ContentsPreface XIAcknowledgements XIIIList of Figures XIVList of Abbreviations/Terms XVIntroduction 1Clinical TrialsWho is Responsible for Human Subjects (When Experiments Travel)? 7Introduction 7Experimentation with Human Subjects: A Selective Rehash 9Burroughs Wellcome (Now GlaxoSmithKline) Experiments 11Tuskegee Syphilis Study (1932–1972) 12Nuremberg Experiments 12Radiation Experiments 13Mustard Gas Experiments 13Thalidomide 14Henry Beecher Report 14Jewish Chronic Disease Hospital and Willowbrook Tests 15Emergence of Research Ethics Codes 16Outsourcing of Clinical Trials 21Trovan Test Case 25Concluding Thoughts 29Transgenic Mosquitoes Project as Model 34Introduction 34Some Preliminaries 35The GMM Model 38GMM Model and Biodiversity 44Environmental Ethics and Bioethics 49Concluding Thoughts 57ResponsibilityBeing Responsible 63Introduction 63Understanding Responsibility 65Responsibility as a Virtue 73Corporate Responsibility 79Concluding Thoughts 93PersonhoodRe-Conceiving Responsibility: A Role For Personhood in African Thought 99Introduction 99The ‘African Man’ 103African vs. Euro-American Personhood 110African Personhood and Bioethics 115Summary 120The Die is Cast 121Concluding Thoughts 127Study Limitations/Directions for Future Studies 134Bibiliography 137Index 149

Clinical Trials and the African Person

A Quest to Re-Conceptualize Responsibility