Index

(person names and place names in Chinese are provided; organizational names in hanyu pinyin and Chinese are provided)

610 Office4Afghanistan 阿富汗24akhoond (ahong 阿訇)22, 25Aksu 阿克苏217, 220All Range Church(All Scope Church)All Scope Church (Quanfanwei jiaohui 全范围教会)61–62Altay 阿尔泰217, 220Alxa League 阿拉善盟93, 96American Fujian Taoist United Association (Meiguo Fujian daojiao lianhehui 美国福建道教联合会)137American Taoist United Association (Meiguo daojiao lianhehui 美国道教联合会)138Amitabha Buddha 阿弥陀佛15–16Analects (Lunyu 论语)45ancestor worship47–48, 50–51, 53, 54, 88, 169–170Anhui18, 28, 29, 47, 55, 64, 66, 112, 121, 122, 128–132Ankang 安康199, 202Anqing 安庆129, 132Anshan 鞍山99, 101Anshun 安顺185, 187aobao 敖包96–97Avalokitesvara Bodhisattva 观世音菩萨15, 127Azerbaijan 阿塞拜疆24Baicheng 白城104, 106Baidu Map 百度地图6Bailianjiao 白莲教52Bailin Temple 柏林寺87Baise 百色166, 168Baishan 白山104, 106Baiyin 白银204, 206Baiyun Temple 白云观33, 79Banan 巴南174, 177Bangladesh 孟加拉24, 173Bao’an zu 保安族20, 203Baodi 宝坻79, 82Baoding 保定83, 86, 87Baoji 宝鸡199, 200, 202Baoshan 宝山112, 116, 189, 192Baotou 包头93, 96baptism (xili 洗礼)19, 30, 41Bayan Nur 巴彦努尔93, 96Bayingolin 巴音郭楞217, 220Bazhong 巴中180, 182Beibei 北碚174, 177Beichen 北辰79, 80, 82Beihai 北海166, 168Beijing 北京6, 12, 14, 15, 20, 22, 33, 34, 37, 39, 40, 46, 55, 56, 57, 69, 73–79, 80, 83, 84, 85, 86, 114, 163Beijing Olympics78Beijing Shouwang Church 北京守望教会12, 55–56, 78–79Bengbu 蚌埠129, 130, 132Benxi 本溪99, 101Bhutan 不丹15, 173Bible4, 17, 29, 30–31, 42, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 121, 145, 200Bijie 毕节185, 187Binhai 滨海79, 80, 81, 82Binzhou 滨州143, 145Bishan 璧山174, 177bishop 主教40–41, 43, 56–57, 78, 84, 86, 87, 103, 114, 115, 119, 196Bishops Conference of the Catholic Church in China (zhongguo tianzhujiao zhujiaotuan 中国天主教主教团)39black market2, 5, 11–12, 56, 60–69Bo Sea 渤海99, 142Bodhidharma (Putidamo 菩提达摩)16Bodhisattva (pusa 菩萨)15, 19, 57, 131Bon 苯教15, 194–196Bonan (Bao’an zu 保安族)20, 203Born Again Movement(All Scope Church)Bortala 博尔塔拉216, 219Bouyei (Buyi zu 布依族)185Boxer Rebellion (1899–1901)84Boyang County 波阳县142Bozhou 亳州128, 129, 132Buddhism 佛教1, 13, 14–20, 48, 66, 68, 76, 83, 86, 87, 90, 94, 97, 103, 126, 127, 128, 131, 136, 139, 141, 168, 175, 179, 183, 192, 194, 196, 207, 208, 218Buddhist Academy of China (Zhongguo foxueyuan 中国佛学院)76Buddhist Association of Canada90Buddhist Association of China (Zhongguo Fojiao xiehui 中国佛教协会)15, 77Buddhist Association of the Republic of China (Zhonghua Fojiao hui 中華佛教會)14Buluotuo religion 布洛陀教169Bureau of Tourism12Burhan Shehidi 包尔汉·沙希迪20C. K. Yang(Yang, C. K.)Cangnan county 苍南县3, 127Cangzhou 沧州83, 86Catholicism (Tianzhu jiao 天主教)1, 12, 13, 27, 39–43, 76, 86, 72, 94, 190, 192, 196, 218Celestial Master 天师35Chamdo 昌都194, 196Chamsham Temple 湛山精舍90Chan Buddhism (禅宗)16Changbai Church 长白教会105Changchun 长春101, 104, 106Changde 常德157, 160Changji 昌吉217, 220Changning 长宁112, 116Changping 昌平74, 75, 77Changsha 长沙157, 160Changshou 长寿174, 177Changzhi 长治88, 90, 92Changzhou 常州117, 120Chao, Andrew (赵一舟, 1927–2015)42Chaoyang 朝阳74, 77, 19, 102Chaozhou 潮州162, 165Chen Ming 陈明46Chengde 承德83, 86Chengdu 成都40, 163, 179, 180, 182chenghuang 城隍 (city god)51Chengkou 城口174, 177Chenzhou 郴州157, 160Chi You 蚩尤88Chiang Kai-shek 蒋介石 (1887–1975)169–170Chifeng 赤峰93, 96China Catholic Laypeople Patriotic Association (Zhongguo tianzhujiao jiaoyou aiguohui 中国天主教教友爱国会)39China Catholic Patriotic Association (Zhongguo tianzhujiao aiguohui 中国天主教爱国会)39, 56China Christian Council (Zhongguo jidujiao xiehui 中国基督教协会)28, 78China Confucius Foundation (Zhongguo kongzi jijinhui 中国孔子基金会)45–46China General Social Survey (CGSS)6, 19China Gospel Fellowship (Zhonghua fuyin tuanqi 中华福音团契)55China Hui Nationality Culture Garden and the World Muslim City214China Islamic Institute (Zhongguo yisilanjiao jingxueyuan 中国伊斯兰教经学院)21, 22, 76China-Arab States Expo214Chinese Association for Mongol Studies97Chinese Association of Confucius the Holy Sage (Zhonghua kongshenghui 中华孔圣会)46Chinese Communist Party (CCP)4, 7Chinese Communist Youth League (CCYL)4, 7Chinese Daoism 中国道教34Chinese Daoist Association (Zhongguo daojiao xiehui 中国道教协会)33, 34, 36Chinese General Social Survey26Chinese Muslim (Zhongguo musilin 中国穆斯林)21Chinese Muslim Federation116Chinese National Islamic Association (Zhongguo yisilanjiao xiehui 中国伊斯兰教学会)20, 26Chinese Spiritual Life Survey (CSLS)6, 19, 32, 39, 43, 48, 53, 58Ching Hai 青海65–66Chizhou 池州129, 132Chongming 崇明112, 116Chongqing 重庆147, 173–179, 198Chongyi Church 崇一堂128Chongzuo 崇左166, 168Christianity Today61Church of the Almighty God (Quannengshen jiaohui 全能神教会)62Church of the Protection of the Mother of God in Harbin 哈尔滨圣母帡幪教堂110Chuxiong 楚雄189, 192City God Temple 城隍庙113Cold Water Sect (Lengshuijiao 冷水教)62–63communal folk religion51communion (shengcan 圣餐)30Complete Perfection Daoism(Quanzhen)Confucian academy (shuyuan 书院)45Confucianism (Ru jiao 儒教)44–48, 146Confucius (Kongzi 孔子 551–479 BCE)44, 207Confucius Temple in Nanjing (Nanjing fuzimiao 南京夫子庙)119Confucius Temple Protection Association of China (Zhongguo kongmiao baohu xiehui 中国孔庙保护协会)46, 47Criers(All Scope Church)Crying Faction(All Scope Church)Cultural Revolution2, 4, 9, 15, 18, 22, 25, 28, 30, 39, 42, 48, 55, 57, 60, 92, 149, 190, 196, 200, 202, 211Dadukou 大渡口174, 177Dai Kangsheng 戴康生23Dai zu 傣族188Dalai Lama 达赖喇嘛15, 183, 194, 207, 208Dali 大理22, 189, 192Dalian 大连99, 102Dami Evangelism Association (Dami xuanjiaohui 达米宣教会)63Dandong 丹东99, 102Danzhou 儋州170, 172Daodejing 道德经38Daoism 道教1, 11, 12, 33–39, 48, 76, 79, 94, 113, 141, 144, 154, 158, 170, 190, 202, 218Daoism in Shanghai 上海道教34Daoist Academy of China (Zhongguo daxuejiaoxueyuan 中国道教学院)76Daoist Central Association (Daojiao zonghui 道教总会)33Daqing 大庆107, 110Datong 大同88, 89, 92Daur (Dawoer zu 达斡尔族)106Daxing 大兴74, 75, 77Daxing’anling diqu 大兴安岭地区107, 108, 110Dazhou 达州179, 180, 182Dazu 大足175, 178definition of religion1Dehong 德宏189, 192denominations27developed religion1Deyang 德阳180, 182Dezhou 德州143, 145Dharmarantna 竺法兰90Dianjiang 垫江174, 177diffused religion1Ding Guangxun 丁光训 (K.H. Ting, 1915–2012)28, 119Dingxi 定西203, 206Diqing 迪庆189, 192Disciples Sect (Mentu hui) 门徒会63–64, 102Dong zu 侗族152, 157, 166, 185Dongcheng 东城74, 77Dongguan 东莞162, 165Dongguan Mosque 东关清真大寺211Dongli 东丽79, 82Donglindang 东林党46Dongxiang zu 东乡族20, 203Dongyang County 东阳县61Dongying 东营143, 145Double Ninth Festival (chongyang jie 重阳节)42Dragon Boat Festival (duanwu jie 端午节)42dragon gods (longwang 龙王)51Duanying Temple 端应寺101Durkheim, Emile4Early Rain Blessings Reform Church (Qiuyu zhi fu guizheng jiaohui 秋雨之福归正教会)55, 56, 184East China Sea 东海111, 122Eastern Lightening (Dongfangshandian 东方闪电)(Church of Almighty God)Egypt 埃及22Eliade, Mircea4Emile Durkheim(Durkheim, Emile)Enshi 恩施153, 156Established King Sect 被立王教61, 64, 67evil cult (xiejiao 邪教)2, 4, 11, 20, 52, 60, 61, 102, 103Ezhou 鄂州153, 156Fairy Crane Mosque 仙鹤寺122Falun Gong 法轮功12, 64–65Famen Monastery 法门寺16Fan Xueyan 范学淹 (1907–1992)56Fan Zhongliang 范忠良 (1918–2014)115fandong huidaomen 反动会道门 (reactionary organizations)60Fangcheng Fellowship (Fangcheng tuanqi 方城团契)55, 149Fangchenggang 防城港166, 168fangeming zuzhi 反革命组织 (counterrevolutionary organizations)60Fangshan 房山74, 77Fayin 法音15Fengdu 丰都174, 177Fengjie 奉节174, 177fengshui 风水52, 53Fengtai 丰台74, 77Fengxian 奉贤112, 116filial piety (xiao 孝)47Five Peaks (wuyue 五岳)38Five Pillars of Islam25Fojiao wenhua 佛教文化15folk religion1, 12, 17, 39, 47, 48–54, 87, 94, 102, 106, 218Foshan 佛山162, 165four sacred Buddhist mountains18Foxue yanjiu 佛学研究15France 法国83Fujian 福建15, 40, 111, 122, 133–137, 147Fujian Buddhist Academy (Fujian foxue yuan 福建佛学院)136Fujian Theological Seminary (Fujian shenxue yuan 福建神学院)136Fuling 涪陵174, 177Fuller Theological Seminary61fundamentalism24Fushun 抚顺99, 102Fuxin 阜新99, 102Fuyang 阜阳129, 132Fuzhou 福州133, 136, 137, 138, 141Gaddafi, Muammar22Galilee of China (Nanyang)149Gannan 甘南203, 206Gansu 甘肃13, 18, 24, 58, 73, 92, 149, 173, 198, 203–207, 211, 212Ganzhou 赣州138, 139, 141Gaode Map6Garze 甘孜180, 182Gelao zu 仡佬族185Gelug 格鲁15, 194Germany 德国207Ghost Festival48, 50Giovanni di Monte Corvino39God of Wealth (Caishen 财神)52, 53–54, 57Golog 果洛208, 211Gong Shengliang 龚胜亮 (龚圣亮)62Google Earth6Google Maps6Grace Hill Church 恩典堂139Grand Bao’en Temple 大报恩寺120gray market2, 11Gu Yuese 顾约瑟128Guan Yu 关羽 (?–219)92Guang’an 广安179, 180, 182Guangdong 广东62, 111, 112, 147, 161–165, 169Guangxi 广西147, 173, 166–169Guangyuan 广元180, 182Guangzhou 广州55, 161, 162, 165Guanyin Method (Guanyin famen 观音法门)65–66Guigang 贵港166, 168Guilin 桂林166, 168, 169Guixi 贵溪33Guiyang 贵阳185, 187Guizhou 贵州46, 147, 173, 185–188Guomindang (Kuomintang)14Guoqing Temple 国清寺126guoxue 国学 (national learning)44Guyuan 固原212, 215Hadith (shengxun 圣训)24, 25, 26Haibei 海北208, 211Haidian 海淀74, 77Haidong 海东208, 211Haikou 海口170, 172Hainan 海南6, 147, 169–172, 208, 211Haixi 海西208, 211Hajj (pilgrimage to Mecca)21, 25Hami 哈密216, 217, 220Han Choong-ryul 韩忠烈105Han Dynasty, Eastern (25 CE–220 CE)90, 92Handan 邯郸83, 86Hangzhou 杭州31, 74, 77, 121, 122, 125, 127, 128Hani zu 哈尼族188Hanzhong 汉中199, 200, 202Harbin 哈尔滨106, 107, 110Hebei 河北13, 40, 50, 73, 83–88, 98, 111, 147Hebei (district) 河北(区)79, 82Hebi 鹤壁148, 151Hechi 河池166, 168Hechuan 合川174, 177Hedong 河东79, 80, 82Hefei 合肥128, 129, 130, 132Hegang 鹤岗107, 110Heihe 黑河107, 110Heilongjiang 黑龙江1, 13, 55, 73, 98, 103, 107–110Heizui’er Catholic Church 黑嘴儿耶稣圣心教堂211Henan 河南28, 29, 38, 55, 61, 64, 66, 68, 73, 111, 112, 147–152, 198Hengshui 衡水83, 86Hengyang 衡阳157, 160Heping (district) 和平(区)79, 80, 82Heping County 和平县62–63Hexi 河西79, 82Heyuan 河源162, 165Heze 菏泽143, 145Hezhe zu 赫哲族106Hezhou 河州24, 166, 168Hinggan League 兴安盟93, 96Hohhot 呼和浩特40, 93, 96Holistic Church(All Scope Church)Holy City of the East 东方圣城146Holy Confucian Hall (Kongsheng tang 孔圣堂)46Holy See43, 56, 114Holy Spirit29, 42, 62, 63, 66Hong Kong 香港67, 88, 125, 127, 161, 163, 207Hong’en Temple 红恩寺57Honghe 红河189, 192Hongkou 虹口112, 116Hongqiao 红桥79, 82Hongyi 弘一 (1880–1942)83Hotan 和田217, 220house church (jiating jiaohui 家庭教会)11–12, 54–56, 61, 78, 102, 114, 130, 149, 170, 184, 200, 220Huai’an 淮安117, 120Huaibei 淮北128, 129, 132Huaihua 怀化157, 160Huainan 淮南128, 129, 132Huairou 怀柔74, 77Huang Huanting 黄焕听62Huanggang 黄冈153, 156Huangnan 黄南208, 211Huangpu 黄浦112, 116Huangshan 黄山129, 132Huangshi 黄石153, 156Huayan Temple 华严寺175Hubei 湖北66, 111, 147, 152–156, 169, 173, 198Hui zu 回族2085, 92, 98, 128, 133, 138, 142, 147, 149, 152, 166, 169, 172, 190, 196, 203, 206, 208, 211, 213, 216, 218, 220Huizhou 惠州162, 165Huludao 葫芦岛99, 102Hulunbuir 呼伦贝尔93, 96Humanist Buddhism (renjian fojiao 人间佛教)15, 125Hunan 湖南38, 67, 111, 147, 157–161, 169, 173Hunan Bible College 湖南圣经学院160Huo Congguang 霍从光68Huzhou 湖州123, 125Ikhwani (Yihewani 依赫瓦尼)23Ili 伊犁217, 220imam (yimamu 伊玛目)25immortal 仙37India 印度173, 198individual folk religion51, 52Indonesia 印度尼西亚24Inner Mongolia (Neimenggu 内蒙古)13, 15, 53, 73, 93–97, 98, 149, 198, 212Inner Mongolia Folklore Society98institutional religion1Iran 伊朗24Iraq 伊拉克24Islam1, 11, 12, 13, 20–27, 76, 79, 86, 105, 108, 115, 121, 128, 136, 168, 179, 187, 189, 200, 205, 207, 211, 213, 216, 218Islamic Association of China(Chinese National Islamic Association)Jade Buddha Temple 玉佛寺113Jahriyya (Zhehelinye 哲赫林耶)24Japan 日本15, 46, 158, 207Jerusalem of China (Wenzhou)128Jesus (Yesu 耶稣)29, 30–31, 42Jesus Family Sect 耶稣家庭教会96–97, 145Jews151–152, 163Ji Sanbao 季三宝63–64Ji’an 吉安138, 141Jiading 嘉定112, 116Jiamusi 佳木斯107, 110Jiang Duanyi 江端仪 (Sister Kong Duen-yee)67Jiang Qing 蒋庆46, 47, 163Jiangbei 江北174, 177Jiangjin 江津174, 177Jiangmen 江门162, 165Jiangsu 江苏66, 111, 112, 116–121, 125, 127Jiangsu Road Christian Church 江苏路基督教堂145Jiangxi 江西33, 63, 111, 122, 123, 125, 133, 138–142, 147Jiangxi Buddhist Academy (Jiangxi Foxueyuan 江西佛学院)141Jiangxin Temple 江心寺125Jiaozuo 焦作148, 151jiapu 家谱 (lineage recording book)50jiating jiaohui(house church)Jiaxing 嘉兴122, 125, 128Jiayuguan 嘉峪关203, 206Jidu xin jiao 基督新教(Protestantism)Jidu zongjiao 基督宗教 (Christian religions)27Jidujiao 基督教(Christianity)Jieyang 揭阳162, 165jikong 祭孔 (worship of Confucius)44Jilin 吉林40, 73, 98, 103–106Jilin City 吉林市104, 106Jin Luxian 金鲁贤 (1916–2013)115Jin Tianming 金天明56Jinan 济南40, 142, 143, 145Jinchang 金昌203, 206Jincheng 晋城88, 92Jing’an 静安112, 113, 116Jingdezhen 景德镇138, 141Jinghai 静海79, 82Jingmen 荆门153, 154, 156Jingzhou 荆州153, 154, 156Jinhua 金华122, 125, 126Jining 济宁143, 145Jinnan 津南79, 82Jinshan 金山112, 116Jinzhong 晋中88, 89, 90, 92Jinzhou 锦州99, 102jitian dadian 祭天大典 (heaven worship ceremony)44Jiujiang 九江138, 139, 141Jiulongpo 九龙坡174, 177Jiuquan 酒泉203, 206Jixi 鸡西107, 108, 110Jizhou 蓟州79, 82Journal of China Religion 中国宗教144jumu’ah25Kagyu 噶举15, 194Kaifeng 开封148, 149, 151Kaizhou 开州174, 177Karamay 克拉玛依217, 220karma 業19, 49Kashgar 喀什217, 220Kasyapamatanga 伽耶摩腾90Kazakh (Hasake zu 哈萨克族)20, 216, 218Kazakhstan 哈萨克斯坦24, 198, 216keju zhidu 科举制度 (traditional examination system)46Khufuyya (Hufuye 虎夫耶)24Kimon 金门133Kirti Monastery 戈尔登寺183Kizilsu 克孜勒苏217, 220Kongshengtang 孔圣堂163Kongzi(Confucius)Korean (Chaoxian zu 朝鲜族)98Kritigarbha (Dizang 地藏)131Kubrawiyya (Kubuerye 库布尔耶)24Kunbum Monastery(Ta’er Temple)Kunming 昆明163, 189, 192Kuomintang(Guomindang)Kyrgyz (Ke’erkezi zu 柯尔克孜族)20, 216Kyrgyzstan 吉尔吉斯斯坦198Labrang Monastery 拉扑楞寺18, 207Laibin 来宾166, 168Laiwu 莱芜143, 145Langfang 廊坊83, 86, 87Lanzhou Islamic Institute 兰州伊斯兰教经学院22Lanzhou 兰州5, 58, 203, 206, 207Laos 老挝147, 173Lefebvre, Henri4Leshan 乐山180, 182Lhasa 拉萨193, 194, 196Li Changlin (Lee Jang Rim) 李长林63Li Hongzhi 李洪志64Li Shutong 李叔同(Hongyi)Li Tianan 李天恩 (1928–2016)149Li zu 黎族169lianghui 两会28Liangping 梁平174, 177Liangshan 凉山179, 180, 182Lianping County 连平县63Lianyungang 连云港116, 117, 120Liaocheng 聊城143, 145Liaoning 辽宁73, 98–106Liaoyang 辽阳99, 103Liaoyuan 辽源104, 106Lijiang 丽江189, 192Lin Xiangao 林献羔 (Samuel Lamb, 1924–2013)55Lincang 临沧189, 192Linfen 临汾88, 90, 92Lingling Sect (Lingling jiao 灵灵教)66Lingxian zong 灵仙宗68Linxia 临夏24, 203, 205, 206Linyi 临沂143, 145Lishui 丽水122, 125Lisu zu 傈僳族188Little Red Book (Quotations from Chairman Mao, Mao zhuxi yulu 毛主席语录)57Liu Bei 刘备 (161–223)92Liu Jiaguo 刘家国66–67Liu Zhi 刘智 (1655–1745)24Liupanshui 六盘水185, 187Liuzhou 柳州166, 168, 169Living Stream Ministry61Local Church (Difang Jiaohui 地方教会 or zhaohui 召会)60, 61, 146Long March183Longnan 陇南203, 206Longquan si 龙泉寺 (Dragon Spring Temple)77Longyan 龙岩133, 136Lord God Sect (Zhushen jiao 主神教)66–67Los Angeles 洛杉矶69Loudi 娄底157, 160Lu Shengyan 卢胜彦68Lu’an 六安129, 132Lüliang 吕梁88, 90, 92Luohe 漯河148, 151Luoyang 洛阳148, 149, 151Luzhou 泸州180, 182Ma Daqin 马达钦114Ma Wanfu 马万福24Ma’anshan 马鞍山129, 132Macao 澳门88, 161, 163Malaysia 马来西亚22, 24Manchu (Man zu 满族)98, 100, 147, 218Mao cult (Mao personality cult)1, 12, 57–59Mao Zedong 毛泽东 (1893–1976)57, 159, 160Maoming 茂名162, 165Marco Polo 马可·波路121Marx, Engels, Lenin, and Stalin58Mass 弥撒41Matteo Ricci(Ricci, Matteo)Mazu 妈祖 (seafaring goddess)51, 81, 136Mecca 麦加21, 25, 211Meishan 眉山180, 182Meizhou 梅州162, 165Mengzi (孟子 372–289 BCE)44Menhuan 门宦23, 24Mentougou 门头沟74, 77Mianyang 绵阳57, 180, 182Miao zu (Hmong) 苗族133, 152, 157, 166, 169, 185, 188Miaochan xingxue 庙产兴学4Ming Dynasty (1368–1644)78, 79, 92, 154, 169, 190, 207Minhang (Minxing) 闵行112, 116Ministry of Civil Affairs46Ministry of Cultural Affairs46Ministry of Education44Ministry of Public Security (Gong’anbu 公安部)4, 60Ministry of State Security (Guo’anbu 国安部)4Minnan Buddhist Academy (Minnan Foxueyuan 闽南佛学院)15, 136Miyun 密云74, 77Mogao Caves 莫高窟207Mongol (Menggu zu) 蒙古族26, 98, 138, 147, 203, 208, 216, 218Mongolia 蒙古15, 76, 73, 98, 108, 198Morality books 善书17Morrison, Robert (1782–1834)27, 31Mount Emei 峨眉山18Mount Heng 恒山38Mount Heng 衡山38Mount Hua 华山38Mount Jiuhua 九华山18Mount Lao 崂山144Mount Longhu 龙虎山139Mount Miaofeng 妙峰山79Mount Putuo 普陀山18Mount Song 嵩山38Mount Tai 泰山38, 142Mount Wutai 五台山18Mount Zion in Taiwan67Mudanjiang 牡丹江107, 110Muhammad ibn Abd al-Wahhab24Muhammad 穆罕默德23Muyang County 沐阳县66Myanmar (Burma) 缅甸147, 173Nagqu 那曲194, 196Najiaying Mosque 纳家营清真寺190Nan’an 南岸174, 177Nanchang 南昌138, 141Nanchong 南充180, 182Nanchuan 南川174, 177Nanjing Union Theological Seminary (Jinling xiehe shenxueyuan 金陵协和神学院)29, 76, 119Nanjing 南京116, 117, 120Nankai 南开79, 80, 82Nanking Theological Seminary (Jinling shenxueyuan 金陵神学院)29, 119Nanning 南宁166, 168Nanping 南平133, 136Nanputuo Temple 南普陀寺15Nanshan Temple 南山寺170Nantional Seminary of the Catholic Church in China (Zhongguo tianzhujiao shenzhe xueyuan 中国天主教神哲学院)76Nantong 南通116, 117, 120Nanyang 南阳148, 151Narrow Gate in the wilderness (Kuangye Zhaimen 旷野窄门)(Disciples Sect)National Seminary of the Catholic Church (Zhongguo tianzhujiao shenzhe xueyuan 中国天主教神哲学院)40Naxi zu 纳西族179Neijiang 内江179, 180, 182Nepal 尼泊尔15, 173, 198Nestorians97, 200, 211New Testament Church (Xinyue jiaohui 新约教会)67–68Ngari 阿里194, 196Ngawa 阿坝180, 182Nigeria 尼日利亚24Ningbo 宁波122, 125, 128Ningde 宁德133, 136Ninghe 宁河79, 81, 82Ningxia 宁夏13, 24, 26, 27, 73, 92, 149, 198, 212–216Niujie Mosque 牛街礼拜寺79Noble Eightfold Path (bazhengdao 八正道)16North Korea 朝鲜73, 98, 105, 111Nujiang 怒江189, 192Nyingchi 林芝194, 196Nyingma 宁玛15, 194oligopoly theory2Opium Wars (1839–1842 and 1856–1860)27, 144Ordos 鄂尔多斯93, 96, 97Oroqen (Elunchun zu 鄂伦春族)106Orthodox Christianity 东正教1, 108, 218Orthodox Unity Daoism(Zhengyi)Our Lady of the Holy Rosary Church (Xiamen meigui shengmu tang 厦门玫瑰圣母堂)137paiwei 牌位50Pakistan 巴基斯坦22, 24, 198Panchen Lama 班禅喇嘛15, 194, 207Panjin 盘锦99, 102Panshi Church (Hangzhou) 磐石教会31Panzhihua 攀枝花180, 182Patriarch Kirill of Mosco108Peace Conference of Asia and Pacific Regions14Peepal tree (puti shu 菩提树)18Peking Christian Tabernacle Church 北京基督徒会堂55Pengshui 彭水174, 177People’s Liberation Army57People’s Political Conference (Quanguo zhengzhi xieshang huiyi 全国政治协商会议)34Pew Research Center31pigu 辟谷38Pingdingshan148, 151Pinggu74, 77Pingliang 平凉203, 206Pingxiang 萍乡138, 139, 141political religion1Pope Benedict XVI56, 84, 114Pope Francis56Pope Pius XII11Population Census6postdenominational28Protestantism (Jidu xin jiao 基督新教)27–33pseudo religion1Pu’er 普洱189, 192Pudong 浦东112, 116Puhaddin 普哈丁121Puji Temple 普济寺125Pure Land Buddhism (jingtu zong)15Putian 莆田133, 136Putuo 普陀112, 116Putuo Zongsheng Temple 普陀宗乘寺87Puxi 浦西111Puyang 濮阳148, 151Qadim (Gedimu 格底目)23, 24Qadiriyya (Kadilinye 卡迪林耶)24qi38, 64Qiandongnan 黔东南185, 187Qiang zu 羌族179Qianjiang 黔江174, 177Qiannan 黔南185, 187Qianxinan 黔西南185, 187Qigong 气功12, 52, 64–65Qijiang 綦江174, 177Qing Dynasty (1644–1911)44, 76, 78, 82, 108, 115, 169, 190, 211Qingdao 青岛143, 144, 145Qinghai 青海13, 15, 24, 173, 199, 207–211, 212Qingming 清明47Qingpu 青浦112, 113, 116Qingyang 庆阳203, 206Qingyuan 清远162, 165Qingzhen Kunning Tongde Female School 清真坤宁同德女学115Qinhuangdao 青岛83, 86Qinzhou 钦州166, 168Qiqihar 齐齐哈尔107, 108, 110Qitaihe 七台河107, 108, 110Quannengshen jiaohui(Church of Almighty God)Quanzhen 全真 (Complete Perfection)35, 144Quanzhou 泉州133, 134, 136qubba (gongbei 拱北)24Qufu 曲阜47, 146Qujing 曲靖189, 192Qur’an17, 21, 22, 24–26Quzhou 衢州122, 125Red Guards (hongweibing 红卫兵)44, 57red market2, 11–12, 13–43religion, definition of1Religious Affairs Bureau (RAB)4religious market2Republican era (1912–1949)14, 82, 207Ricci, Matteo (1552–1610) 利玛窦18, 39, 86Rizhao 日照143, 145Rongchang 荣昌174, 177Ru jiao(Confucianism)Russia 俄罗斯24, 73, 83, 98, 110, 198, 216Russian (Eluosi zu 俄罗斯族)218Sa’d ibn Abi Waqqas (570–632)23sacred place4, 5, 37sacred space4Sakya 萨迦15, 194Salafi-jihadism218Salar (Sala zu 撒拉族)20, 203, 208samsara (lunhui 轮回)19Sanban puren(Three Ranks of Servants)sangang wuchang 三纲五常44Sanjiang Church 三江教堂128Sanmenxia 三门峡148, 151Sanming 三明133, 136Sanya 三亚169, 170, 172Saudi Arabia 沙特阿拉伯21, 22, 24, 25, 207Second Vatican Council (1962–1965)42sectarian folk religion51, 52semi-religion1seven sacraments (shengshi 圣事)41Shaanxi 陕西35, 38, 40, 63, 64, 68, 73, 92, 147, 173, 198–203Shakyamuni (shijiamoni 释迦摩尼)18Shaman Museum 萨满文化博物馆106Shamanism 萨满教94, 97, 106Shandong 山东69, 73, 111, 142–146, 147Shangdi 上帝 (God)29shangfen 上坟 (gravesite visit)50Shanghai 上海14, 27, 33, 34, 40, 41, 55, 76, 111–116, 122, 128, 163Shanghai Wanbang Mission Church 上海万邦宣教教会114Shangluo 商洛199, 202Shangqiu 商丘148, 151Shangrao 上饶138, 139, 141Shannan 陕南194, 196Shantou 汕头162, 165Shanwei 汕尾162, 165Shanxi 山西18, 38, 73, 88–93, 147, 198Shaoguan 韶关162, 165Shaolin Temple 少林寺148Shaoshan 韶山159Shaoxing 绍兴122, 125Shaoyang 邵阳157, 160Shapingba 沙坪坝174, 177sharia24She zu 畲族133, 138Shen29Shengling 圣灵(Holy Spirit)Shennong 神农156Shenyang 沈阳40, 98, 99, 102Shenzhen 深圳161, 162, 163, 165Sheshan Cathedral 佘山天主堂41, 114Sheshan Catholic Seminary 佘山修道院Shi Enxiang 师恩祥86Shi Yongxin 释永信149Shi Yu 施余110Shi’i 什叶派23, 218Shigatse 日喀则194, 196Shijiazhuang 石家庄83, 86Shijingshan 石景山74, 77Shiyan 十堰153, 154, 156Shizhu 石柱174, 177Shizuishan 石嘴山212, 215shortage economy theory2Shouters (Huhan pai 呼喊派)60Shuangyashan 双鸭山107, 110Shunyi 顺义74, 77Shuozhou 朔州88, 92Shuyuan 书院(Confucian academy)Sichuan 四川15, 18, 57, 61, 173, 179–184, 198Singapore 新加坡207Siping 四平104, 106sishu 私塾 (old-style private school)44Smith, Jonathan Z.4Song Dynasty (960–1279)149, 151, 169Songjiang 松江112, 116Songyuan 松原104, 106Soong Ching-ling 宋庆龄 (1893–1981)170Soong Mei-ling 宋美龄 (1897–2003)170Soong, Charlie 宋耀如 (1863–1918)169Soong, T. V. 宋子文 (1894–1971)169South China Church (Huanan jiaohui 华南教会)62South China Sea 南海147, 161South Korea 韩国63, 105, 111Spiritual Food Quarterley 灵食季刊55Spring Festival77State Administration of Cultural Heritage (Guojia wenwuju 国家文物局)45State Administration of Religious Affairs (Guojia zongjiao shiwuju 国家宗教事务局, SARA)4, 15, 19, 22, 26, 29, 31, 40, 43, 108, 131, 137, 216Straits Daoist College (Haixia daojiao xueyuan 海峡道教学院)137Stump, Roger4Sudan 苏丹24Sufism24, 218Sui Dynasty (581–618)92Suihua 绥化107, 110Suining 遂宁179, 180, 182Suizhou 随州153, 156superstition14supply and demand2Suqian 宿迁117, 120Suzhou 宿州128, 129, 132Suzhou 苏州117, 120Syria 叙利亚22Ta’er Temple 塔尔寺208Tacheng 塔城217, 220Tai’an 泰安143, 145Taipingjing 太平经38Taiqing Temple 太清宫33, 144Taiwan 台湾14, 50, 61, 65, 67, 68, 69, 88, 120, 125, 127, 133, 136, 147, 179, 207Taixu 太虚 (1890–1947)127Taiyuan 太原40, 88, 92Taizhou 台州117, 120, 122, 125Tajik (Tajike zu 塔吉克族)20, 22, 218talisman36, 37Tang Dynasty (618–907)92, 149, 170, 211Tang En-Jia 汤恩佳163Tangshan 唐山83, 86, 87Tashkurgan County 塔什库尔干县22Tatar (Tata’er zu 塔塔尔族)20, 218temple fair (miaohui 庙会)49, 51, 79Thailand 泰国24, 173Theravada Buddhism15Three Ranks of Servants (Sanban puren 三班仆人)11, 68Three-Self Patriotic Movement Committee (Sanzi aiguo yundong weiyuanhui 三自爱国运动委员会)27, 54, 78three-self principle (self-ruling, self-supporting, self-propagating)27Tian 天 (heaven)44Tiananmen Square 天安门广场57Tiandijiao 天帝教52Tianfeng 天风96Tianjin 天津6, 73, 79–84, 85Tianjin Massacre 天津教案83tianming 天命 (mandate of Heaven)44Tianshui 天水203, 205, 206Tiantai School 天台宗126tianyi 天意 (Heaven’s will)44Tianzhujiao 天主教(Catholicism)tianzi 天子44Tibet(Xizang)Tibetan (Zang zu 藏族)26, 179, 183, 190, 193, 196, 197, 203, 207, 208Tibetan Buddhism15, 17, 68, 76, 87, 94, 97, 103, 127, 194, 196, 207, 208, 218Tieling 铁岭99, 102Tomb Sweeping Day47Tongchuan 铜川199, 202Tonghua 通化104, 106Tongliang 铜梁174, 177Tongliao 通辽93, 96Tongling 铜陵129, 132Tongnan 潼南174, 177Tongren 铜仁185, 187Tongzhanbu(United Front Department)Total Scope Church(All Scope Church)Trinitarian God29triple market theory (red, black, and gray markets)2, 11True Buddha Sect (Zhen fo znog 真佛宗)11, 68–69True Jesus church 真耶稣教会66Tsongkhapa (Zongkaba 宗喀巴, 1357–1419)208Tu Weiming 杜维明163Tu zu 土族208Tuan, Yi-Fu4tudi 土地 (earth god)51Tujia zu 土家族133, 152, 157Turpan 吐鲁番216, 217, 220Tweed, Thomas4Ulanqab 乌兰察布93, 96underground Catholic Bishops Conference11, 56underground Catholic churches56–57Unification Church (统一教)11union worship services (lianhe libai 联合礼拜)27, 55United Front Department (Tongzhanbu 统战部)4, 27United Kingdom83United States2, 27, 61, 62, 64, 68, 169, 207Upper Clarity’s Celestial Master Bureau (Shangqing tianshi fu 上清天师府)33Urumqi 乌鲁木齐216, 217, 220Uthman bin Affan23Uyghur (Weiwu’er zu 维吾尔族)20, 159, 216Uzbeck (Wuzibieke 乌兹别克)20, 218Vatican 梵蒂冈40, 42, 43, 56, 57, 78, 84, 86, 87Vietnam 越南147, 166, 173, 188Wahhabism (Wahabi zhuyi 瓦哈比主义)24, 218Wang Mingdao 王明道 (1900–1991)55Wang Yi 王怡55, 184Wang Zuoan 王作安108Wanzhou 万州174, 177Watchman Nee (Ni Tuosheng 倪柁声)60, 114, 146Weifang 潍坊143, 145Weihai 威海143, 145Weinan 渭南199, 200, 202Wenshan 文山189, 192Wenshuyuan 文殊院183Wenzhou 温州122, 125, 127, 128West China Union University 华西协合大学184White Lotus Sect (Bailian jiao 白莲教)52Witness Lee (Li Changshou 李常受, 1905–1997)60, 61Word of Life Church(All Scope Church)World Buddhist Forum125World Christian Database31World Council of Churches28World Elijah Association (Shijie yiliya fuyin xuanjiaohui 世界以利亚宣教会)69World Federation of Confucius’s Descendants (Shijie kongzi houyi lianyi zonghui 世界孔子后翼联谊总会)47World Frum of Daodejing144Wu Yangming 吴扬明64, 67Wu Yaozong 吴耀宗 (1893–1979)27Wuhan 武汉40, 44, 93, 96, 152, 154, 156Wuhu 芜湖129, 132Wulong 武隆174, 177Wuming Buddhist Academy 五明佛学院183Wuqing 武清79, 82Wushan 巫山174, 177Wuwei 武威203, 206Wuwei Confucius Temple 武威孔庙207Wuxi 无锡117, 120, 174, 177Wuzhong 吴忠212, 213, 215Wuzhou 梧州166, 168Xi Jinping 习近平45, 47, 88, 108, 127, 154Xi’an 西安23, 40, 196, 198, 199, 200, 202, 203Xiamen 厦门52, 133, 134, 136Xianfa Temple 显法寺90Xiangtan 湘潭157, 160Xiangxi 湘西157, 160Xiangxiang 湘乡67Xiangyang 向阳153, 154, 156Xianning 咸宁153, 154, 156Xiantiandao 先天道69Xianyang 咸阳199, 200, 202Xiaogan 孝感153, 156Xiaotaoyuan Female Mosque 小桃园女清真寺115, 116Xibo zu 锡伯族106, 218Xicheng 西城74, 77Xidao Tang 西道堂23xiejiao(evil cult)Xikai Cathedral 西开天主教堂84Xilingol League 锡林郭勒盟93, 96Xingtai 邢台42, 83, 86Xinguan Mosque 新关清真寺207Xining 西宁207, 208, 211Xinjiang 新疆 (Xinjiang Autonomous Religion)3, 13, 21, 22, 23, 26, 27, 149, 159, 173, 198, 216–220Xinjiang Islamic Institute22Xinyang 信阳148, 151Xinyu 新余138, 139, 141Xinzhou 忻州88, 92Xiqing 西青79, 80, 81, 82Xishuangbanna 西双版纳189, 192Xiushan 秀山174, 177, 178Xixia Church 西夏区基督教堂216Xizang (Tibet or Xizang Autonomous Religion)13, 15, 40, 44, 68, 76, 114, 193–197, 198Xu Shuangfu 徐双富 (1946–2006)68Xu Yongze 徐永泽61Xuancheng 宣城129, 132Xuanzang 玄奘183Xuecheng 学诚15Xuedou Temple 雪窦寺125Xuhui 徐汇112, 116Xunzi (荀子 313–235 BCE)44Xuzhou 徐州117, 120, 121Ya’an 雅安180, 182Yan Emperor 炎帝88, 156Yan’an 延安199, 200, 202Yanbian 延边104, 106Yancheng 盐城117, 120Yang, C.K. 杨庆堃1Yangjiang 阳江162, 165Yangming Academy 阳明精舍46Yangpu 杨浦112, 116Yangquan 阳泉88, 92yangsheng 养生37, 131, 132Yangzhou 扬州117, 120Yanjing Catholic Church 岩井天主教堂196Yanqing 延庆3, 74Yantai 烟台142, 143, 145Yao zu 瑶族157, 166Yellow Emperor 黄帝88Yellow Sea73, 99, 142Yi zu 彝族166, 179Yibin 宜宾180, 182Yichang 宜昌153, 156Yichun 伊春107, 108, 110Yichun 宜春138, 141Yiguandao 一贯道52, 69Yinchuan 银川212, 213, 214, 215Yingkou 营口99, 102Yingtan 鹰潭138, 141Yining 伊宁216, 217Yiwu County 义乌县61, 128, 163Yiwu Mosque128Yiyang 益阳157, 160Yongchuan 永川174, 177Yonghe Temple 雍和宫76Yongzhou 永州157, 160Young Men’s Christian Association27, 114Young Women’s Christian Association114Youyang 酉阳174, 177Yuan Dynasty (1260–1368)39, 78, 82, 92Yuan Shikai 袁世凯 (1859–1916)44Yuan Xiangchen 袁相忱 (Allen Yuan, 1914–2005)55Yuandao Academy 原道书院46Yubei 渝北174, 177Yue Chongdai 岳崇岱 (1888–1958)33Yueyang 岳阳157, 160Yulanpen Festival (yulanpen jie 盂兰盆节)49Yulin 榆林199, 200, 202Yulin 玉林166, 168Yuncheng 运城88, 92Yunfu 云浮162, 165Yunnan 云南15, 21, 22, 55, 68, 169, 173, 188–193Yunyang 云阳174, 177Yushu 玉树208, 211Yuxi 玉溪189, 192Yuzhong 渝中174, 177Zailijiao 在理教 (Way of the abiding principle)82Zaozhuang 枣庄143, 145Zhang Daoling 张道陵 (34–156)35Zhang Guangbi 张光壁 (1889–1947)69Zhangjiajie 张家界157, 160Zhangjiakou 张家口83, 86, 87Zhangye 张掖203, 206Zhangzhou 漳州133, 136Zhanjiang 湛江162, 165Zhaoqing 肇庆162, 165Zhaotong 昭通189, 192Zhejiang 浙江3, 12, 18, 28, 29, 55, 61, 74, 77, 112, 121–128, 149Zhejiang Provincial Christian Council 浙江省基督教协会 128Zhen fo zong(True Buddha Sect)Zhengyi 正一 (Orthodox Unity)35, 113Zhengzhou 郑州147, 148, 151Zhenjiang 镇江117, 120Zhiyi 智顗 (538–598)126Zhong County 忠县174, 177Zhongguancun 中关村74, 77Zhongshan 中山162, 165Zhongwei 中卫212, 215Zhongyuan Festival (zhongyuan jie 中元节)49Zhongyue Temple 中岳庙148Zhou Enlai 周恩来 (1893–1976)34, 57–58Zhoukou 周口148, 151Zhoushan 舟山122, 125Zhu De 朱德34, 58Zhuang zu 壮族133, 188Zhuhai 珠海161, 162, 165Zhumadian 驻马店148, 151Zhuolu 涿鹿87Zhuzhou 株洲157, 160Zibo 淄博143, 145Zigong 自贡180, 182Ziyang 资阳180, 182Zo Kun 左坤67Zoroastrianism136Zunyi 遵义185, 187