1.1 The entrance to Hagia Sophia: view to the naos through the central door of the esonarthex and the central Imperial Door. Photo: Emilie van Opstall 43

1.2 Floor plan of Hagia Sophia. Source: Jaap Fokkema, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam 47

1.3–4 The bronze decoration of the doors to the esonarthex. The upper part of the leaves of the doors show a cross beneath an arch (3), the lower part a cross on top of Mount Golgotha with the four rivers of Paradise flowing down (4). Photo’s: Emilie van Opstall 50–51

1.5 The central Imperial Door to Hagia Sophia: the threshold. Photo: Emilie van Opstall 53

1.6 The bronze relief above the central Imperial Door. Photo:

Emilie van Opstall 54

2.1 Plan of the Basilica of St Tecla (the Basilica Nova) indicating the position of the baptistery. Source: Mirabella Roberti (1984) 107, fig. 103; used with permission from the Soprintendenza Archeologia della Lombardia 69

2.2 Plan of the baptistery of the Basilica Nova indicating the position of the font in relation to the entrances. Source: Mirabella Roberti (1984) 116, fig. 112; used with permission from the Soprintendenza Archeologia della Lombardia 71

2.3 Plan of the Church of the Holy Sepulchre according to Charles Coüasnon. Before the scientific archaeology of Tinelli and Corbo the baptistery was thought to have been located in the three chapels to the south of the Rotunda (marked as number 7). Source: Coüasnon (1974) Plate VIII; used with permission from Oxford University Press 78

2.4 Plan of the Constantinian structures of the Church of the Holy Sepulchre, the Anastasis. Here detail of the Anastasis (Rotunda) and Patriarchion. The cistern is no. 103 in the plan; the font was found in sector 100 and the traces of a threshold at 116 may be related to the baptistery. Source: Corbo (1981) vol. 2, tavola 3; courtesy of the Studium Biblicum Franciscanum, Jerusalem 81

4.1 Hypothetical plan of the Martyrium of St Artemius, Constantinople. Source: Mango (1993) 9, fig. 1 123

6.1 Rome, St Peter’s, Constantinian nave and atrium, and new basilica under construction, seen from the East. Source: G.A. Dosio, drawing, 1575 ca. Formerly: Uffizi UA 2555, Firenze (now lost) 162

6.2 Rome, St Peter’s, ground plan of atrium as of 500 / 1300 ca. Hypothetical reconstruction by Thomas Barth, 1986, after CBCR 1977 164

6.3a–b Rome, St Peter’s, cantharus with pigna (pinecone); reconstruction of plan and elevation by Huelsen (1904) 167

6.4 Pigna (pinecone) from St Peter’s atrium, h. ca 3,70m. Vatican Museums, Cortile della Pigna 170

6.5 The funerals of Gregory the Great in the atrium of St Peter’s. Codex of Farfa, John the Deacon, Vita Gregorii Magni, Eton College Ms. S.11, fol. 122r; by kind permission of Eton College, Windsor 172

6.6 Bronze pinecone, h. 0,91m., ca 1000. Aachen, Hohe Domkirche 180

6.7 Adoration of the Lamb, Gospelbook from St Médard in Soissons, ca 825, Bibliothèque Nationale Paris, Ms. Lat. 8850 fol. 1v. Photo: Centre for Art Historical Documentation, Radboud University 182

6.8 Fountain of Life, Godescalc Gospels, 781/783, Bibliothèque Nationale Paris, Ms. nouv. acq. Lat. 1203, fol. 3v. Photo: Centre for Art Historical Documentation, Radboud University 183

7.1 Fragment of a sarcophagus front (Rep3 154) with the traditio clavium (on the right), ca 370–400, Musée lapidaire, Avignon. Photo: R. Dijkstra 198

7.2 Detail of a sarcophagus (Rep2 138) with the traditio clavium and witnessing apostle, ca 370–400, Rijksmuseum voor Oudheden, Leiden. Photo: R. Dijkstra 200

7.3 Detail of a sarcophagus front (Rep2 297) with a possible depiction of the Good Shepherd as the central scene, beginning of the fourth century, Arheološki Muzej u Splitu, Split. Photo: R. Dijkstra 202

8.1a The pronaos of the temple of Roma and Augustus in Ancyra, seen from the south-west. Parts of the Latin version of the Res gestae are visible on the northern (left) anta. Photo: E.J.J. Roels 222

8.1b Plan of the temple of Roma and Augustus in Ancyra with the distribution of the inscriptions on the temple walls. Source: Krencker and Schede (1936) 15, fig. 10. Reproduced by the courtesy of the Deutsches Archäologisches Institut 222

8.2 Plan of the sanctuary of Athena Polias at the turn of the eras, Priene. Source: Hennemeyer (2013) Taf. 2. Reproduced by the courtesy of Arnd Hennemeyer 229

8.3 The temple of Athena Latmia in Herakleia, seen from the north-east. Photo: E.J.J. Roels 232

8.4 Plan of the sanctuary of Hecate in Lagina; the temple is situated near the centre. Source: Tırpan (2012) 182, fig. 1. Reproduced by the courtesy of Ahmet Tırpan 235

8.5 The remains of the cella of the temple of Zeus in Aizanoi, seen from the East: the horizontally outlined framework on the northern wall of the pronaos with the dossier of letters is clearly visible on the right. Photo: E.J.J. Roels 238

8.6 Plan of the temple of Zeus in Aizanoi. A–D are the documents of the temple land dossier. Naumann (1979) Taf. 9. Reproduced by the courtesy of the Deutsches Archäologisches Institut 238

9.1a–b SGO 21/23/03 (a) left part and (b) right part. Photo’s by Julien Aliquot 2013 © Programme IGLS, CNRS/HiSoMA 265

9.2 SGO 21/23/04. Photo by Julien Aliquot 2010 © Programme IGLS, CNRS/HiSoMA 267

9.3 SGO 22/14/04 = IGLS XV 186. Photo by Jean Starcky © Programme IGLS, CNRS/HiSoMA 269

9.4 SGO 22/14/03 = IGLS XV 177. Photo de Julien Aliquot 2009 © Programme IGLS, CNRS/HiSoMA 272

10.1 Map of the sanctuary of St Felix at Nola at the time of the extensive construction work supervised by Paulinus in the years 401–403. Reproduces by the courtesy of T. Lehman, with adaptations 286

11.1 North door of the Erechtheion in Athens. Photo: Chr. Williamson 2016, with permission of the Athens Ephorate of Antiquities 315

11.2 Reverse of a Hadrianic silver tetradrachm showing the temple of Artemis in Ephesus, with the cult image visible in the temple and the door-like aperture in the pediment, SNG UK Vol. VI .2 1310. Photo: © The Fitzwilliam Museum, Cambridge 324

11.3 Reconstruction of the entrance to the temple of Apollo at Didyma, showing the great ‘Erscheinungstür’, Apollontempel in Didyma bei Milet, print by Georg Niemann (1841–1912), 1912. Photo: Johannes Laurentius, Antikensammlung, Staatliche Museen zu Berlin-Preussischer Kulturbesitz 329

11.4 Students gathered in the pronaos of the Didymaion, with one on the threshold of the ‘Erscheinungstür’ showing the difference in height. Photo: Chr. Williamson 2012 329

11.5 The ‘Erscheinungstür’ from the temple of Apollo Delion at Palatia on Naxos. Photo: Mark Cartwright of Ancient History Encyclopedia (www.ancient.eu) 331

11.6 Plan and cross-section of the temple of Apollo at Didyma, showing the sunlight from the west at an elevation of 36° (summer), illuminating the adyton and mid-chamber (after H. Knackfuß and

T. Wiegand (1941) Didyma I. Die Baubeschreibung, Berlin, p. 8, z.146). Elevation: Jan Köster, Dai Istanbul 331

12.1 Mount Sinai, Monastery of St Catherine, apse mosaic. Reproduced through the courtesy of the Michigan-Princeton-Alexandria Expedition to Mount Sinai 343

12.2 Lythrankomi, Church of the Panagia Kanakariá, apse mosaic. Source: Image Collections and Fieldwork Archives, Dumbarton Oaks, Trustees for Harvard University, Washington, DC 344

12.3 Kiti, Church of the Panagia Angeloktistos, apse mosaic. Source: Image Collections and Fieldwork Archives, Dumbarton Oaks, Trustees for Harvard University, Washington, DC 346

12.4 Kiti, Church of the Panagia Angeloktistos, apse mosaic. Source: Image Collections and Fieldwork Archives, Dumbarton Oaks, Trustees for Harvard University, Washington, DC 347

12.5a Livadia, Church of the Panagia tes Kyras, apse mosaic. Source: Image Collections and Fieldwork Archives, Dumbarton Oaks, Trustees for Harvard University, Washington, DC 349

12.5b Line drawing of the mosaic at Livadia. From: A.H.S. Megaw and E.J.W. Hawkins (1976) ‘A fragmentary mosaic of the orant Virgin in Cyprus,’ in M. Berza and E. Stănecsü (eds) Actes du XIVe Congrès International des Études Byzantines, Bucarest, 6–12 septembre 1971, vol. 3: 363–66, fig. 2 349

12.6 Missorium of Theodosius I, Real Academia de la Historia, Madrid. Source: Manuel Parada López de Corselas, 2015 351

12.7 Bawit, Monastery of Apa Apollo, chapel 17, watercolor reconstruction. After J. Clédat (1906) Le monastère et la nécropole de Baouit, pl. 41 355

12.8 Ravenna, Orthodox Baptistery, vault mosaic. Source: Alyson Wharton 360

12.9 Syria, floor mosaic: Holy Sepulchre. Source: National Museum of Denmark 362

12.10 Paphos, Basilica of Chrysopolitissa, atrium, floor mosaic. Source: B. Shilling 363