by H. Tao, 195214. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Zhang, H. (2018). “Current Trends in Research of Chinese Sound Acquisition.” In The Routledge Handbook of Chinese Second Language Acquisition, edited by C. Ke, 217233, Routledge: New York.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Zhang, H.M. and Y.X. Yin. (2012). “Youxuanlun de shiyufei: xiandai yinxixue yanjiu de ruogan fansi” [Pros and Cons of Optimality Theory: Some Thoughts on Phonological Issues.] Zhongguo Yuwen [Studies of the Chinese Language] 6: 483499.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Zhang, J. (2002). The Effects of Duration and Sonority on Contour Tone Distribution – A Typological Survey and Formal Analysis. New York: Routledge.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Zhang, J. (2004). “The Role of Contrast-Specific and Language-Specific Phonetics in Contour Tone Distribution.” In Phonetically Based Phonology, edited by Bruce Hayes, Robert Kirchner, and Donca Steriade, 157190. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Zhang, J. (2009). “Contour Tone Distribution is Not an Artifact of Tonal Melody Mapping.” Studies in the Linguistic Sciences. 33 (1/2): 73132.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Zhang, J. and Y-W. Lai. (2010). “Testing the Role of Phonetic Knowledge in Mandarin Tone Sandhi.” Phonology. 27 (1): 153201.

  • Zhang, P. (2015). Ni Wo Ta. Boston: Cengage Learning.

  • Zhao, J-M. (1988). “Cong yixie shengdiao yuyan de shengdiao shuodao hanyu shengdiao” [Talking about Tone in Chinese from the Perspective of Some Tone Languages]. Selected Papers from the Second International Symposium on Teaching Chinese as a Foreign Language, 171181. Beijing: Beijing Language Institute.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Zhao, J-M. and M-Z. Cheng. (1997). “Jichu hanyu yuyin jiaoxue de ruogan wenti” [Several Issues in Teaching the Mandarin Sound System]. In Yuyin yanjiu yu duiwai hanyu jiaoxue [Phonetic Study and Chinese Language Teaching], edited by J-M. Zhao and Z-M. Meng, 276292. Beijing: Beijing Language and Culture University Press.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Zhu, H. and B. Dodd (2000). “The Phonological Acquisition of Putonghua (Modern Standard Chinese).” Journal of Child Language. 27: 342.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Zoll, C. (2004). “Positional Asymmetries and Licensing in Optimality Theory,” 343364. Accessed May 2013. http://roa.rutgers.edu/files/282-0998/roa-282-zoll-4.pdf.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation

Metrics

All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 168 33 9
Full Text Views 104 2 1
PDF Views & Downloads 20 3 2