Index

(person names and place names in Chinese are provided; organizational names in hanyu pinyin and Chinese are provided)

610 Office 4
Afghanistan 阿富汗 24
akhoond (ahong 阿訇) 22, 25
Aksu 阿克苏 217, 220
All Range Church ( All Scope Church )
All Scope Church (Quanfanwei jiaohui 全范围教会) 61–62
Altay 阿尔泰 217, 220
Alxa League 阿拉善盟 93, 96
American Fujian Taoist United Association (Meiguo Fujian daojiao lianhehui 美国福建道教联合会) 137
American Taoist United Association (Meiguo daojiao lianhehui 美国道教联合会) 138
Amitabha Buddha 阿弥陀佛 15–16
Analects (Lunyu 论语) 45
ancestor worship 47–48, 50–51, 53, 54, 88, 169–170
Anhui 18, 28, 29, 47, 55, 64, 66, 112, 121, 122, 128–132
Ankang 安康 199, 202
Anqing 安庆 129, 132
Anshan 鞍山 99, 101
Anshun 安顺 185, 187
aobao 敖包 96–97
Avalokitesvara Bodhisattva 观世音菩萨 15, 127
Azerbaijan 阿塞拜疆 24
Baicheng 白城 104, 106
Baidu Map 百度地图 6
Bailianjiao 白莲教 52
Bailin Temple 柏林寺 87
Baise 百色 166, 168
Baishan 白山 104, 106
Baiyin 白银 204, 206
Baiyun Temple 白云观 33, 79
Banan 巴南 174, 177
Bangladesh 孟加拉 24, 173
Bao’an zu 保安族 20, 203
Baodi 宝坻 79, 82
Baoding 保定 83, 86, 87
Baoji 宝鸡 199, 200, 202
Baoshan 宝山 112, 116, 189, 192
Baotou 包头 93, 96
baptism (xili 洗礼) 19, 30, 41
Bayan Nur 巴彦努尔 93, 96
Bayingolin 巴音郭楞 217, 220
Bazhong 巴中 180, 182
Beibei 北碚 174, 177
Beichen 北辰 79, 80, 82
Beihai 北海 166, 168
Beijing 北京 6, 12, 14, 15, 20, 22, 33, 34, 37, 39, 40, 46, 55, 56, 57, 69, 73–79, 80, 83, 84, 85, 86, 114, 163
Beijing Olympics 78
Beijing Shouwang Church 北京守望教会 12, 55–56, 78–79
Bengbu 蚌埠 129, 130, 132
Benxi 本溪 99, 101
Bhutan 不丹 15, 173
Bible 4, 17, 29, 30–31, 42, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 121, 145, 200
Bijie 毕节 185, 187
Binhai 滨海 79, 80, 81, 82
Binzhou 滨州 143, 145
Bishan 璧山 174, 177
bishop 主教 40–41, 43, 56–57, 78, 84, 86, 87, 103, 114, 115, 119, 196
Bishops Conference of the Catholic Church in China (zhongguo tianzhujiao zhujiaotuan 中国天主教主教团) 39
black market 2, 5, 11–12, 56, 60–69
Bo Sea 渤海 99, 142
Bodhidharma (Putidamo 菩提达摩) 16
Bodhisattva (pusa 菩萨) 15, 19, 57, 131
Bon 苯教 15, 194–196
Bonan (Bao’an zu 保安族) 20, 203
Born Again Movement ( All Scope Church )
Bortala 博尔塔拉 216, 219
Bouyei (Buyi zu 布依族) 185
Boxer Rebellion (1899–1901) 84
Boyang County 波阳县 142
Bozhou 亳州 128, 129, 132
Buddhism 佛教 1, 13, 14–20, 48, 66, 68, 76, 83, 86, 87, 90, 94, 97, 103, 126, 127, 128, 131, 136, 139, 141, 168, 175, 179, 183, 192, 194, 196, 207, 208, 218
Buddhist Academy of China (Zhongguo foxueyuan 中国佛学院) 76
Buddhist Association of Canada 90
Buddhist Association of China (Zhongguo Fojiao xiehui 中国佛教协会) 15, 77
Buddhist Association of the Republic of China (Zhonghua Fojiao hui 中華佛教會) 14
Buluotuo religion 布洛陀教 169
Bureau of Tourism 12
Burhan Shehidi 包尔汉·沙希迪 20
C. K. Yang ( Yang, C. K. )
Cangnan county 苍南县 3, 127
Cangzhou 沧州 83, 86
Catholicism (Tianzhu jiao 天主教) 1, 12, 13, 27, 39–43, 76, 86, 72, 94, 190, 192, 196, 218
Celestial Master 天师 35
Chamdo 昌都 194, 196
Chamsham Temple 湛山精舍 90
Chan Buddhism (禅宗) 16
Changbai Church 长白教会 105
Changchun 长春 101, 104, 106
Changde 常德 157, 160
Changji 昌吉 217, 220
Changning 长宁 112, 116
Changping 昌平 74, 75, 77
Changsha 长沙 157, 160
Changshou 长寿 174, 177
Changzhi 长治 88, 90, 92
Changzhou 常州 117, 120
Chao, Andrew (赵一舟, 1927–2015) 42
Chaoyang 朝阳 74, 77, 19, 102
Chaozhou 潮州 162, 165
Chen Ming 陈明 46
Chengde 承德 83, 86
Chengdu 成都 40, 163, 179, 180, 182
chenghuang 城隍 (city god) 51
Chengkou 城口 174, 177
Chenzhou 郴州 157, 160
Chi You 蚩尤 88
Chiang Kai-shek 蒋介石 (1887–1975) 169–170
Chifeng 赤峰 93, 96
China Catholic Laypeople Patriotic Association (Zhongguo tianzhujiao jiaoyou aiguohui 中国天主教教友爱国会) 39
China Catholic Patriotic Association (Zhongguo tianzhujiao aiguohui 中国天主教爱国会) 39, 56
China Christian Council (Zhongguo jidujiao xiehui 中国基督教协会) 28, 78
China Confucius Foundation (Zhongguo kongzi jijinhui 中国孔子基金会) 45–46
China General Social Survey (CGSS) 6, 19
China Gospel Fellowship (Zhonghua fuyin tuanqi 中华福音团契) 55
China Hui Nationality Culture Garden and the World Muslim City 214
China Islamic Institute (Zhongguo yisilanjiao jingxueyuan 中国伊斯兰教经学院) 21, 22, 76
China-Arab States Expo 214
Chinese Association for Mongol Studies 97
Chinese Association of Confucius the Holy Sage (Zhonghua kongshenghui 中华孔圣会) 46
Chinese Communist Party (CCP) 4, 7
Chinese Communist Youth League (CCYL) 4, 7
Chinese Daoism 中国道教 34
Chinese Daoist Association (Zhongguo daojiao xiehui 中国道教协会) 33, 34, 36
Chinese General Social Survey 26
Chinese Muslim (Zhongguo musilin 中国穆斯林) 21
Chinese Muslim Federation 116
Chinese National Islamic Association (Zhongguo yisilanjiao xiehui 中国伊斯兰教学会) 20, 26
Chinese Spiritual Life Survey (CSLS) 6, 19, 32, 39, 43, 48, 53, 58
Ching Hai 青海 65–66
Chizhou 池州 129, 132
Chongming 崇明 112, 116
Chongqing 重庆 147, 173–179, 198
Chongyi Church 崇一堂 128
Chongzuo 崇左 166, 168
Christianity Today 61
Church of the Almighty God (Quannengshen jiaohui 全能神教会) 62
Church of the Protection of the Mother of God in Harbin 哈尔滨圣母帡幪教堂 110
Chuxiong 楚雄 189, 192
City God Temple 城隍庙 113
Cold Water Sect (Lengshuijiao 冷水教) 62–63
communal folk religion 51
communion (shengcan 圣餐) 30
Complete Perfection Daoism ( Quanzhen )
Confucian academy (shuyuan 书院) 45
Confucianism (Ru jiao 儒教) 44–48, 146
Confucius (Kongzi 孔子 551–479 BCE) 44, 207
Confucius Temple in Nanjing (Nanjing fuzimiao 南京夫子庙) 119
Confucius Temple Protection Association of China (Zhongguo kongmiao baohu xiehui 中国孔庙保护协会) 46, 47
Criers ( All Scope Church )
Crying Faction ( All Scope Church )
Cultural Revolution 2, 4, 9, 15, 18, 22, 25, 28, 30, 39, 42, 48, 55, 57, 60, 92, 149, 190, 196, 200, 202, 211
Dadukou 大渡口 174, 177
Dai Kangsheng 戴康生 23
Dai zu 傣族 188
Dalai Lama 达赖喇嘛 15, 183, 194, 207, 208
Dali 大理 22, 189, 192
Dalian 大连 99, 102
Dami Evangelism Association (Dami xuanjiaohui 达米宣教会) 63
Dandong 丹东 99, 102
Danzhou 儋州 170, 172
Daodejing 道德经 38
Daoism 道教 1, 11, 12, 33–39, 48, 76, 79, 94, 113, 141, 144, 154, 158, 170, 190, 202, 218
Daoism in Shanghai 上海道教 34
Daoist Academy of China (Zhongguo daxuejiaoxueyuan 中国道教学院) 76
Daoist Central Association (Daojiao zonghui 道教总会) 33
Daqing 大庆 107, 110
Datong 大同 88, 89, 92
Daur (Dawoer zu 达斡尔族) 106
Daxing 大兴 74, 75, 77
Daxing’anling diqu 大兴安岭地区 107, 108, 110
Dazhou 达州 179, 180, 182
Dazu 大足 175, 178
definition of religion 1
Dehong 德宏 189, 192
denominations 27
developed religion 1
Deyang 德阳 180, 182
Dezhou 德州 143, 145
Dharmarantna 竺法兰 90
Dianjiang 垫江 174, 177
diffused religion 1
Ding Guangxun 丁光训 (K.H. Ting, 1915–2012) 28, 119
Dingxi 定西 203, 206
Diqing 迪庆 189, 192
Disciples Sect (Mentu hui) 门徒会 63–64, 102
Dong zu 侗族 152, 157, 166, 185
Dongcheng 东城 74, 77
Dongguan 东莞 162, 165
Dongguan Mosque 东关清真大寺 211
Dongli 东丽 79, 82
Donglindang 东林党 46
Dongxiang zu 东乡族 20, 203
Dongyang County 东阳县 61
Dongying 东营 143, 145
Double Ninth Festival (chongyang jie 重阳节) 42
Dragon Boat Festival (duanwu jie 端午节) 42
dragon gods (longwang 龙王) 51
Duanying Temple 端应寺 101
Durkheim, Emile 4
Early Rain Blessings Reform Church (Qiuyu zhi fu guizheng jiaohui 秋雨之福归正教会) 55, 56, 184
East China Sea 东海 111, 122
Eastern Lightening (Dongfangshandian 东方闪电) ( Church of Almighty God )
Egypt 埃及 22
Eliade, Mircea 4
Emile Durkheim ( Durkheim, Emile )
Enshi 恩施 153, 156
Established King Sect 被立王教 61, 64, 67
evil cult (xiejiao 邪教) 2, 4, 11, 20, 52, 60, 61, 102, 103
Ezhou 鄂州 153, 156
Fairy Crane Mosque 仙鹤寺 122
Falun Gong 法轮功 12, 64–65
Famen Monastery 法门寺 16
Fan Xueyan 范学淹 (1907–1992) 56
Fan Zhongliang 范忠良 (1918–2014) 115
fandong huidaomen 反动会道门 (reactionary organizations) 60
Fangcheng Fellowship (Fangcheng tuanqi 方城团契) 55, 149
Fangchenggang 防城港 166, 168
fangeming zuzhi 反革命组织 (counterrevolutionary organizations) 60
Fangshan 房山 74, 77
Fayin 法音 15
Fengdu 丰都 174, 177
Fengjie 奉节 174, 177
fengshui 风水 52, 53
Fengtai 丰台 74, 77
Fengxian 奉贤 112, 116
filial piety (xiao 孝) 47
Five Peaks (wuyue 五岳) 38
Five Pillars of Islam 25
Fojiao wenhua 佛教文化 15
folk religion 1, 12, 17, 39, 47, 48–54, 87, 94, 102, 106, 218
Foshan 佛山 162, 165
four sacred Buddhist mountains 18
Foxue yanjiu 佛学研究 15
France 法国 83
Fujian 福建 15, 40, 111, 122, 133–137, 147
Fujian Buddhist Academy (Fujian foxue yuan 福建佛学院) 136
Fujian Theological Seminary (Fujian shenxue yuan 福建神学院) 136
Fuling 涪陵 174, 177
Fuller Theological Seminary 61
fundamentalism 24
Fushun 抚顺 99, 102
Fuxin 阜新 99, 102
Fuyang 阜阳 129, 132
Fuzhou 福州 133, 136, 137, 138, 141
Gaddafi, Muammar 22
Galilee of China (Nanyang) 149
Gannan 甘南 203, 206
Gansu 甘肃 13, 18, 24, 58, 73, 92, 149, 173, 198, 203–207, 211, 212
Ganzhou 赣州 138, 139, 141
Gaode Map 6
Garze 甘孜 180, 182
Gelao zu 仡佬族 185
Gelug 格鲁 15, 194
Germany 德国 207
Ghost Festival 48, 50
Giovanni di Monte Corvino 39
God of Wealth (Caishen 财神) 52, 53–54, 57
Golog 果洛 208, 211
Gong Shengliang 龚胜亮 (龚圣亮) 62
Google Earth 6
Google Maps 6
Grace Hill Church 恩典堂 139
Grand Bao’en Temple 大报恩寺 120
gray market 2, 11
Gu Yuese 顾约瑟 128
Guan Yu 关羽 (?–219) 92
Guang’an 广安 179, 180, 182
Guangdong 广东 62, 111, 112, 147, 161–165, 169
Guangxi 广西 147, 173, 166–169
Guangyuan 广元 180, 182
Guangzhou 广州 55, 161, 162, 165
Guanyin Method (Guanyin famen 观音法门) 65–66
Guigang 贵港 166, 168
Guilin 桂林 166, 168, 169
Guixi 贵溪 33
Guiyang 贵阳 185, 187
Guizhou 贵州 46, 147, 173, 185–188
Guomindang (Kuomintang) 14
Guoqing Temple 国清寺 126
guoxue 国学 (national learning) 44
Guyuan 固原 212, 215
Hadith (shengxun 圣训) 24, 25, 26
Haibei 海北 208, 211
Haidian 海淀 74, 77
Haidong 海东 208, 211
Haikou 海口 170, 172
Hainan 海南 6, 147, 169–172, 208, 211
Haixi 海西 208, 211
Hajj (pilgrimage to Mecca) 21, 25
Hami 哈密 216, 217, 220
Han Choong-ryul 韩忠烈 105
Han Dynasty, Eastern (25 CE–220 CE) 90, 92
Handan 邯郸 83, 86
Hangzhou 杭州 31, 74, 77, 121, 122, 125, 127, 128
Hani zu 哈尼族 188
Hanzhong 汉中 199, 200, 202
Harbin 哈尔滨 106, 107, 110
Hebei 河北 13, 40, 50, 73, 83–88, 98, 111, 147
Hebei (district) 河北(区) 79, 82
Hebi 鹤壁 148, 151
Hechi 河池 166, 168
Hechuan 合川 174, 177
Hedong 河东 79, 80, 82
Hefei 合肥 128, 129, 130, 132
Hegang 鹤岗 107, 110
Heihe 黑河 107, 110
Heilongjiang 黑龙江 1, 13, 55, 73, 98, 103, 107–110
Heizui’er Catholic Church 黑嘴儿耶稣圣心教堂 211
Henan 河南 28, 29, 38, 55, 61, 64, 66, 68, 73, 111, 112, 147–152, 198
Hengshui 衡水 83, 86
Hengyang 衡阳 157, 160
Heping (district) 和平(区) 79, 80, 82
Heping County 和平县 62–63
Hexi 河西 79, 82
Heyuan 河源 162, 165
Heze 菏泽 143, 145
Hezhe zu 赫哲族 106
Hezhou 河州 24, 166, 168
Hinggan League 兴安盟 93, 96
Hohhot 呼和浩特 40, 93, 96
Holistic Church ( All Scope Church )
Holy City of the East 东方圣城 146
Holy Confucian Hall (Kongsheng tang 孔圣堂) 46
Holy See 43, 56, 114
Holy Spirit 29, 42, 62, 63, 66
Hong Kong 香港 67, 88, 125, 127, 161, 163, 207
Hong’en Temple 红恩寺 57
Honghe 红河 189, 192
Hongkou 虹口 112, 116
Hongqiao 红桥 79, 82
Hongyi 弘一 (1880–1942) 83
Hotan 和田 217, 220
house church (jiating jiaohui 家庭教会) 11–12, 54–56, 61, 78, 102, 114, 130, 149, 170, 184, 200, 220
Huai’an 淮安 117, 120
Huaibei 淮北 128, 129, 132
Huaihua 怀化 157, 160
Huainan 淮南 128, 129, 132
Huairou 怀柔 74, 77
Huang Huanting 黄焕听 62
Huanggang 黄冈 153, 156
Huangnan 黄南 208, 211
Huangpu 黄浦 112, 116
Huangshan 黄山 129, 132
Huangshi 黄石 153, 156
Huayan Temple 华严寺 175
Hubei 湖北 66, 111, 147, 152–156, 169, 173, 198
Hui zu 回族20 85, 92, 98, 128, 133, 138, 142, 147, 149, 152, 166, 169, 172, 190, 196, 203, 206, 208, 211, 213, 216, 218, 220
Huizhou 惠州 162, 165
Huludao 葫芦岛 99, 102
Hulunbuir 呼伦贝尔 93, 96
Humanist Buddhism (renjian fojiao 人间佛教) 15, 125
Hunan 湖南 38, 67, 111, 147, 157–161, 169, 173
Hunan Bible College 湖南圣经学院 160
Huo Congguang 霍从光 68
Huzhou 湖州 123, 125
Ikhwani (Yihewani 依赫瓦尼) 23
Ili 伊犁 217, 220
imam (yimamu 伊玛目) 25
immortal 仙 37
India 印度 173, 198
individual folk religion 51, 52
Indonesia 印度尼西亚 24
Inner Mongolia (Neimenggu 内蒙古) 13, 15, 53, 73, 93–97, 98, 149, 198, 212
Inner Mongolia Folklore Society 98
institutional religion 1
Iran 伊朗 24
Iraq 伊拉克 24
Islam 1, 11, 12, 13, 20–27, 76, 79, 86, 105, 108, 115, 121, 128, 136, 168, 179, 187, 189, 200, 205, 207, 211, 213, 216, 218
Islamic Association of China ( Chinese National Islamic Association )
Jade Buddha Temple 玉佛寺 113
Jahriyya (Zhehelinye 哲赫林耶) 24
Japan 日本 15, 46, 158, 207
Jerusalem of China (Wenzhou) 128
Jesus (Yesu 耶稣) 29, 30–31, 42
Jesus Family Sect 耶稣家庭教会 96–97, 145
Jews 151–152, 163
Ji Sanbao 季三宝 63–64
Ji’an 吉安 138, 141
Jiading 嘉定 112, 116
Jiamusi 佳木斯 107, 110
Jiang Duanyi 江端仪 (Sister Kong Duen-yee) 67
Jiang Qing 蒋庆 46, 47, 163
Jiangbei 江北 174, 177
Jiangjin 江津 174, 177
Jiangmen 江门 162, 165
Jiangsu 江苏 66, 111, 112, 116–121, 125, 127
Jiangsu Road Christian Church 江苏路基督教堂 145
Jiangxi 江西 33, 63, 111, 122, 123, 125, 133, 138–142, 147
Jiangxi Buddhist Academy (Jiangxi Foxueyuan 江西佛学院) 141
Jiangxin Temple 江心寺 125
Jiaozuo 焦作 148, 151
jiapu 家谱 (lineage recording book) 50
jiating jiaohui ( house church )
Jiaxing 嘉兴 122, 125, 128
Jiayuguan 嘉峪关 203, 206
Jidu xin jiao 基督新教 ( Protestantism )
Jidu zongjiao 基督宗教 (Christian religions) 27
Jidujiao 基督教 ( Christianity )
Jieyang 揭阳 162, 165
jikong 祭孔 (worship of Confucius) 44
Jilin 吉林 40, 73, 98, 103–106
Jilin City 吉林市 104, 106
Jin Luxian 金鲁贤 (1916–2013) 115
Jin Tianming 金天明 56
Jinan 济南 40, 142, 143, 145
Jinchang 金昌 203, 206
Jincheng 晋城 88, 92
Jing’an 静安 112, 113, 116
Jingdezhen 景德镇 138, 141
Jinghai 静海 79, 82
Jingmen 荆门 153, 154, 156
Jingzhou 荆州 153, 154, 156
Jinhua 金华 122, 125, 126
Jining 济宁 143, 145
Jinnan 津南 79, 82
Jinshan 金山 112, 116
Jinzhong 晋中 88, 89, 90, 92
Jinzhou 锦州 99, 102
jitian dadian 祭天大典 (heaven worship ceremony) 44
Jiujiang 九江 138, 139, 141
Jiulongpo 九龙坡 174, 177
Jiuquan 酒泉 203, 206
Jixi 鸡西 107, 108, 110
Jizhou 蓟州 79, 82
Journal of China Religion 中国宗教 144
jumu’ah 25
Kagyu 噶举 15, 194
Kaifeng 开封 148, 149, 151
Kaizhou 开州 174, 177
Karamay 克拉玛依 217, 220
karma 業 19, 49
Kashgar 喀什 217, 220
Kasyapamatanga 伽耶摩腾 90
Kazakh (Hasake zu 哈萨克族) 20, 216, 218
Kazakhstan 哈萨克斯坦 24, 198, 216
keju zhidu 科举制度 (traditional examination system) 46
Khufuyya (Hufuye 虎夫耶) 24
Kimon 金门 133
Kirti Monastery 戈尔登寺 183
Kizilsu 克孜勒苏 217, 220
Kongshengtang 孔圣堂 163
Kongzi ( Confucius )
Korean (Chaoxian zu 朝鲜族) 98
Kritigarbha (Dizang 地藏) 131
Kubrawiyya (Kubuerye 库布尔耶) 24
Kunbum Monastery ( Ta’er Temple )
Kunming 昆明 163, 189, 192
Kuomintang ( Guomindang )
Kyrgyz (Ke’erkezi zu 柯尔克孜族) 20, 216
Kyrgyzstan 吉尔吉斯斯坦 198
Labrang Monastery 拉扑楞寺 18, 207
Laibin 来宾 166, 168
Laiwu 莱芜 143, 145
Langfang 廊坊 83, 86, 87
Lanzhou Islamic Institute 兰州伊斯兰教经学院 22
Lanzhou 兰州 5, 58, 203, 206, 207
Laos 老挝 147, 173
Lefebvre, Henri 4
Leshan 乐山 180, 182
Lhasa 拉萨 193, 194, 196
Li Changlin (Lee Jang Rim) 李长林 63
Li Hongzhi 李洪志 64
Li Shutong 李叔同 ( Hongyi )
Li Tianan 李天恩 (1928–2016) 149
Li zu 黎族 169
lianghui 两会 28
Liangping 梁平 174, 177
Liangshan 凉山 179, 180, 182
Lianping County 连平县 63
Lianyungang 连云港 116, 117, 120
Liaocheng 聊城 143, 145
Liaoning 辽宁 73, 98–106
Liaoyang 辽阳 99, 103
Liaoyuan 辽源 104, 106
Lijiang 丽江 189, 192
Lin Xiangao 林献羔 (Samuel Lamb, 1924–2013) 55
Lincang 临沧 189, 192
Linfen 临汾 88, 90, 92
Lingling Sect (Lingling jiao 灵灵教) 66
Lingxian zong 灵仙宗 68
Linxia 临夏 24, 203, 205, 206
Linyi 临沂 143, 145
Lishui 丽水 122, 125
Lisu zu 傈僳族 188
Little Red Book (Quotations from Chairman Mao, Mao zhuxi yulu 毛主席语录) 57
Liu Bei 刘备 (161–223) 92
Liu Jiaguo 刘家国 66–67
Liu Zhi 刘智 (1655–1745) 24
Liupanshui 六盘水 185, 187
Liuzhou 柳州 166, 168, 169
Living Stream Ministry 61
Local Church (Difang Jiaohui 地方教会 or zhaohui 召会) 60, 61, 146
Long March 183
Longnan 陇南 203, 206
Longquan si 龙泉寺 (Dragon Spring Temple) 77
Longyan 龙岩 133, 136
Lord God Sect (Zhushen jiao 主神教) 66–67
Los Angeles 洛杉矶 69
Loudi 娄底 157, 160
Lu Shengyan 卢胜彦 68
Lu’an 六安 129, 132
Lüliang 吕梁 88, 90, 92
Luohe 漯河 148, 151
Luoyang 洛阳 148, 149, 151
Luzhou 泸州 180, 182
Ma Daqin 马达钦 114
Ma Wanfu 马万福 24
Ma’anshan 马鞍山 129, 132
Macao 澳门 88, 161, 163
Malaysia 马来西亚 22, 24
Manchu (Man zu 满族) 98, 100, 147, 218
Mao cult (Mao personality cult) 1, 12, 57–59
Mao Zedong 毛泽东 (1893–1976) 57, 159, 160
Maoming 茂名 162, 165
Marco Polo 马可·波路 121
Marx, Engels, Lenin, and Stalin 58
Mass 弥撒 41
Matteo Ricci ( Ricci, Matteo )
Mazu 妈祖 (seafaring goddess) 51, 81, 136
Mecca 麦加 21, 25, 211
Meishan 眉山 180, 182
Meizhou 梅州 162, 165
Mengzi (孟子 372–289 BCE) 44
Menhuan 门宦 23, 24
Mentougou 门头沟 74, 77
Mianyang 绵阳 57, 180, 182
Miao zu (Hmong) 苗族 133, 152, 157, 166, 169, 185, 188
Miaochan xingxue 庙产兴学 4
Ming Dynasty (1368–1644) 78, 79, 92, 154, 169, 190, 207
Minhang (Minxing) 闵行 112, 116
Ministry of Civil Affairs 46
Ministry of Cultural Affairs 46
Ministry of Education 44
Ministry of Public Security (Gong’anbu 公安部) 4, 60
Ministry of State Security (Guo’anbu 国安部) 4
Minnan Buddhist Academy (Minnan Foxueyuan 闽南佛学院) 15, 136
Miyun 密云 74, 77
Mogao Caves 莫高窟 207
Mongol (Menggu zu) 蒙古族 26, 98, 138, 147, 203, 208, 216, 218
Mongolia 蒙古 15, 76, 73, 98, 108, 198
Morality books 善书 17
Morrison, Robert (1782–1834) 27, 31
Mount Emei 峨眉山 18
Mount Heng 恒山 38
Mount Heng 衡山 38
Mount Hua 华山 38
Mount Jiuhua 九华山 18
Mount Lao 崂山 144
Mount Longhu 龙虎山 139
Mount Miaofeng 妙峰山 79
Mount Putuo 普陀山 18
Mount Song 嵩山 38
Mount Tai 泰山 38, 142
Mount Wutai 五台山 18
Mount Zion in Taiwan 67
Mudanjiang 牡丹江 107, 110
Muhammad ibn Abd al-Wahhab 24
Muhammad 穆罕默德 23
Muyang County 沐阳县 66
Myanmar (Burma) 缅甸 147, 173
Nagqu 那曲 194, 196
Najiaying Mosque 纳家营清真寺 190
Nan’an 南岸 174, 177
Nanchang 南昌 138, 141
Nanchong 南充 180, 182
Nanchuan 南川 174, 177
Nanjing Union Theological Seminary (Jinling xiehe shenxueyuan 金陵协和神学院) 29, 76, 119
Nanjing 南京 116, 117, 120
Nankai 南开 79, 80, 82
Nanking Theological Seminary (Jinling shenxueyuan 金陵神学院) 29, 119
Nanning 南宁 166, 168
Nanping 南平 133, 136
Nanputuo Temple 南普陀寺 15
Nanshan Temple 南山寺 170
Nantional Seminary of the Catholic Church in China (Zhongguo tianzhujiao shenzhe xueyuan 中国天主教神哲学院) 76
Nantong 南通 116, 117, 120
Nanyang 南阳 148, 151
Narrow Gate in the wilderness (Kuangye Zhaimen 旷野窄门) ( Disciples Sect )
National Seminary of the Catholic Church (Zhongguo tianzhujiao shenzhe xueyuan 中国天主教神哲学院) 40
Naxi zu 纳西族 179
Neijiang 内江 179, 180, 182
Nepal 尼泊尔 15, 173, 198
Nestorians 97, 200, 211
New Testament Church (Xinyue jiaohui 新约教会) 67–68
Ngari 阿里 194, 196
Ngawa 阿坝 180, 182
Nigeria 尼日利亚 24
Ningbo 宁波 122, 125, 128
Ningde 宁德 133, 136
Ninghe 宁河 79, 81, 82
Ningxia 宁夏 13, 24, 26, 27, 73, 92, 149, 198, 212–216
Niujie Mosque 牛街礼拜寺 79
Noble Eightfold Path (bazhengdao 八正道) 16
North Korea 朝鲜 73, 98, 105, 111
Nujiang 怒江 189, 192
Nyingchi 林芝 194, 196
Nyingma 宁玛 15, 194
oligopoly theory 2
Opium Wars (1839–1842 and 1856–1860) 27, 144
Ordos 鄂尔多斯 93, 96, 97
Oroqen (Elunchun zu 鄂伦春族) 106
Orthodox Christianity 东正教 1, 108, 218
Orthodox Unity Daoism ( Zhengyi )
Our Lady of the Holy Rosary Church (Xiamen meigui shengmu tang 厦门玫瑰圣母堂) 137
paiwei 牌位 50
Pakistan 巴基斯坦 22, 24, 198
Panchen Lama 班禅喇嘛 15, 194, 207
Panjin 盘锦 99, 102
Panshi Church (Hangzhou) 磐石教会 31
Panzhihua 攀枝花 180, 182
Patriarch Kirill of Mosco 108
Peace Conference of Asia and Pacific Regions 14
Peepal tree (puti shu 菩提树) 18
Peking Christian Tabernacle Church 北京基督徒会堂 55
Pengshui 彭水 174, 177
People’s Liberation Army 57
People’s Political Conference (Quanguo zhengzhi xieshang huiyi 全国政治协商会议) 34
Pew Research Center 31
pigu 辟谷 38
Pingdingshan 148, 151
Pinggu 74, 77
Pingliang 平凉 203, 206
Pingxiang 萍乡 138, 139, 141
political religion 1
Pope Benedict XVI 56, 84, 114
Pope Francis 56
Pope Pius XII 11
Population Census 6
postdenominational 28
Protestantism (Jidu xin jiao 基督新教) 27–33
pseudo religion 1
Pu’er 普洱 189, 192
Pudong 浦东 112, 116
Puhaddin 普哈丁 121
Puji Temple 普济寺 125
Pure Land Buddhism (jingtu zong) 15
Putian 莆田 133, 136
Putuo 普陀 112, 116
Putuo Zongsheng Temple 普陀宗乘寺 87
Puxi 浦西 111
Puyang 濮阳 148, 151
Qadim (Gedimu 格底目) 23, 24
Qadiriyya (Kadilinye 卡迪林耶) 24
qi 38, 64
Qiandongnan 黔东南 185, 187
Qiang zu 羌族 179
Qianjiang 黔江 174, 177
Qiannan 黔南 185, 187
Qianxinan 黔西南 185, 187
Qigong 气功 12, 52, 64–65
Qijiang 綦江 174, 177
Qing Dynasty (1644–1911) 44, 76, 78, 82, 108, 115, 169, 190, 211
Qingdao 青岛 143, 144, 145
Qinghai 青海 13, 15, 24, 173, 199, 207–211, 212
Qingming 清明 47
Qingpu 青浦 112, 113, 116
Qingyang 庆阳 203, 206
Qingyuan 清远 162, 165
Qingzhen Kunning Tongde Female School 清真坤宁同德女学 115
Qinhuangdao 青岛 83, 86
Qinzhou 钦州 166, 168
Qiqihar 齐齐哈尔 107, 108, 110
Qitaihe 七台河 107, 108, 110
Quannengshen jiaohui ( Church of Almighty God )
Quanzhen 全真 (Complete Perfection) 35, 144
Quanzhou 泉州 133, 134, 136
qubba (gongbei 拱北) 24
Qufu 曲阜 47, 146
Qujing 曲靖 189, 192
Qur’an 17, 21, 22, 24–26
Quzhou 衢州 122, 125
Red Guards (hongweibing 红卫兵) 44, 57
red market 2, 11–12, 13–43
religion, definition of 1
Religious Affairs Bureau (RAB) 4
religious market 2
Republican era (1912–1949) 14, 82, 207
Ricci, Matteo (1552–1610) 利玛窦 18, 39, 86
Rizhao 日照 143, 145
Rongchang 荣昌 174, 177
Ru jiao ( Confucianism )
Russia 俄罗斯 24, 73, 83, 98, 110, 198, 216
Russian (Eluosi zu 俄罗斯族) 218
Sa’d ibn Abi Waqqas (570–632) 23
sacred place 4, 5, 37
sacred space 4
Sakya 萨迦 15, 194
Salafi-jihadism 218
Salar (Sala zu 撒拉族) 20, 203, 208
samsara (lunhui 轮回) 19
Sanban puren ( Three Ranks of Servants )
sangang wuchang 三纲五常 44
Sanjiang Church 三江教堂 128
Sanmenxia 三门峡 148, 151
Sanming 三明 133, 136
Sanya 三亚 169, 170, 172
Saudi Arabia 沙特阿拉伯 21, 22, 24, 25, 207
Second Vatican Council (1962–1965) 42
sectarian folk religion 51, 52
semi-religion 1
seven sacraments (shengshi 圣事) 41
Shaanxi 陕西 35, 38, 40, 63, 64, 68, 73, 92, 147, 173, 198–203
Shakyamuni (shijiamoni 释迦摩尼) 18
Shaman Museum 萨满文化博物馆 106
Shamanism 萨满教 94, 97, 106
Shandong 山东 69, 73, 111, 142–146, 147
Shangdi 上帝 (God) 29
shangfen 上坟 (gravesite visit) 50
Shanghai 上海 14, 27, 33, 34, 40, 41, 55, 76, 111–116, 122, 128, 163
Shanghai Wanbang Mission Church 上海万邦宣教教会 114
Shangluo 商洛 199, 202
Shangqiu 商丘 148, 151
Shangrao 上饶 138, 139, 141
Shannan 陕南 194, 196
Shantou 汕头 162, 165
Shanwei 汕尾 162, 165
Shanxi 山西 18, 38, 73, 88–93, 147, 198
Shaoguan 韶关 162, 165
Shaolin Temple 少林寺 148
Shaoshan 韶山 159
Shaoxing 绍兴 122, 125
Shaoyang 邵阳 157, 160
Shapingba 沙坪坝 174, 177
sharia 24
She zu 畲族 133, 138
Shen 29
Shengling 圣灵 ( Holy Spirit )
Shennong 神农 156
Shenyang 沈阳 40, 98, 99, 102
Shenzhen 深圳 161, 162, 163, 165
Sheshan Cathedral 佘山天主堂 41, 114
Sheshan Catholic Seminary 佘山修道院
Shi Enxiang 师恩祥 86
Shi Yongxin 释永信 149
Shi Yu 施余 110
Shi’i 什叶派 23, 218
Shigatse 日喀则 194, 196
Shijiazhuang 石家庄 83, 86
Shijingshan 石景山 74, 77
Shiyan 十堰 153, 154, 156
Shizhu 石柱 174, 177
Shizuishan 石嘴山 212, 215
shortage economy theory 2
Shouters (Huhan pai 呼喊派) 60
Shuangyashan 双鸭山 107, 110
Shunyi 顺义 74, 77
Shuozhou 朔州 88, 92
Shuyuan 书院 ( Confucian academy )
Sichuan 四川 15, 18, 57, 61, 173, 179–184, 198
Singapore 新加坡 207
Siping 四平 104, 106
sishu 私塾 (old-style private school) 44
Smith, Jonathan Z. 4
Song Dynasty (960–1279) 149, 151, 169
Songjiang 松江 112, 116
Songyuan 松原 104, 106
Soong Ching-ling 宋庆龄 (1893–1981) 170
Soong Mei-ling 宋美龄 (1897–2003) 170
Soong, Charlie 宋耀如 (1863–1918) 169
Soong, T. V. 宋子文 (1894–1971) 169
South China Church (Huanan jiaohui 华南教会) 62
South China Sea 南海 147, 161
South Korea 韩国 63, 105, 111
Spiritual Food Quarterley 灵食季刊 55
Spring Festival 77
State Administration of Cultural Heritage (Guojia wenwuju 国家文物局) 45
State Administration of Religious Affairs (Guojia zongjiao shiwuju 国家宗教事务局, SARA) 4, 15, 19, 22, 26, 29, 31, 40, 43, 108, 131, 137, 216
Straits Daoist College (Haixia daojiao xueyuan 海峡道教学院) 137
Stump, Roger 4
Sudan 苏丹 24
Sufism 24, 218
Sui Dynasty (581–618) 92
Suihua 绥化 107, 110
Suining 遂宁 179, 180, 182
Suizhou 随州 153, 156
superstition 14
supply and demand 2
Suqian 宿迁 117, 120
Suzhou 宿州 128, 129, 132
Suzhou 苏州 117, 120
Syria 叙利亚 22
Ta’er Temple 塔尔寺 208
Tacheng 塔城 217, 220
Tai’an 泰安 143, 145
Taipingjing 太平经 38
Taiqing Temple 太清宫 33, 144
Taiwan 台湾 14, 50, 61, 65, 67, 68, 69, 88, 120, 125, 127, 133, 136, 147, 179, 207
Taixu 太虚 (1890–1947) 127
Taiyuan 太原 40, 88, 92
Taizhou 台州 117, 120, 122, 125
Tajik (Tajike zu 塔吉克族) 20, 22, 218
talisman 36, 37
Tang Dynasty (618–907) 92, 149, 170, 211
Tang En-Jia 汤恩佳 163
Tangshan 唐山 83, 86, 87
Tashkurgan County 塔什库尔干县 22
Tatar (Tata’er zu 塔塔尔族) 20, 218
temple fair (miaohui 庙会) 49, 51, 79
Thailand 泰国 24, 173
Theravada Buddhism 15
Three Ranks of Servants (Sanban puren 三班仆人) 11, 68
Three-Self Patriotic Movement Committee (Sanzi aiguo yundong weiyuanhui 三自爱国运动委员会) 27, 54, 78
three-self principle (self-ruling, self-supporting, self-propagating) 27
Tian 天 (heaven) 44
Tiananmen Square 天安门广场 57
Tiandijiao 天帝教 52
Tianfeng 天风 96
Tianjin 天津 6, 73, 79–84, 85
Tianjin Massacre 天津教案 83
tianming 天命 (mandate of Heaven) 44
Tianshui 天水 203, 205, 206
Tiantai School 天台宗 126
tianyi 天意 (Heaven’s will) 44
Tianzhujiao 天主教 ( Catholicism )
tianzi 天子 44
Tibet ( Xizang )
Tibetan (Zang zu 藏族) 26, 179, 183, 190, 193, 196, 197, 203, 207, 208
Tibetan Buddhism 15, 17, 68, 76, 87, 94, 97, 103, 127, 194, 196, 207, 208, 218
Tieling 铁岭 99, 102
Tomb Sweeping Day 47
Tongchuan 铜川 199, 202
Tonghua 通化 104, 106
Tongliang 铜梁 174, 177
Tongliao 通辽 93, 96
Tongling 铜陵 129, 132
Tongnan 潼南 174, 177
Tongren 铜仁 185, 187
Tongzhanbu ( United Front Department )
Total Scope Church ( All Scope Church )
Trinitarian God 29
triple market theory (red, black, and gray markets) 2, 11
True Buddha Sect (Zhen fo znog 真佛宗) 11, 68–69
True Jesus church 真耶稣教会 66
Tsongkhapa (Zongkaba 宗喀巴, 1357–1419) 208
Tu Weiming 杜维明 163
Tu zu 土族 208
Tuan, Yi-Fu 4
tudi 土地 (earth god) 51
Tujia zu 土家族 133, 152, 157
Turpan 吐鲁番 216, 217, 220
Tweed, Thomas 4
Ulanqab 乌兰察布 93, 96
underground Catholic Bishops Conference 11, 56
underground Catholic churches 56–57
Unification Church (统一教) 11
union worship services (lianhe libai 联合礼拜) 27, 55
United Front Department (Tongzhanbu 统战部) 4, 27
United Kingdom 83
United States 2, 27, 61, 62, 64, 68, 169, 207
Upper Clarity’s Celestial Master Bureau (Shangqing tianshi fu 上清天师府) 33
Urumqi 乌鲁木齐 216, 217, 220
Uthman bin Affan 23
Uyghur (Weiwu’er zu 维吾尔族) 20, 159, 216
Uzbeck (Wuzibieke 乌兹别克) 20, 218
Vatican 梵蒂冈 40, 42, 43, 56, 57, 78, 84, 86, 87
Vietnam 越南 147, 166, 173, 188
Wahhabism (Wahabi zhuyi 瓦哈比主义) 24, 218
Wang Mingdao 王明道 (1900–1991) 55
Wang Yi 王怡 55, 184
Wang Zuoan 王作安 108
Wanzhou 万州 174, 177
Watchman Nee (Ni Tuosheng 倪柁声) 60, 114, 146
Weifang 潍坊 143, 145
Weihai 威海 143, 145
Weinan 渭南 199, 200, 202
Wenshan 文山 189, 192
Wenshuyuan 文殊院 183
Wenzhou 温州 122, 125, 127, 128
West China Union University 华西协合大学 184
White Lotus Sect (Bailian jiao 白莲教) 52
Witness Lee (Li Changshou 李常受, 1905–1997) 60, 61
Word of Life Church ( All Scope Church )
World Buddhist Forum 125
World Christian Database 31
World Council of Churches 28
World Elijah Association (Shijie yiliya fuyin xuanjiaohui 世界以利亚宣教会) 69
World Federation of Confucius’s Descendants (Shijie kongzi houyi lianyi zonghui 世界孔子后翼联谊总会) 47
World Frum of Daodejing 144
Wu Yangming 吴扬明 64, 67
Wu Yaozong 吴耀宗 (1893–1979) 27
Wuhan 武汉 40, 44, 93, 96, 152, 154, 156
Wuhu 芜湖 129, 132
Wulong 武隆 174, 177
Wuming Buddhist Academy 五明佛学院 183
Wuqing 武清 79, 82
Wushan 巫山 174, 177
Wuwei 武威 203, 206
Wuwei Confucius Temple 武威孔庙 207
Wuxi 无锡 117, 120, 174, 177
Wuzhong 吴忠 212, 213, 215
Wuzhou 梧州 166, 168
Xi Jinping 习近平 45, 47, 88, 108, 127, 154
Xi’an 西安 23, 40, 196, 198, 199, 200, 202, 203
Xiamen 厦门 52, 133, 134, 136
Xianfa Temple 显法寺 90
Xiangtan 湘潭 157, 160
Xiangxi 湘西 157, 160
Xiangxiang 湘乡 67
Xiangyang 向阳 153, 154, 156
Xianning 咸宁 153, 154, 156
Xiantiandao 先天道 69
Xianyang 咸阳 199, 200, 202
Xiaogan 孝感 153, 156
Xiaotaoyuan Female Mosque 小桃园女清真寺 115, 116
Xibo zu 锡伯族 106, 218
Xicheng 西城 74, 77
Xidao Tang 西道堂 23
xiejiao ( evil cult )
Xikai Cathedral 西开天主教堂 84
Xilingol League 锡林郭勒盟 93, 96
Xingtai 邢台 42, 83, 86
Xinguan Mosque 新关清真寺 207
Xining 西宁 207, 208, 211
Xinjiang 新疆 (Xinjiang Autonomous Religion) 3, 13, 21, 22, 23, 26, 27, 149, 159, 173, 198, 216–220
Xinjiang Islamic Institute 22
Xinyang 信阳 148, 151
Xinyu 新余 138, 139, 141
Xinzhou 忻州 88, 92
Xiqing 西青 79, 80, 81, 82
Xishuangbanna 西双版纳 189, 192
Xiushan 秀山 174, 177, 178
Xixia Church 西夏区基督教堂 216
Xizang (Tibet or Xizang Autonomous Religion) 13, 15, 40, 44, 68, 76, 114, 193–197, 198
Xu Shuangfu 徐双富 (1946–2006) 68
Xu Yongze 徐永泽 61
Xuancheng 宣城 129, 132
Xuanzang 玄奘 183
Xuecheng 学诚 15
Xuedou Temple 雪窦寺 125
Xuhui 徐汇 112, 116
Xunzi (荀子 313–235 BCE) 44
Xuzhou 徐州 117, 120, 121
Ya’an 雅安 180, 182
Yan Emperor 炎帝 88, 156
Yan’an 延安 199, 200, 202
Yanbian 延边 104, 106
Yancheng 盐城 117, 120
Yang, C.K. 杨庆堃 1
Yangjiang 阳江 162, 165
Yangming Academy 阳明精舍 46
Yangpu 杨浦 112, 116
Yangquan 阳泉 88, 92
yangsheng 养生 37, 131, 132
Yangzhou 扬州 117, 120
Yanjing Catholic Church 岩井天主教堂 196
Yanqing 延庆 3, 74
Yantai 烟台 142, 143, 145
Yao zu 瑶族 157, 166
Yellow Emperor 黄帝 88
Yellow Sea 73, 99, 142
Yi zu 彝族 166, 179
Yibin 宜宾 180, 182
Yichang 宜昌 153, 156
Yichun 伊春 107, 108, 110
Yichun 宜春 138, 141
Yiguandao 一贯道 52, 69
Yinchuan 银川 212, 213, 214, 215
Yingkou 营口 99, 102
Yingtan 鹰潭 138, 141
Yining 伊宁 216, 217
Yiwu County 义乌县 61, 128, 163
Yiwu Mosque 128
Yiyang 益阳 157, 160
Yongchuan 永川 174, 177
Yonghe Temple 雍和宫 76
Yongzhou 永州 157, 160
Young Men’s Christian Association 27, 114
Young Women’s Christian Association 114
Youyang 酉阳 174, 177
Yuan Dynasty (1260–1368) 39, 78, 82, 92
Yuan Shikai 袁世凯 (1859–1916) 44
Yuan Xiangchen 袁相忱 (Allen Yuan, 1914–2005) 55
Yuandao Academy 原道书院 46
Yubei 渝北 174, 177
Yue Chongdai 岳崇岱 (1888–1958) 33
Yueyang 岳阳 157, 160
Yulanpen Festival (yulanpen jie 盂兰盆节) 49
Yulin 榆林 199, 200, 202
Yulin 玉林 166, 168
Yuncheng 运城 88, 92
Yunfu 云浮 162, 165
Yunnan 云南 15, 21, 22, 55, 68, 169, 173, 188–193
Yunyang 云阳 174, 177
Yushu 玉树 208, 211
Yuxi 玉溪 189, 192
Yuzhong 渝中 174, 177
Zailijiao 在理教 (Way of the abiding principle) 82
Zaozhuang 枣庄 143, 145
Zhang Daoling 张道陵 (34–156) 35
Zhang Guangbi 张光壁 (1889–1947) 69
Zhangjiajie 张家界 157, 160
Zhangjiakou 张家口 83, 86, 87
Zhangye 张掖 203, 206
Zhangzhou 漳州 133, 136
Zhanjiang 湛江 162, 165
Zhaoqing 肇庆 162, 165
Zhaotong 昭通 189, 192
Zhejiang 浙江 3, 12, 18, 28, 29, 55, 61, 74, 77, 112, 121–128, 149
Zhejiang Provincial Christian Council 浙江省基督教协会 128
Zhen fo zong ( True Buddha Sect )
Zhengyi 正一 (Orthodox Unity) 35, 113
Zhengzhou 郑州 147, 148, 151
Zhenjiang 镇江 117, 120
Zhiyi 智顗 (538–598) 126
Zhong County 忠县 174, 177
Zhongguancun 中关村 74, 77
Zhongshan 中山 162, 165
Zhongwei 中卫 212, 215
Zhongyuan Festival (zhongyuan jie 中元节) 49
Zhongyue Temple 中岳庙 148
Zhou Enlai 周恩来 (1893–1976) 34, 57–58
Zhoukou 周口 148, 151
Zhoushan 舟山 122, 125
Zhu De 朱德 34, 58
Zhuang zu 壮族 133, 188
Zhuhai 珠海 161, 162, 165
Zhumadian 驻马店 148, 151
Zhuolu 涿鹿 87
Zhuzhou 株洲 157, 160
Zibo 淄博 143, 145
Zigong 自贡 180, 182
Ziyang 资阳 180, 182
Zo Kun 左坤 67
Zoroastrianism 136
Zunyi 遵义 185, 187