Indexacción de tutela (writ of protection)114115, 122Acción Social111n1, 136, 145acculturation15, 37, 40activist networks1618in Colombia74, 8693, 9698, 101102, 128129, 132, 169, 175176activist networks, transnational (tans)16, 1820, 9192, 98, 175176Administrative Victims Units145Afghanistan13, 27, 36, 41n13Africa56, 14, 40, 57, 64, 68, 174Africa, Sub-Saharan23, 28, 40, 44, 55, 178African Union6, 16, 100Afro-Colombians8283, 129, 164aid.foreign aidAl Qaeda152Amazon, the76, 91Amnesty International46, 126n29, 150Amquera, José148andas87n15, 92Angola21, 35, 57Annan, Kofi1, 4anuc87Armenia23, 35, 46, 55n28Arusha Peace and Reconciliation Agreement25n31, 56ascondas86, 87n15, 92Association of Refugees from Boyacá78auc138, 149150Azerbaijan23, 35, 46, 55n28Aznar, José María170bacrim82n10Ban-Ki Moon142, 147Barco Vargas, Virgilio77, 95Belize89n20Betancur, Belisario77, 145Betts, Alexander1011, 24Bogotazo76boomerang strategy19, 98, 132, 140141, 166Bosnia & Herzegovina35, 4849, 55n28Botero Zea, Fernando103n41Boutros-Ghali, Boutros3Box-Steffensmeier, Janet M.60Brookings Institution3, 27, 178Brookings-lse Project on Internal Displacement8, 12, 26, 29n2, 36, 72, 119, 121, 132133, 182Burundi35, 56Bush, George W.127, 131Cali Cartel81, 99, 103Cano, Alfonso159n31, 160Cartagena Declaration on Refugees74, 80, 89, 104, 169170, 175Catholic Church in Colombia81, 88, 90, 9298, 117, 169cceeu129Center for International Justice and Law (cejil)153Center for Research and Popular Education/Peace Program (cinep/ppp)27Central African Republic6, 23Central America, civils wars in74, 89, 123, 169, 175Cepeda, Iván148Cepeda Espinosa, José Manuel120121Chavez, Hugo156, 161Chayes, Abraham24Chayes, Antonia Handler24Checkel, Jeffrey T.17, 4142Chiapas23, 36, 44n20China34n6Cingranelli-Richards (ciri) Physical Integrity Rights Index38, 43in event history analysis6366civil wars45Central America74, 89, 123, 169, 175Colombia76Liberia24n27, 44n21, 48n24Sudan132n41climate change10Clinton, Hillary106, 132Clinton administration123, 127cnaipd111, 118codhes80, 8385, 9394, 109, 122coercion towards compliance1213, 37, 41Cohen, Roberta34n6, 100, 178Cold War, changes after3n5, 9, 124Colombia4, 7174, 95justification to study2628murders75n7, 7578, 114n6, 126n27, 129n34, 131n39, 138, 148, 152, 159n31, 164timeline of events8081, 110111, 144urbanization78Colombia, commitment179activists, activist networks74, 8693, 9698, 101102, 128129, 132, 169, 175176boomerang strategy98, 132, 140, 166Catholic Church81, 88, 90, 9298, 117, 169Day of Solidarity with the Victims144, 152depolitization of displacement9091, 94, 96framing9193, 9899, 147148, 167168government9599, 102113, 128importance of local actors167169international isolation160162, 167international pressure74, 9293, 98102, 107108, 121135, 139, 153156, 169issue linkage123132, 166167, 178regional human rights organizations8992, 98, 134136, 169170socialization74, 134135, 141, 177Social Jump97, 103104social mobilization74, 8688, 98, 113114structural factors73, 167, 180timing of73us policy and relations41n13, 106, 122134, 161162, 169171, 177178Colombia, compliance116118, 119n15, 142143, 165171, 179criticisms of Law 1448162166Follow-up Commission117118, 121, 136, 140Guiding Principles108110, 115, 118121, 136, 142, 165166, 168169from idp to victim147149implementation problems107113, 115116, 130, 137138, 142, 164165impunity104n43, 125, 130, 138, 150, 166judicial procedures113118lack of111, 137140, 152lack of capacity137, 163, 165, 182monitoring73, 93, 102, 117, 136, 140, 179, 182non-refoulement163164recognition of conflict146, 148, 151, 155156, 164reparations72, 102, 143146, 151155, 163165, 169rhetorical entrapment128129, 168Colombia, displacementcauses7579, 81, 112113demographics8283false idps148149geographic distribution84idp crisis7985, 112113, 118idp numbers49, 71, 78, 82, 8485internationalization121122, 132, 136as a tool of war79, 81Colombia, laws and policies35, 7172, 74, 175176acción de tutela (writ of protection)114115, 122conpes 280481, 9798, 111conpes 292481, 9798, 111Law 288102, 135n49Law 38781, 85, 9899, 105, 107113, 115, 136, 142, 168Law 975 (Justice and Peace)144, 150151Presidential Decree 1290155Presidential Decree 28180, 96state of siege139Constitutional Court of Colombia (rulings); Law 1448Colombian Commission of Jurists (ccj)27, 114n5Colombia Steering Committee (csc)125126commitment to the idp regime2, 48, 1112, 21, 3032, 179data on89, 2647effects on magnitude of crises4750, 68, 173in event history analysis6070global patterns of26growth of5055, 68measuring of3147study of811, 1920, 29domestic structural factorscommitment to the idp regime throughacculturation15, 37, 40argumentation15, 1718coercion1213, 37, 41cooperation1314cultural match1415, 17, 38, 4143, 65, 69, 175habituation18incentives14, 37international instrumental pressure37, 41, 65international normative pressure3640, 6466, 69, 92issue-linkage13, 37, 41peer pressure20, 37, 5557, 174persuasion15, 1718, 40regional isomorphism1920, 32, 37, 40, 5557, 6366, 6869, 174shaming1617, 40, 129n33, 176socialization13, 1520, 37, 40, 5557, 74Colombia, commitment; domestic legislation; domestic legislation, large-N analysis resultscommunity defenders130, 136137compassion fatigue149compliance, definition of31compliance with environmental soft law8n10compliance with the idp regime31and commitment, gap between7, 31, 178179and institutionalization, gap between7, 21, 178179measuring of31Colombia, compliance; entries under commitment for any topics not exclusively related to complianceconadhegs87conadhes80Congo, Republic of the1, 6, 27conpes 280481, 9798, 111conpes 292481, 9798, 111Consolidated Problem Set46Constitutional Court of Colombia72, 108110, 114117, 117, 120122, 127131, 168169and the Inter-American human rights system134136and Law 975150151and Law 1488163164Constitutional Court of Colombia (rulings)Auto 219163Decision T-098/2002120n17Decision T-327/2001115, 120n17Decision T-602/2003115n8Sentence T-02574, 108109, 111, 116121, 136137, 140141Sentence T-227110, 114115Sentence su-1150/2000115, 120n17Constitution of Colombia80, 114, 118119, 122, 128, 169and international human rights135constructivism1120, 31, 128129logic of appropriateness11, 1415, 18normative resonance1415, 17, 38, 4143, 65, 69, 175socializationContadora Group89, 175Convention on Refugees (1951)17convivir138Correlates of War (cow)4546Costa Rica80, 88, 89n20Council of Europe (ce)5Cox proportional hazard model6063, 6768cpdia8081, 8990, 97, 105, 170, 176, 182Cristo, Juan Fernando148, 152153, 155157, 162Cuba77, 177cultural match1415, 17, 38, 4143, 65, 69, 175customary international laws5, 120121, 140, 181Cyprus30, 4445Dabelko, Geoffrey D.24Darfur22, 132n41Day of Solidarity with the Victims144, 152Decrees.Colombia, laws and policiesDefensoría del Pueblo.Office of the Ombudsmandefoliants79, 125demilitarized zone112113democracy17in event history analysis6364, 66internal displacement in30as a measure for cultural match31, 38, 4243Democratic Republic of Congo (drc)6, 27Democratic Security Policy139, 154, 156157Deng, Francis M.3, 5, 21, 81, 92, 96, 100101, 110112, 119, 178De Roux, Carlos Vicente96dial119“dirty war”77, 8687displacement.internal displacementDjibouti33n5Dodd, Chris126domestic legislation56, 21, 3536and changes in displacement4750increase of36, 5057as a measuring tool3234models of5253and political persecution53, 6364domestic legislation, large-N analysis results173in countries with active conflict55, 68in countries with protracted displacement5556, 68in countries with rid5354, 68by displacement type5253, 56by region5557by state of hostilities5355domestic structural factorsconflict status20, 25, 39, 45, 53, 55, 72crises causes20, 2223, 39, 4546, 5354, 6364, 66crises magnitude20, 2224, 39, 4445, 6366political persecution23, 39, 45, 46, 53, 6364protraction39, 4647, 5556, 68regime induced displacement2223, 39, 46, 5354, 6364, 66, 68state capacity20, 2425, 39, 4344, 65, 182drc (Democratic Republic of Congo)6, 27drug cartels, traffickers71, 75, 77, 79, 83, 112, 123125, 149, 155Dulitzky, Ariel135n49Duque, Guzmán120Ecuador122, 135, 158159, 161Egeland, Jan9, 28Egypt4, 34n6El Nogal Club bombing (2003)148El Salvador88, 89n20, 94, 123n20, 124, 126n27enforcement78, 21, 26, 129, 179, 182environmental law8n10ethnic cleansing2223, 48, 132n41ethnicity23, 25, 82, 120n17European Commission for Human Rights36European Court of Human Rights16European Union13event history analysis6070false-positives scandal129, 161n37, 162farc (Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia)7172, 77, 7980, 103, 110, 112113, 138, 151, 158n31kidnappings75, 79, 112, 145n4, 148, 155, 159n31peace negotiations with103, 110, 112113, 122123, 144, 156, 158160and the usa124Farclandia112113Farr, Sam26Ferris, Elizabeth72First Congress of Victims of the Dirty War8687Follow-up Commission117118, 121, 136, 140forced migration, definition of11n14forced migration studies1011foreign aid37, 41in event history analysis6364, 66from the us110Plan Colombiaframing9193, 9899, 147148, 167168Franco, Marta96Freedom House43Free Trade Agreement (usa-Colombia) (fta)131132, 144, 162, 167Frente Nacional76gad (Support Group on Displacement)80, 92, 114n5, 119Gaitán, Jorge Eliecer76Garay Salamanca, Luis Jorge117Gaviria Betancur, Paula145Gaviria Trujillo, Cesar77, 80, 95, 152gdp per capita39, 44, 6364, 66Geneva Convention, Protocol ii of the81, 100, 103104Georgia23, 35, 46, 55n28Giraldo de Melo, Diana Sofia151Golan Heights45Goldman, Robert100, 135136Gómez, Lauriano76Grazón, Angelino132Great Lakes Protocol6, 14, 178Grupo de Apoyo a Desplazados80, 92, 114n5, 119Guatemala35, 55n28, 89n20, 90, 94, 131, 177guerillas14, 7677, 7983, 8687, 113114, 122125, 130, 138, 152, 159farcGuiding Principlesin Colombia108110, 115, 118121, 136, 142, 165166, 168169history of26objections to4n6, 3334study of711success of172173, 181in the usa132133commitment to the idp regimeHacienda Bellacruz110, 113114, 114n6Haiti23, 46, 53hard law4, 78, 98commitment towards31in international relations theory8Harold H. Koh14Helms, Jesse106High-Level Partnership Dialogues132, 144Holbrooke, Richard133Holguín, María Ángela132Honduras89n20Human Rights Watch46, 72, 124125, 150iachr.Inter-American Commission for Human Rights (iachr)icva88, 96, 170idmc (Internal Displacement Monitoring Center)on Colombia8284data, data collection8, 26, 30, 32, 34, 4546on Syria1idp Laws and Policies Mapping Tool34iidh.Inter-American Human Rights Institute (iidh)impunity104n43, 125, 130, 138, 150, 166Index of National and Regional Laws and Policies on Internal Displacement34India4, 35, 57indigenous communities8283, 127, 129, 150n16, 164Indonesia35, 57institutionalization6, 18, 21institutionalization and enforcement gap7, 21, 178179insurgents.guerillasInter-Agency Standing Committee (iasc)4, 6, 32, 119Inter-American Commission for Human Rights (iachr)6, 16, 74, 99n33, 173, 176and Colombia134136normative pressure from36, 40, 81, 99100support for Law 1448153visit to Colombia80, 92, 99100Inter-American Court of Human Rights99n33, 127128, 134136, 176Inter-American Human Rights Institute (iidh)80, 89, 170visits to Colombia88internal displacement30cases of3233causes of20, 2223, 39, 4546, 5354, 6364, 66definition of1n1, 90, 105demographics of8283magnitude of20, 2224, 39, 4445, 6366protracted39, 4647, 5556, 68spillover effects of9, 14, 174and state capacity20, 2425, 39, 4344, 65, 182as a tool of war79under Colombia, displacement; regime induced displacement (rid)Internal Displacement Monitoring Center.idmcinternally displaced persons (idps)12differences between refugees and9living conditions of83numbers of1, 3, 910, 2324, 27, 4445numbers of, after commitment4750International Center for Transitional Justice (ictj)144, 150, 153International Committee of the Red Cross (icrc)113International Conference on Central American Refugees (cirefca)89International Council of Voluntary Agencies (icva)88, 96, 170international instrumental pressure37, 41, 65international normative pressure3640, 6466, 69, 92International Organization for Migration (iom)11n14, 130international relations, study of711, 172neorealism; rationalist-instrumentalismIraq13, 23, 27, 35, 41n13, 46, 53, 57, 153, 183Israel30issue-linkage13, 37, 41Japan131Jara, Alan145n4Jiguamiandó129, 164Joinet Principles166Jojoy, Mono159n31Jones, Bradford S.60José Alvear Restrepo Lawyers Collective114n5Justice and Peace Law (Law 975)144, 150151Justicia y Paz87Kampala Convention6, 33, 178, 181Keck, Margaret E.1819, 91, 98Kenya6, 36kidnappings75, 79, 112, 145n4, 148, 155, 159n31Koh, Harold Hongju14, 21Kosovo23Kyrgyzstan36La Chuzada161n37land mines18, 79, 159n31land restitution.reparationsLatin American Working Group (lawg)124n21, 125La Violencia7678, 80Law 288102, 135n49Law 38781, 85, 9899, 105, 136, 142, 168, 175176implementation of107113, 115116, 130, 142, 166Law 975144, 150151Law 144872, 140, 142147, 166167, 176criticisms of162166international pressure for153154objections from Uribe154156origins of149153under Santos156162laws and policies on internal displacement3436Colombia, laws and policies; Constitutional Court of Colombia (rulings); domestic legislationLeahy, Patrick126Leahy Amendment126n29Leahy Provision126n29, 132Liberia35, 45n21, 4849, 52, 57Lima, Leila102logic of appropriateness11, 1415, 18logic of consequence11, 15, 37Mali33n5Marulanda, Carlos Arturo114n6Marulanda Velez, Manuel159n31McCollum, Betty126McGovern, Jim126Medellín cartel77Medina, Santiago103n41Melo, Jorge Orlando95methodology2628Mexico36, 44, 45n20, 89n20, 175Molano, Alfredo76Moldova33n5monitoring of compliance78, 21under Colombia, compliance; idmcMoore, Dennis126Moro, Bruno153multiple imputation6263Myanmar23narcotics traffickers.drug cartels, traffickersNational Center for Historical Memory145National Consolidation Plan (pnc)130National Front76National Seminary on Internal Displacement in Colombia88national sovereignty2, 7, 9, 11, 161n39, 175nato13, 41neorealism7, 12, 172Nepal24, 35, 52, 57, 106Nicaragua33n5, 89n20, 123n20, 161n39, 1779/11124Norwegian Refugee Council (nrc)8n11, 32, 92Nye, Joseph S.40oas.Organization of American StatesObama administration132, 161Office of the Ombudsman97, 102, 113, 119, 121122, 130Office of the Presidential Advisor for Human Rights9597, 99100, 102ohchr.un Office of the High Commissioner for Human RightsOperation Genesis101n37Orchard, Phil8, 22, 24, 29, 46, 5253Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe (osce)13, 16Organization of American States (oas)5, 73, 99100, 129, 134136, 176177Pakistan35Panama89n29, 122, 175Pan-American Development Foundation (padf)130Papua New Guinea33n5paramilitaries77, 79, 8183, 124125, 137138attack on Ernesto Samper104demobilization of111, 138, 149151massacres by149150targeting ngos, idp organizations8687parapolitics scandal138, 161n37Pastoral Social94Pastrana Arango, Andrés77, 103, 107, 110, 112113, 122123peacekeeping operations3, 37, 41, 6364, 66, 68penalties.sanctionsPermanent Consultation on Internal Displacement in the Americas (cpdia)8081, 8990, 97, 105, 170, 176, 182Peru35, 90, 94, 134, 176Physical Integrity Rights Index.Cingranelli-Richards (ciri) Physical Integrity Rights IndexPillay, Navi144, 153Pinheiro Principles166Pinto de Gaviria, Yolanda145Plan Colombia79, 92n23, 110, 122127, 131132, 144, 167, 178civilian component129130Political Instability Task Force (pitf)46political persecution23, 39, 45, 46, 78, 83, 86in event history analysis6364, 66lack of domestic legislation53Presidential Advisor for Human Rights9597, 99100, 102Presidential Decree 1290155Presidential Decree 28180, 96privately generated soft law7, 9, 172Procedure 8000103, 106Project Counseling Services (pcs)87, 92Protocol ii of the Geneva Convention81, 100, 103104Rakhine23rationalist-instrumentalism1114coercion1213, 37, 41cooperation1314issue-linkage13, 37, 41logic of consequence11, 15, 37Reagan, Ronald123n20Red de Solidaridad Social.rss (Red de Solidaridad Social)regime induced displacement (rid)2223, 39, 46, 5354in event history analysis6364, 66, 68regional isomorphism1920, 32, 37, 40, 5557, 6366, 6869, 174in event history analysis6366regional organizations56, 20, 40reparations72, 102, 143146, 151155, 163165, 169Representative to the Secretary-General for Internal Displacement (rsg)35, 8n11, 169advocacy role of5, 1516, 3334, 3638, 51effect of visits in event history6370, 173lobbying of us State Department132133number of visits from3738visits to Colombia81, 92, 96, 101, 110112, 119Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia.farcReyes, Raúl159n31, 161rid.regime induced displacement (rid)Ríos, Iván159n31Risse, Thomas19, 129n33Rojas, Jorge93Romera, Marco93, 109rss (Red de Solidaridad Social)111, 119, 146Russia35, 50, 55n28Samper Pizano, Ernesto77, 80, 114n6, 148human rights initiatives81, 9699, 101107political crisis81, 96, 99, 103, 106107Social Jump97, 103104Sánchez-Grazoli, Gimena139sanctions7, 13, 173Santos Calderón, Juan Manuelbackground of157158Law 144872, 142144, 147, 156157, 162, 167peace negotiations158160Sentences and Decisions.under Constitutional Court of Colombia (rulings)Serbia23, 35shaming1617, 40, 129n33, 176Shelton, Dinah L.21Sierra Leone35, 57Sikkink, Kathryn1819, 91, 98, 129n33Silva, Gabriel162Simmons, Beth A.20Slaughter, Anne-Marie21, 31Soacha27socialization13, 1520, 37, 40, 5557bottom-up1619in Colombia74, 8689, 141, 176177top-down1517Social Jump97, 103104social learning1517, 174Social Solidarity Network111, 119, 146sociology11, 15, 141soft law2, 4, 7compliance and implementation of21in international relations theory78measuring commitment towards3147reasoning for4viability of67, 172, 181soft law, privately generated7, 9, 172Somalia27, 36, 41n13, 49South Africa33n5, 153, 177South Sudan27, 183sovereignty.national sovereigntySpecial Rapporteur on the Human Rights of Internally Displaced Persons.Representative to the Secretary-General for Internal Displacement (rsg)Sri Lanka4, 25, 35, 57State Fragility Index (sfi)39, 4344in event history analysis6364, 66Steinberg, James132Strauss de Samper, Jacquin105, 106n47Sudan4, 6, 27, 34n6, 36, 132survival analysis6063, 67, 69Switzerland131Syria1, 27, 183Tajikistan35, 55n28tans (transnational activist networks)16, 1820, 9192, 98, 175176Tate, Winfred124, 126n29Timor-Leste41n13transnational activist networks (tans)16, 1820, 9192, 98, 175176Turbay, Gabriel76Turkey4, 35, 106Turkmenistan33n5tutela (writ of protection)114115, 122Uganda4, 6, 35, 41n13Ukraine36un Commission on Human Rights34pressure on Colombia99un Development Program for idps, Refugees, and Returnees in Central America (prodere)89un Development Program (undp)6, 38, 144pressure on Colombia100support for Law 1448153, 180un General Assembly4un Guiding Principles on Internal Displacement.Guiding Principlesun High Commissioner for Refugees (unhcr)6, 16, 33, 36, 173, 180, 183efforts in Colombia89, 92, 100101, 104, 180in event history analysis6366impact on domestic legislation57, 5960, 67, 6970, 136, 153, 180impact on internal displacement5759, 6970, 180protection of idps3840, 5760visits to Colombia81, 98, 153un Human Rights Council (unhrc)6, 3738pressure on Colombia101102United Self-Defense Groups of Colombia (auc)138, 149150un Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights (ohchr)16presence in Colombia101, 104support for Law 1448un Security Council4, 148Upsala Conflict Data Program (ucdp)45Uribe, Alvaro107, 110111, 117118, 122, 125, 130131, 144background of157158demobilization of paramilitaries111, 138, 149151democratic security139, 154, 156157human rights antagonism137140, 142143, 152, 161Law 975144, 150151objections to Law 1448154155, 157n29us Agency for International Development (usaid)41n14, 93, 117, 120, 130n36, 133us Committee for Refugees (uscr)3233, 45, 119us policy and relations with Colombia41n13, 106, 122134, 161162, 169171, 177178Plan Colombiaus State Department Country Reports46Valdivieso, Alfonso119120VanDeveer, Stacy D.24Van Evera, Stephen28Venezuela89n20, 122, 135, 156, 161, 175Víctimas Visibles (Visible Victims)110, 151152, 170, 176Victims and Land Restitution Law.Law 1448Victims Units145Vidal López, Roberto Carlos163Vieira de Mello, Sérgio4Vienna Declaration and Programme of Action42violentologia75n6Vivanco, José Miguel125, 150151war on drugs106, 123125, 131, 177Washington Office on Latin America (wola)125, 139, 153Wood, William150World Bank40, 41n15, 45Wyndham, Jessica5152Yemen27, 36, 57Yugoslavia49n24, 132n41Zapatista uprising23, 44Zimbabwe23, 46, 53zonas de reserva campesinas103

Exile within Borders

A Global Look at Commitment to the International Regime to Protect Internally Displaced Persons

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