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This book aims to articulate a contribution to, and revises, the traditional understanding of the Atlantic World by emphasising the historical connections between the Atlantic and the Pacific Ocean, and the importance of Spanish America in those connections. When researching the Atlantic–Asian encounter of the early modern era, many historians have focused on the European commercial companies and their commercial and cultural exchanges across the Cape route and the Indian Ocean. Yet historians typically fail to mention that, until the mid-seventeenth century, trade between Spanish America and Asia was flourishing. This book explores the degree to which the colonial Spanish American elite and cities were main components of the economic and cultural encounter between the Spanish Empire and Asia in the late sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, and the reason why the Manila Galleon route was superseded by the Cape route as the main venue of exchange between the Atlantic World and Asia around the mid-seventeenth century.