Index

Accent 19, 22, 27–30, 38, 101
Accentual Phrase 28–30, 75n
AP
Accuracy rate 17, 36, 38, 48–52, 54, 57, 59, 74–77, 80, 90, 103, 106
Acoustic similarity 33–34, 41, 83, 106
ACTFL (American Council on the Teaching of Foreign Languages) 92
Allophone 9–10, 24, 34, 36, 83–87, 94, 109–110, 114–115
Anticipatory coarticulation 8, 31, 43–45, 47–50, 52–59
Anticipatory effect
Anticipatory effect 9, 43–47, 50–52, 54–55, 58n
AP 28–30
Accentual phrase
Arytenoid cartilage 3
Autosegmental phonology 5, 66
Base form 6, 10–11, 85, 105–109, 110, 111, 119, 123
Carryover coarticulation 8–9, 43, 45, 58 Carryover effect
Carryover effect 9, 37, 45, 58n Anticipatory coarticulation
Citation form 4, 6, 8, 11–12, 66
Coarticulation 8–9, 24, 31, 43–45, 47–50, 52–59, 86, 129
Component tone 6, 47–48, 76 Constituent tone
Consonant 1–2, 4, 8, 17–18, 43, 54, 65, 116
Constituent tone 66–67, 76 Component tone
Constraint 9, 23–24, 34, 43, 58–59, 61–70, 77–82, 105, 112 Sub-constraint
Contextual factor 9
Contextual variation 8
*CONTOUR 62, 69–70, 80
Contrastive feature 1
Correctness judgment 39–41
Cricoid cartilage 3
Dep(T) 63
Dipping 4, 10–11, 17–19, 21, 32–33, 41, 84, 86, 93, 102, 105–106, 111, 119, 124–125, 130
Dissimilation 9, 24, 34, 45, 58, 60, 65–66, 75, 77, 81
Duration 5–6, 27, 29, 41, 95
Error rate 33–35, 41, 49, 68–69, 71, 74–76, 77n, 78, 86–87, 93–101, 103, 105, 108, 110
Error type 49, 55, 57, 59, 94, 100
Faith 63–64, 66–70, 78–81 Faithfulness constraint
Faithfulness constraint 62–63, 65, 67n, 70 FAITH
*FALL 62–64, 68, 74, 80–82
Falling tone 17, 31–34, 40, 49, 59, 62–64, 81, 85, 87, 89, 94, 110
Feature geometry 21, 113
First language acquisition 17, 107 L1 acquisition
Focal prominence 14, 27, 29, 122
Foot 27–28
Full-T3 9–11, 32–34, 41, 84–87, 89–90, 92–95, 97–110, 113, 119
Fundamental frequency 3, 13, 29
F0 3, 5, 8, 13–14, 16, 18, 39, 41, 45–48, 53–55
Half-T3 9–11, 33–35, 40–41, 84–87, 89–110, 113, 119, 122–123, 125–126
Half-T3 Rule 85–87, 90–91, 95–96, 98, 101, 105, 108–109 Half-T3 Sandhi
Half-T3 Sandhi 10–11, 119 Half-T3 Rule
Hertz (Hz) 3, 7, 39, 53–54
Ident(T) 63
Identical tone combination 69–70, 113 Identical tone sequence; ITC
Identical tone sequence 33–34, 36, 60, 65, 67, 69–71, 76, 79, 81 Identical tone Combination; ITC
Input 24, 62–65, 68, 78–79
Interlanguage 20, 23–24, 26, 60–61, 68, 70, 77–79, 81, 112
Intermediate Phrase 27 ip, Phonological Phrase
International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) 1n
Intonation 1–2, 8, 11, 13–14, 21, 26–32, 37, 69–70, 75n, 79, 101, 105, 114, 123, 130
Intonation phrase 27–28 IP
Inventory 4, 17, 40, 63, 68, 116, 118–120
ip 27 Intermediate Phrase
IP 27–28 Intonation phrase
ITC 70–73, 75 Identical tone combination; Identical tone sequence
Japanese 19, 22–23, 26–30, 32, 38, 40, 44, 47, 49, 52, 54, 56–58, 65, 68–70, 72–73, 75, 77, 81, 90, 95–96, 100–101, 103, 110, 117
Korean 22–23, 26–27, 29–30, 32, 38, 40, 44, 47, 49, 52, 54, 56–58, 68–70, 73, 75, 77, 81, 90, 96, 100–101, 103, 107, 110, 117
Laryngeal feature 30, 66
Laryngeal muscle 108
*LEVEL 62–64, 68, 70, 74, 80–82
L1 acquisition 17, 34, 60–61, 65, 107 First language acquisition
Markedness constraint 62–65, 69, 78, 81
Max(T) 63
Mental representation 2, 112, 114–115, 125
Mora 27–29
Musical ability 15–16 Musical experience
Musical experience 16 Musical ability
Neutral tone 6–7, 10, 13, 37, 84–85, 88–89, 94–95, 105, 110, 118–119, 122–123, 128–130 qingsheng
NITC 70–73 Nonidentical Tone Combination
Nontonal language 1, 6, 14, 16, 19, 22, 26–27, 29, 32, 113
Nonidentical Tone Combination 70 NITC
Normalization 18
Obligatory Contour Principle 24, 34, 60, 66, 112 OCP
OCP 24, 34, 60–62, 65–82, 112 Obligatory Contour Principle
OCP(CONSTTONE) 67, 76–77
OCP(CONTOUR) 67, 69–71, 78–82
OCP(H) 67, 70–71, 77–81
OCP(L) 67–68, 70–71, 75, 78, 80–81
OCP(LEVEL) 67, 80
OCP(LH) 67, 78–80, 82
OCP(WHOLETONE) 67–68, 76–77, 81
Offset 45, 48, 53, 55, 58
Onset 31, 41, 44–45, 47–48, 50, 52–59, 113, 129
Optimality Theory 23, 34, 61–62 OT
OT 23–24, 61–66, 70, 76, 82 Optimality Theory
Output 14, 62–63, 65, 68, 79
Particle 6, 37–38, 40, 88–89, 128
Pedagogical practice 82, 111–112
Pedagogy 85, 112
Perception 15–19, 22, 30–31, 34, 41, 83, 86, 88, 90, 92–95, 97, 105, 110, 112
Phoneme 2, 10, 16, 84–86, 90, 115
Phonetics 2, 21, 47, 53, 120
Phonological categorization 7
Phonological knowledge 3, 7
Phonological Phrase 27–28 PhP
Phonological representation 3, 6–8, 114
Phonological universal 22–23, 34, 60–61, 82
Phonology 2, 5, 13, 15, 20, 23, 26, 27, 34, 61, 64, 66, 77–81, 105, 108, 113–114
PhP 28, 30 Phonological Phrase
Pinyin 4, 37–38, 84–85, 88, 90, 92, 114–115, 121
Pitch accent 28–29, 38, 101
Pitch range 4, 7–8, 14, 21, 40, 53, 122, 124, 128, 130
Pitch target 7, 32, 47, 62, 113, 125, 128
Pitch value 4, 10, 39–41, 47, 59, 84, 94, 118–119, 128
Praat 39–41
Pre-T3 Sandhi 9–12, 18, 85–87, 90–91, 95–96, 98, 101, 105–109, 122–123
Production 2–3, 9, 15, 19–24, 30–31, 33–36, 39–41, 44, 47–49, 53–57, 59, 61, 69–76, 79, 82–83, 86–95, 97–106, 109–110, 112–113, 124
Prominence marking 27–28, 122
Prosodic Structure 21, 23, 26–29, 32–33, 43, 58–59
Prosody 14, 16, 21–23, 26–27, 69, 112, 122
Qingsheng 6 Neutral tone
Raised-T3 9–10, 12, 35, 40–41, 66, 71, 73, 75, 80, 84–87, 89–91, 93, 95–98, 101, 104–106, 108, 110, 125–127
Ranking 52–54, 62–71, 78–81, 95, 97–99
Reduplicated adjective 12, 13, 127
Reduplicated form 6
Register 4–6, 9, 19, 21, 33, 40, 94, 113, 118–119
Reliability 40, 92
Re-ranking 24, 61, 65, 69, 78–80, 82
*RISE 62–65, 67–68, 74, 80–81
Rising tone 4, 10, 12, 40, 44, 49, 59, 62–64, 66, 78, 81, 84, 89, 101, 106, 125, 127
Romanization 4, 114–115
Sandhi 2, 8–13, 15, 18, 34, 36, 65–67, 69–70, 75, 83–91, 95–96, 98, 101, 105–110, 116, 119, 122–123, 125–127
Stress 8, 11, 13, 19, 21–22, 27–29, 122–123, 129–130
Stress accent 19, 22, 27
Sub-constraint 24, 67, 77, 79–81 Constraint
Suprasegmental element 14
Suprasegmental feature 14
Surface form 6, 12, 66, 69, 89
Syllable structure 2, 23, 61, 65
TBU 5, 29, 33, 62–63, 69 Tone-bearing unit
TETU 79 The Emergence of the Unmarked
The Emergence of the Unmarked 79 TETU
Thyroid cartilage 3
TMS 24, 34, 60–64, 68–70, 73–75, 80–82, 87, 97–99, 105, 112 Tonal Markedness Scale
Tonal grammar 23–24, 61, 63–64, 65n, 67–68, 112
Tonal language 1–3, 7–8, 15–16, 18–19, 26, 29, 39, 43–44, 47, 58–59, 63–64, 92, 124 Tone language
Tonal Markedness Scale 24, 34, 58, 60, 62–63, 74, 77, 79, 87, 95, 105, 112 TMS
Tone-bearing unitTBU 5, 29, 62
Tone language 9, 15, 26, 44, 63–64, 66 Tonal language
Transfer 21–23, 26, 30–32, 60, 77, 82, 101, 105, 110, 112
Turning point 41
T3 sandhi 9–10, 12–13, 15, 18, 34, 65–67, 69, 75, 84–85, 87–90, 95, 101, 105–106, 123, 125–127 Pre-T3 Sandhi; Half-T3 Sandhi; Half-T3 Rule
T4 Sandhi 34, 66, 127
UG 60–61 Universal Grammar
Underlying form 6, 10, 68, 82–85, 107–108, 110 Base form
Universal Grammar 23, 60–61, 87 UG
Utterance-final 10–11, 21, 31, 84, 91, 93, 102–104, 108, 110, 124
Variation 1, 8–9, 15, 31, 47, 52–53, 58, 61, 80, 83–84, 86, 121
Voicing 1, 8
Vocal fold 1, 3, 7, 128
Vowel 1–2, 4, 8, 17–18, 43, 116, 124
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