Index

Note: Page numbers in italic type indicate illustrations.

Abe no Seimei21Abe no Yoshihira26, 35, 41–42Amaterasu Ōmikami and mirrorsxvi, 38–-39 connection to the imperial family157–158 role in the Daijōsai ritual155 role in the Niinamesai ritual159–160Amida (Sk. Amitābha) Amida Triad at Hōryūji143, 163, 165–166, 167 image of placed in a gorintō208 role in the performance of keka153, 173, 176Annen58–67, 69 and the Gushi nintai sanshō himitsu hōshū54–56, 57, 65, 69, 71, 72, 82, 83, 84 as a disciple of Ennin58, 59n13, 59–60 as a disciple of Henjō61, 68–69 attempted study in China60–61 disciples of54n2. See also Genjō; Son’iAntoku, EmperorSee TokihitoAsai family373–374, 386n65 family crest391 family tree374Asai sanshimai (three Asai sisters)369n2See also Jōkō-in; Sūgen-in; Yodo-donoAsai Masashige386n65Asai Nagamasa373–374, 386n65 portrait of392, 393Asai Sakuan374, 386n65, 395–396Asai Sukemasa395Atsuhito, Prince. See DaigoBaidō KunimasaSaigoku, Bandō, Chichibu hyakuban Kannon reigenki (Record of one hundred miraculous Kannon from the Saigoku, Bandō, Chichibu pilgrimages), art237See also Saigoku pilgrimage routebirth rituals after-care rituals127–129 early pregnancy rituals94–95 fertility rituals56, 62, 64, 71–84Kōgū osan tōjitsu shidai. See medicine and health late pregnancy rituals100–104 labor rituals104–120 maternity sash ceremony (chakutai no gi)96–99 newborn rituals123–127Osan buruiki. See medicine and healthOsan oinori mokuroku. See medicine and health placenta disposal rituals104, 105, 114, 121, 128 politics of130–132 post-labor rituals120–122 performed by ajari (esoteric Buddhist masters)113, 126 performed by genja (practitioners who specialize in spirit possession)110, 113, 119 Ususama ritual (ususama hō) to have a baby boy103See also Annen; ‘Gushi nintai sanshō himitsu hōshū’; Taira no TokushiBishamonten (also known as Tamonten) figure at Hōryūji142, 143, 145, 163, 164, 177 role in Kichijō keka166–167, 169–170, 172, 173, 174, 176 pairing with Kichijōten150, 162–163See also Four Heavenly KingsBōkaku involvement in the birth rituals for Prince Tokihito103n50, 110, 126, 127See also birth rituals, performed by genjaBuddhism esoterism58–61, 66–67 reception in Japan22, 154–157 relic veneration in182, 184, 185–186, 203, 206–207, 208, 209, 213–214 women and204, 211, 221–222. See also dharma lineageBuddhist image-making and adornment (shōgon)167, 184, 358–359 for birth rituals99, 102, 117–119 for the Golden Hall at Hōryūji165–166childbirth pollution from91, 101, 104, 122, 126–127, 133See also birth ritualsChōtokuin (temple)321–322, 336 presentation of Mugai Nyodai’s kesa to Shinnyoji by298, 320See also Shōkokujicloth bast fiber37 donations to temples and convents (general)354, 358, 365 donations to temples and convents (curtains)343, 349, 354, 356–357, 360, 365 ritual uses of curtains30, 38, 105, 108, 120, 358–365See also ‘hibutsu’; ‘kesa’conventsbikuni gosho (nun’s palaces) system278 established by the ladies-in-waiting of Jōkō-in 387–388 Five Mountain Convent (Amagozan/Amadera Gozan) system270, 278, 313–314kokubunniji (state-sponsored nunneries)148See also Daishōji; Hōkyōji; Hōjiin; KeiaijiDaigo, Emperor69, 70–71Daigoji (temple)208, 210, 213 Sanbōin sub-temple of206, 213See also Enkōin; Shunjōbō Chōgen; ‘Sonshō darani hō’Daijōsai (Great Thanksgiving) ritual155–156, 159–160, 161See also ‘kami’ beliefs; Kōken-ShōtokuDaishōji (convent)13, 269, 276, 277, 278, 281onki honoring Mugai Nyodai held at283, 287, 289, 291, 294, 298, 299, 300 portrait of Mugai Nyodai at, inscribed by Taikyo Kenrei284, 285, 297See also convents; Mugai Nyodaideath pollution from186 taboos against mourning45–46, 199See also funerary ritualsdharma lineage and imperial lineage202–203, 209–210 and women275 of the Rinzai school270, 291, 304–305See also Keiaiji, lineage of abbessesDōji kyō (Sutra of Child Attendants)98n31 and birth rituals65, 97dokujin (earth god)23, 31–33, 45, 47See also ‘kami’ beliefsDōkyō155, 157, 158, 161Eiga monogatari (A Tale of Flowering Fortunes)350Emperor Yu42n65See also house-moving rituals, spirit pacificationEmishi tribesSee funerary ritualsEnkōin182, 197 burial of gōrinto at183–187, 203, 210Ennin59–60Nittō guhō junrei kōki (Records of pilgrimage in search of the Dharma upon entering the Tang kingdom)59n14 transmission of the rite of āveśa (Abisha hō)110n64En’yū, Emperor343, 349 pilgrimage to Ishiyamadera depicted in the Ishiyamadera engi e353, 357, 358five elements (gogyō)xi, 22, 29–30, 31, 33, 187–188See also ‘gorintō’; ‘onmyōdō’Four Heavenly Kings (Shitennō)141n2 figures at Hōryūji141, 143, 163, 164-–165, 167, 177 role in Kichijō keka153, 162Fujiwara line of regents (sekkanke)68, 84, 131–132 funerary rituals of199Fujiwara no Akirakeiko (Meishi)67, 68Fujiwara no Kenshi (Katako)182–215 birth of Prince Atsufumi210 birth of Prince Taruhito210 burial at Enkōin185, 197–198, 201–203, 213gorintō reliquary of183–187, 184 memorial halls dedicated to202Fujiwara no Kuniyoshi’s wife pilgrimage to Ishiyamadera depicted in the Ishiyamadera engi e348n15, 364Fujiwara no Michinaga and Higashisanjō-in351, 355 and the Fujiwara line of regents202 and ritual uses of curtains360 funerary rituals for the female relatives of198–200 in the Eiga monogatari350Midō-kanpaku-ki23, 35 move to the Higashi Sanjō Palace25n11, 26, 46Fujiwara no Michitsuna’s mother acts of pilgrimage227, 348n15 involvement in house moving rituals48n74Fujiwara no Morozane and Fujiwara no Kenshi197, 204, 208 and Rinshi200, 204 move to the Kazan’in residence. See house-moving ritualsFujiwara no Mototsune69 and the Gushi nintai sanshō himitsu hōshū70–71Fujiwara no MunekoSee Tōin-no-tsuboneFujiwara no Norimichi199Fujiwara no Onshi (Yasuko)69, 70–71, 75, 84 birth of Prince Yasuakira70Fujiwara no Sadako (also known as Imabayashi no Sadako)314–315Fujiwara no Sanesuke move to the Ono no Miya Palace26, 41–43, 46–47Fujiwara no SenshiSee Higashisanjō-inFujiwara no TadachikaSee Nakayama TadachikaFujiwara no Tadazane200–201Chūgaishō [diary]198Fujiwara no Tokihira69, 70–71Fujiwara no Yoshifusa67–68, 71funerary rituals burials of women198–205 cremation186–188, 197, 199–200, 371, 376gyakushu (death rituals before you die)6, 321, 371, 373, 385, 386–388, 396 internment of bones inside statues and altars183, 201, 204–205, 210 of the northeastern Emishi tribes214onki (memorial ceremonies). See Daishōji; Hōkyōji; Hōjiin; Shinnyoji; ShōkenjiSee also ‘gorintō’Fushimi, Emperor patronage of Ishiyamadera346n12Gakuin Ekatsu (also known as Busui Seizoku Kokushi)kesa associated with320–322Genjō54n2, 66n38Genpei War92n13Gettei MuninSee Keiaiji, lineage of abbessesGien187, 192, 205Daigoji shin’yōroku192–198, 195, 196Gihan186, 208, 213 and the Sonshō butchō shuhō ritual206 relationship with Hanjun210–211Godaigo, Emperor255, 366 politics at the court of344–346 rebellion against the Kamakura shogunate346gogyōSee five elementsGolden Light Sutra, the King of Sutras (Konkōmyō saishōōokyo)146, 147–150 during the Shushōe New Year service167, 170, 174 function in Kichijō keka154, 156, 157, 161–162, 164, 175 placement of Buddha figures at Hōryūji and165, 166, 167, 176See also GosaieGomizunoo, Emperor and Shinnyoji279goō hōin (paper talismans)9, 170, 172, 175, 175gorintō (five-elements pagoda)183–185, 187–191, 205–215 and Buddha relics182, 185, 187, 208 and the Sonshō darani hō183–184 bronze gorintō of Jōdoji191, 193 gilt bronze gorintō of Konomiya Shrine184, 191, 192 in the Goji jōshin zu190 in Kakuban’s Gorin kuji hisshaku189, 191, 205–206 interment under186–187, 188, 208–210 origin of191, 206–207. See also Gihan; Hanjun rock crystal gorintō of Amidaji191, 193 stone gorintō at Chūsonji205 triangular gorintō shape205–207, 208See also Fujiwara no Kenshi; Shunjōbō ChōgenGosaie (Misaie) New Year ritual162–163, 166, 176n93See also ‘Kichijō keka’Goshirakawa, Emperor84, 92, 131 commissioning of the Hikohohodemi-no-mikoto emaki [illustrated handscroll]122 conflict with Taira no Kiyomori94, 133 involvement in the birth rituals for Prince Tokihito105, 110–112, 130n125See also ‘insei’ eraGushi nintai sanshō himitsu hōshū (Collection of Secret Methods on Seeking Offspring, Pregnancy, and Childbirth)53–85 and the cult of Kariteimo54, 57, 77–84 birth rituals discussed in55–56 female infertility discussed in62–63, 64, 71–77 pregnancy complications discussed in65 translations of Buddhist scriptures contained in56, 62–64, 72–74gyakushuSee funerary ritualsHakuin EkakuOniazami (Wild Thistles)292 portrait of Chiyono [Mugai Nyodai]292, 293 visits to Imperial convents292, 292n59–60See also Mugai NyodaiHanjun213 and the Sonshō butchō shuhō ritual207 relationship with Gihan210–211haraobi (protective sash for pregnancy) at Nakayamadera257–258, 259, 260 at Suitengū Shrine258Hasedera (temple) pilgrimage to227, 359Hatsu-hime376, 384, 385, 395Heike monogatari (Tale of the Heike)90n6, 93, 106–107, 112Heike monogatari emaki (Illustrated handscrolls of the Tale of the Heike)106, 107Heike nōkyō [Heike Lotus Sutra]211–212hibutsu (secret icons)228 at Ishiyamadera347, 362Higashisanjō-in343–344, 345, 349–351 pilgrimage to Ishiyamadera353–358, 356, 359–361, 360, 362, 365–366Hikohohodemi-no-mikoto emaki (Illustrated handscrolls of Prince Hikohohodemi)122, 123Hindu deities in Japan147Hino Tomiko383See also portraitureHoke kyō (The Lotus Sutra)117, 147Hokkeji (convent)154, 249–250Hōkyōji (convent)269, 271, 276–278, 279, 281kesa transmission document preserved at309, 310. See also Keiaiji, lineage of abbessesonki honoring Mugai Nyodai held at283, 287, 294, 298, 300 portrait of Mugai Nyodai, inscribed by Taikyo Kenrei, at283–287, 286 Seizan (alternate name of)283n35See also convents; Tokugon RihōHōjiin (convent)269, 310onki honoring Mugai Nyodai held at299n76, 300 portrait sculpture of Mugai Nyodai at271, 272, 279, 281, 283, 284See also convents; KeiaijiHorikawa, Emperor182, 197, 201, 203, 205, 215 birth rituals for121n99 burial of208–211Hōryūji (temple)141 exposition of the Golden Light Sutra at167, 170 founding by Prince Shōtoku176–177Kichijō keka performances at146, 163–167, 168–169, 175, 176, 177 list of icons in the Kondō nikki (Diary of the Golden Hall)164–166 Shushōe New Year services at167–175 See also Kichijō kekaHosshōji (temple) founding by Emperor Shirakawa202, 203–204Hosshōji (temple) earliest surviving representation of a gorintō at205house-moving rituals (shintaku ishi)21–22, 24–49 Buddhist participation in46–47 house-protecting talismans26–27, 47 Kamo no Michihira, house-moving order (ishi sahō kamon) for Fujiwara no Morozane27–47, 28 participation of women in30, 32, 38–41, 48–49 spirit pacification ritual (henbai)41–43 use of horse tack in36–37 use of oxen in31–32Ikuhoōmon-in (Princess Teishi) burial of199, 204insei era (rule of the retired emperors)112n70, 202–203, 211See also Goshirakawa; UdaIse ShrineSee ‘kami’ beliefs, NiinamesaiIshiyamadera (temple)343, 366 Nyoirin Kannon of351–352, 361–364 pilgrimage to227, 345, 347–349, 351, 353–358Ishiyamadera engi e (Illustrated legends of Ishiyamadera)343–366, 356, 357, 360, 362, 363 and the Tōin family344–347 copy by Tani Bunchō357Itsukushima ShrineHeike nōkyō offered at212 rituals for Taira no Tokushi’s pregnancy performed at94–95, 106, 130Jianzhen (Jp. Ganjin) monastic rules for kesa by333JienGukanshō203, 208, 350–351JikokutenSee Four Heavenly KingsJitsuzen involvement in the birth rituals for Prince Tokihito95, 110, 126, 127See also birth rituals, performed by genjaJōkō-in (also known as Hatsu)369, 373–376, 384–385, 386–391, 397 ladies-in-waiting of387–388 portrait of370, 376–380, 388–389, 391, 394–395, 396See also Asai family; Kyōgoku family; portraitureJōkōji (temple)371, 385, 386–388 founding and construction of375–376 portrait of Jōkō-in at369n1, 377–378, 379JōnenGyōrinshō (Compendium on walking in the forest)65, 82Jōsaimon-in involvement in the birth rituals for Prince Tokihito129Junnin, Emperor154, 155Kakukai involvement in the birth rituals for Prince Tokihito108–110, 115, 117n81Kakuzei involvement in the birth rituals for Prince Tokihito114n77, 117n81kamadogami (cooking stove god)23, 34–36, 44–45kami beliefs23, 30, 37, 44–47, 158–159 and mirrors38–39 household kami (yakatsukami/takushin or iegami)44–45, 46 Kannamesai (festival of the deities’ tasting)159Kichijō keka and142, 160–161 Niinamesai (festival of the new [crop] tasting)159–160See also ‘dokujin’; ‘kamadogami’Kanimanji (temple)236, 238See also MimurotojiKannon (Sk. Avalokiteśvara, Ch. Guanyin) and birth rituals64, 68, 95 and women351–352 figure at the Yumedono Hall, Hōryūji242 gendered identity of248–251 Gyoran Kannon (Fish-Basket Kannon)248, 251 Jibo Kannon (Compassionate Mother Kannon)251 Jūichimen Kannon (Eleven-Headed Kannon)153 Maria Kannon (Mary)251 six manifestations of (roku kannon)102See also ‘Kannon pilgrimage’; ‘Saigoku pilgrimage route’Kannon gyō (The Kannon Sutra)117, 225–226, 300KannonjiSee KannonshōjiKannon pilgrimage226–229 Gyoranji (temple)251 Ōura Kannondō (temple)258 Nichienji (temple)224 thirty-three-stop routes226n10, 227See also Saigoku pilgrimage routeKannon reigenki (Chronicle of Kannon miracles) [woodblock print series]222, 260 Kannonshōji print244–247, 246 Mimurotoji print233–237, 235 Okadera print230–231, 232 production of233n25Kannon reijōki zue (Illustrated record of sacred Kannon places) [illustrated handscroll]224–225 Mimurotoji section242–243, 244 Okadera section229–230, 230Kannonshōji/Kannonji (temple)221, 244–248, 260See also ‘Kannon reigenki’Karakumon-in portrait of383Karin Egon335See also Keiaiji, lineage of abbessesKariteimo (Sk. Hārītī)54, 57, 98n31 as depicted in the Kakuzensho79, 82–83 Kishimo (alternate name)11, 54 role in fertility rituals77–84 role in maternity sash ceremony98–99kechien (formation of karmic bonds with a Buddhist deity)See ‘ofuda’Keiaiji (convent)308–309 and the Five Mountain Convent system335 connection to Daishōji and Hōkyōji276–278, 290 destroyed in the Ōnin wars271, 309 founding by Mugai Nyodai270, 304, 307 lineage of abbesses309–316 transfer of a portrait sculpture of Mugai Nyodai to Hōjiin271 Wuxue Zuyuan and334See also Mugai Nyodai, transmission of Nyodai’s kesakeka150–154See also ‘Kichijō keka’Kenkaku involvement in the birth rituals for Prince Tokihito96–97Kenreimon-inSee Taira no TokushiKenshōin (sub-temple of Keiaiji) and the kesa of Mugai Nyodai 314, 316, 320, 335–336kesa and investiture rituals308–309, 316–318 fabric patterns and weaves284, 321, 322, 323–330, 328, 329, 330, 331, 333, 334, 335 depicted in portraits279, 283, 284, 294, 297, 369 displayed during onki298 nine-panel278, 305, 320–321, 321, 334–337rakusu (five-panel)327, 378n38 seven-panel289, 321 dating of327, 329–330 twenty-five panel278, 332–333, 333See also Mugai NyodaiKichijō keka141–177 at Hōryūji146, 163–176 at Tōdaiji154 at Yakushiji146 during the Shushōe New Year service167–176 earliest performance of154, 156–158 performances recorded in the Shoku Nihongi154–158, 161See also ‘Golden Light Sutra’; Kichijōten; Kōken-ShōtokuKichijōten (Kisshōten)142, 146, 147–150 figures at Hōryūji143, 144, 151, 163, 164, 166 figure at Yakushiji150, 152 pairing with Bishamonten150, 162–163 role in Shushōe New Year service167, 169–170, 174, 175–176See also Hindu deities in Japan, ‘Kichijō keka’Kōdai-in (also known as Nene) portrait of377, 380, 384, 392–393, 397Kōgyoku, Emperor performance of keka under153, 158 ruled as Saimei, Emperor3Kōhō Keishū335See also Keiaiji, lineage of abbessesKōhō Kennichi308n13 also known as Bukkoku Kokushi277kesa associated with327 Mudai Nyodai’s letters to277, 308, 315 portrait sculpture of288See also Musō SosekiKōken-Shōtoku, Emperor142, 154–155, 157 embrace of Buddhism155–156 establishment of the Kichijō keka ritual154, 156–158, 161 famine during the reign of160KōmokutenSee Four Heavenly KingsKōmyō, Empress154, 250Kona-hime384–385, 391, 395Kōnin, Emperor157, 158, 161, 241Koretaka, Prince67KudokutenSee KichijōtenKūkai as depicted in the Kannon reijōki zue229–230, 230, 231See also OkaderaKyōgoku family394–395 family tree374 memorial temple (Seiryūji)375See also Asai familyKyōgoku Tadataka384–385, 386–387, 394–395Kyōgoku Takatsugu371, 374–375 portrait of378Kyōgoku TatsukoSee Matsu no MaruKyōmuro EshōSee Keiaiji, lineage of abbessesLiji (Book of Rites)128Madenokōji Jishō309, 316–318, 336See also KeiaijiMadenokōji Jishun316Madenokōji Tokifusa316, 317–318, 336mani jewel (hōju)184–185, 207–208, 211 becoming the mani jewel in death208 conflation with the jewel of the Japanese imperial regalia214–215 rituals performed to ensure safe childbirth352Mantei Ōga (also known as Hattori Ōga)Saigoku, Bandō, Chichibu hyakuban Kannon reigenki (Record of one hundred miraculous Kannon from the Saigoku, Bandō, Chichibu pilgrimages), text237Matsu no Maru374n16 portrait of380, 382, 392–393medicine and health Āyurveda74–76 causes of illness25, 32–33, 35, 45Kōgū osan tōjitsu shidai (Procedures during the Day of the Royal Consort’s Labor)55, 77n66 medical manuals55–56, 67n40, 120Osan buruiki (Miscellaneous Records of Royal Childbirths)56, 77n66Osan oinori mokuroku (List of rituals for royal birth)55, 77n66, 83, 255senshōshi herbal medicine97 Tanba no YasuyoriIshinpō, (Essentials of Medicine), 55, 56n6, 72, 75n58, 89, 120See also ‘Gushi nintai sanshō himitsu hōshū’Meiji, Emperor, birth of257, 260Mieidō fire at192–194See also ‘gorintō’Mimurotoji (temple)221, 233–243, 260See also ‘Kannon reigenki’; ‘Kannon reijōki zue’Minamoto no TamenoriSanbō ekotoba (Illustrated account of the three jewels)162–163See also Gosaiemirrorsxvi–xvii, 38–40, 39 in funerary rituals39 in house-moving rituals38, 40, 48Montoku, Emperor59, 67–68Mt. Hiei59–60, 221See also Buddhism, esoterismMt. Koya221See also Buddhism, esoterismMudanSee Keiaiji, lineage of abbessesMugai Nyodai as a discipline of Enni Ben’en270 as a disciple of Wuxue Zuyuan270, 274, 291, 305, 306–307 biographies of270n2, 283, 291n55, 292, 299, 306, 308 childhood name of306, 332Chiyono Nyodai oshō ki (Story of Chiyono)332 founding of Shōmyakuan (Shinnyoji)271 interment at Shōmyakuan (Shinnyoji)278kesa associated with278, 304–337 memorialization of269–301 marriage to Kanazawa Sanetoki306n6 Mujaku (pseudonym)270n2, 307, 332Nyodai zenshi shoden (Tale of Mugai)332 portraits ofxiii, 271, 272, 278–279, 280, 281, 282, 283–287, 285, 286, 294, 295, 296, 297–298 transmission of kesa belonging to309–316waka poem by276, 277 writings of275–278Mugaku SogenSee Wuxue ZuyuanMurakami, Emperor move to the Reizei’in Palace30Murasaki Shikibuviii, ix and other women writersxii, 23 pilgrimage to Ishiyamadera348, 351Musō Soseki271, 322 as a disciple of Kōhō Kennichi313 development of the Five Mountain Temples (gozan) system313, 335 disciples of272, 312kesa associated with322, 336 portrait sculpture of288Myōshinji (temple)386See also ‘gyakushu’Nakayamadera (temple)221, 248–258, 260 and safe childbirth255–257Nakayamadera engi (Legend of the founding of Nakayamadera)250, 253, 355Shiunzan Nakayamadera ki (Records of Nakayamadera, Purple Cloud Mountain)251, 255–256, 257Nakayama Tadachika involvement in the birth rituals for Prince Tokihito98n28, 104, 117n81Sankaiki90, 108, 116Nakayama Yoshiko birth of Emperor Meiji257Ninnō gyō (The Benevolent Kings Sutra)147 and birth rituals102 and house-moving rituals46Nyoutsu/NyokūSee Keiaiji, lineage of abbessesOdani Castle373–374Oda Nobunaga portrait of392, 394ofuda (printed talismans) acquisition from temples223–224, 242, 260 from Nakayamadera250, 252, 253 and kechien223–226, 258, 260 ritual consumption of224–225, 260Oichi no kata373, 374, 376n23Okadera (temple)221, 229–233, 260 Ryūgaiji (formal name)229See also ‘Kannon reigenki’; ‘Kannon reijōki zue’onmyōdō (yin-yang practice)21, 22–24Otomaeix–xpilgrimageSee Ishiyamadera; Kannon pilgrimage; Saigoku pilgrimage routeportraiture371–373 and adornment (shōgon)379 commissioning of380–385 deified figures in380, 383–384 Kanō school artists and388–389 of women376–377, 384, 386, 396 use of family crests in391–396Reishi burial of204, 214Richō, Abbess successor of Tokugon Rihō291Richū, Abbess (also known as Kōtoku-in)281RienSee Keiaiji, lineage of abbessesRihōSee Fujiwara no SadakoRikōSee Keiaiji, lineage of abbessesRinshi (also known as Takatsukasa-den)198–200, 201, 204, 209Rishū (daughter of Emperor Gokōmatsu)See Keiaiji, lineage of abbessesRishū (daughter of Emperor Gotsuchimikado, attributed)See Keiaiji, lineage of abbessesRyōshō-in (also known as Toku-hime) portrait of392Ryūkatei TanekazuKahada mura kojo (The Dutiful Woman of Kahada Village) from Kokon honcho meijo hyaku den (One hundred stories of famous women of our country, ancient and modern), text238n35Ryūken involvement in the birth rituals for Prince Tokihito113See also birth rituals, performed by ajariSaichō59Saigoku (Saikoku) pilgrimage route226–261Kannongyō ryakuzukai (Kannon Sutra with abbreviated illustrations and annotations)225–226 Kegonji (temple)227 Kinshōji (temple)251Saigoku sanjūsansho Kannon reigenki zue (Illustrated record of the miracles of the Saigoku thirty-three)237Saigoku sanjūsansho Kannon rishōki (Record of divine favor of the Saigoku thirty-three)233, 234, 238, 239Saigoku sanjūsansho Kannon rishōki zue (Illustrated record of divine favor of the Saigoku thirty-three)237, 242, 243 Rokkakudō (Chōhōji). See ‘ofuda’ Seigantoji (temple)227See also Kannonshōji; Mimurotoji; Nakayamadera; OkaderaŚākyamuni (Jp. Shaka) and Kariteimo78 and Kichijōten149, 167 and Śrīmālā (Jp. Shōman Bunin)249 Shaka Triad at Hōryūji141, 143, 163, 164–166, 170, 177 figure at Shinnyoji290SanbōinSee DaigojiSeitoku-in (also known as Kame-hime) portraits of377, 380, 392, 397Shinga and the Nyoirin Kannon ritual68ShinkōanSee Shinnyoji, ‘onki’ for Mugai Nyodai atShinnyoji (temple)269, 271, 278–281, 290–291 as a mortuary temple for Hōkyōji279–281onki for Mugai Nyodai at270, 283–289, 294, 298–299 portrait of Mugai Nyodai by Imei Shukei, inscribed by Daiten Kenjō294, 296, 297–298 portrait sculpture of Mugai Nyodai at278–279, 280 restoration of portraits by Tōji Jōkei298See also conventsshintaku ishiSee house-moving ritualsShirakawa, Emperor182–183, 197, 199, 201, 213, 214–215 and the politics of funerary rituals202, 203–205, 210–211 burial at Kōryūji208–209Shōkenji (temple)269, 281–283, 291, 292kesa preserved at278, 331–333, 333, 334 (detail), 335 (detail), 337onki for Mugai Nyodai held at283, 289–290, 294, 298, 299, 300 portrait of Mugai Nyodai by Nakami, inscribed by Myōkō Kanjin, at294, 295 portrait sculpture of Mugai Nyodai by Hanbei at281, 282, 283 restoration by Hōkyōji abbesses281See also conventsShōkokuji (temple) affiliation with Shinnyoji271, 298 and the Five Mountain temple system314kesa preserved at304, 305, 318–320, 320–331, 328 (detail), 329 (detail), 330 (detail), 331 (detail), 336Shōmu, Emperor and the Golden Light Sutra148, 154 patronage of Ishiyamadera345, 361–362Shōmyakuan/Shōmyakuin (temple)See ShinnyojiShōtoku, Prince and the legend of the founding of Kannonshōji244–245, 246 and Kannon prints from Nakayamadera249–250, 252 role in Kichijō keka170, 173, 176Shukaku involvement in the birth rituals for Prince Tokihito97n25, 101, 109, 114, 115Shungyō involvement in the birth rituals for Prince Tokihito110, 126, 127See also birth rituals, performed by genjaShunjōbō Chōgen191, 205–207, 213See also ‘gorintō’Shushōe142See also Hōryūji; ‘Kichijō keka’Somedono no kisakiSee Fujiwara no Akirakeiko (Meishi)Son’i66n38Sugawara no Michizane70Sūgen-in (also known as Gō)371, 374, 385, 395Gō: Himetachi no sengoku (Taiga drama and exhibition)369n2 communication with Jōkō-in389 portrait of370–371See also Asai familyTaira family involvement in the birth rituals for Prince Tokihito94–99, 101–107, 115–119, 120–121, 123–124, 129Taira no Kiyomori92, 101–102 conflict with Goshirakawa94, 133 political aspirations of95, 131Taira no Shigemori101–102, 112Taira no Tokiko92, 130, 133Taira no Tokushi (Kenreimon-in)92–93 birth of Prince Tokihito92, 120–122 ladies-in-waiting of120 pregnancy94–120 presentation of the Heike nōkyō on behalf of212 rituals performed at temples and shrines for106Takakura, Emperor marriage to Taira no Tokushi89, 92, 94 political struggle with his father, Goshirakawa131, 133 ritual role during the birth of Prince Tokihito97, 125–126, 128, 129, 130, 131talismansSee ‘goō hōin’; house-moving rituals; ‘ofuda’TamontenSee Bishamonten; Four Heavenly KingsTanba no YasuyoriIshinpō (Essentials of Medicine)See medicine and healthTaruhito, PrinceSee Horikawa, EmperorTekkanSee Keiaiji, lineage of abbessesTenryūji (temple)313, 327Tōdaiji (temple)gorintō placed inside the Daibutsu at213Tōfukumon-in321, 385, 389Tōhō E’nichi335See also Keiaiji, lineage of abbessesTokihito, Prince (Emperor Antoku)89, 92–93, 93n14, 110, 113n74 birth of120–122 birth scene in the Heike monogatari emaki106–107, 107See also birth ritualsTōin family345–347See also ‘Ishiyamadera engi e’Tōin Kinkata344–345, 366Tōin Kōshu344n4Tōin-no-tsubone involvement in the birth rituals for Prince Tokihito120, 123, 124, 124n105, 132Tōin Saneo345Tōin Yakushu344n4Tokugawa Hidetada371, 374 portrait of389–391, 390See also Sūgen-inTokugawa Iemitsu385, 387Tokugawa Ieyasu conflict with the Toyotomi family374–375, 389 portrait of380, 381, 383–384Tokugawa MasakoSee Tōfukumon-inTokugon Rihō290, 290–292Kochō no yumegatari (Story of the dream of a butterfly) [biography of Mugai Nyodai]291n55, 308 poems comparing Rihō to Mugai Nyodai292 presentation of Mugai Nyodai’s dark brown twenty-five panel kesa to Shōkenji332Tōritenjōji (temple) and safe childbirth256Toyotomi Hideyori374, 389Toyotomi Hideyoshi portraits of383–384 relationship with the Asai family371, 374, 388See also Yodo-donoTsūgenji (convent)313Uda, Emperor69–70 and the development of the insei system202Utagawa Hiroshige iiSee ‘Kannon reigenki’Utagawa Kunisada (Toyokuni iii)See ‘Kannon reigenki’Utagawa KuniyoshiKahada mura kojo (The Dutiful Woman of Kahada Village) from Kokon honcho meijo hyaku den (One hundred stories of famous women of our country, ancient and modern), art238, 240See also Ryūkatei TanekazuWuxue Zuyuan (Jp. Mugaku Sōgen) also known as Bukkō Kokushi270, 305, 332 also known as Bukkō Zenshi310 also known as Enman Jōshō Kokushi274n15 as a teacher of Kōhō Kennichi308n13 as a teacher of Mugai Nyodai270, 274, 291, 305, 306–307Bukkō Kokushi goroku (Sayings of Zen Master Wuxue)306–307 portrait sculpture of288 transmission of his kesa to Mugai Nyodai310, 332Yakushi (Sk. Bhaiṣajyaguru) figure at Hōryūji141, 143, 163, 164–167, 176 rituals performed to during the birth of Prince Tokihito95, 102, 115–117, 125 rituals to61 role in childbirth rituals91 role in Kichijō keka153, 174Yasuakira, Prince70Yodo-dono (also known as Chacha)369n2, 371, 374, 375, 389, 395 portraits of370n3See also Asai familyYokoyama Katsurako (poet) pilgrimage to Nakayamadera256Yijing (Jp. Gihō) (translator) and the Golden Light Sutra147–148, 166, 167, 176See also ‘Gushi nintai sanshō himitsu hōshū’Zekkai Chūshin271–274 also known as Butchi Kōshō Kokushi271 eulogy for Mugai Nyodai269, 274–275 poem for Mugai Nyodai’s death anniversary308n18Zengen involvement in the birth rituals for Prince Tokihito95, 113, 126See also birth rituals, performed by ajariZōchōtenSee Four Heavenly Kings

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