Open Access


  • Taẕkira-i Ḥaẓrat-i Sulṭān Satuq Bughra Khan Ghāzī. Lund Lund University Library MS Jarring Prov. 413 ff. 81b–129a.

  • Untitled hagiographical text on Satuq Bughra Khan and his descendants. Lund Lund University Library MS Jarring Prov. 73 ff. 64b–93a.

  • Untitled hagiographical text on the “Four Martyred Imāms.” Beijing Minorities Intutute Library of the Beijing Nationalities Univerity uncatalogued ff. 59–102.

Published Works

  • Algar Hamid. “A Brief History of the Naqshbandî Order.” In Naqshbandîs: cheminements et situation actuelle d’ un ordre mystique musulman (Actes de la Table Ronde de Sèvres 2–4 mai 1985). Edited by Marc Gaborieau Alexandre Popović and Thierry Zarcone 3–44. Istanbul/Paris: Éditions Isis 1990.

  • Barthold V.V. Turkestan Down to the Mongol Invasion. London: Luzac & Co. 1928.

  • Baldick Julian. Imaginary Muslims: The Uwaysi Mystics of Central Asia. New York: New York University Press 1993.

  • Biran Michal. “The Qarakhanids’ Eastern Exchange: Preliminary Notes on the Silk Roads in the Eleventh and Twelfth Centuries.” In The Complexity of Interaction along the Eurasian Steppe Zone in the first Millennium CE edited by Jan Bemmann and Michael Schmauder 575–595. Bonn: BCAA7 2015.

  • Biran Michal. “Ilak Khanids” Encyclopedia Iranica.

  • Boeschoten H.E. and John O’Kane ed. and trans. Al-Rabghuzi’s The Stories of the Prophets. Qisas Al-Anbiyaʾ: An Eastern Turkish Version (Second Edition). Leiden: Brill 2015.

  • Brophy David and Takahiro Onuma. The Origins of Qing Xinjiang: A Set of Historical Sources on Turfan. Tokyo: University of Tokyo Press TIAS Central Eurasian Research Series No. 12 2016.

  • Brophy David. “Confusing Black and White: Naqshbandi Sufi Affiliations and the Transition to Qing Rule in the Tarim Basin.” Late Imperial China 39/1 (2018) 29–65.

  • Dale Stephen. The Garden of the Eight Paradises: Bābur and the Culture of Empire in Central Asia Afghanistan and India (1483–1530). Leiden: Brill 2004.

  • Dankoff Robert. “Qarakhanid Literature and the Beginnings of Turco-Islamic Culture.” In Central Asian Monuments edited by Hasan B. Paksoy 73–80. Isis Press 1992.

  • Davidovich E.A. “The Karakhanids.” History of civilizations of Central Asia Vol. IV: The age of achievement: A.D. 750 to the end of the fifteenth century edited by M.S. Asimov and C.E. Bosworth 119–144. Paris: UNESCO 1998.

  • Dawut Rahilä. Uighur Mazarliri. Urumchi: Shinjang Khälq Nashriyäti 2001.

  • Dawut Rahilä. “Shrine Pilgrimage and Sustainable Tourism smong the Uyghurs: Central Asian Ritual Traditions in the Context of China’s Development Policies.” In Situating the Uyghurs Between China and Central Asia edited by Ildikó Bellér-Hann M. Cristina Cesàro Rachel Harris and Joanne Smith Finley 149–164. Burlington VT: Ashgate 2007.

  • Dawut Rahilä. “Ordam Mazar: A Meeting Place for Different Practices and Belief Systems in Culturally Diverse Xinjiang.” In Kashgar Revisited: Uyghur Studies in Memory of Ambassador Gunnar Jarring edited by Ildikó Bellér Hann Birgit N. Schlyter and Jun Sugawara 232–255. Leiden: Brill 2017.

  • DeWeese Devin. “The ‘Tadhkira-i Bughrā-khān’ and the ‘Uvaysī’ Sufis of Central Asia: Notes in Review of ‘Imaginary Muslims.’ ” Central Asiatic Journal 40/1 (1996) 87–127.

  • DeWeese Devin. “The ‘Competitors’ of Isḥāq Khwāja in Eastern Turkistan: Hagiographies Shrines and Sufi Affiliations in the Late Sixteenth Century.” In Horizons of the World: Festschrift for İsenbike Togan / Hudûdü’l-Âlem: İsenbike Togan’a Armağan edited by İlker Evrim Binbaș and Nurten Kılıç-Schubel 133–215. Istanbul: İthaki Yayınları 2011.

  • Devin DeWeese “ ‘Dis-ordering’ Sufism in Early Modern Central Asia: Suggestions for Rethinking the Sources and Social Structures of Sufi History in the 18th and 19th Centuries.” In History and Culture of Central Asia / Istoriia i kul’tura Tsentral’noi Azii edited by Bakhtiyar Babadjanov and Kawahara Yayoi 259–279. Tokyo: University of Tokyo 2012.

  • Eden Jeff. “A Sufi Saint in Sixteenth-Century East Turkistan: New Evidence Concerning the Life of Khwāja Isḥāq” Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society 25/2 (2015) 229–245.

  • Eden Jeff. The Life of Muhammad Sharif: A Central Asian Sufi Hagiography in Chaghatay. Vienna: Austrian Academy of Sciences Press 2015.

  • Eden Jeff. “Hagiography in Central Asia.” Encyclopedia of Islam THREE forthcoming.

  • Fedorov Michael. “On Some Articles in the Recent Issues (Nos. VVIVII) of the Нумизматика Центральной Азии (Numismatics of Central Asia).” Central Asiatic Journal 49/2 (2005) 175–203.

  • Forsyth Sir Douglas. Autobiography and Reminiscences of Sir Douglas Forsyth Edited by His Daughter. London: Richard Bentley and Son 1887.

  • Golden Peter B. “The Karakhanids and Early Islam.” In The Cambridge History of Early Inner Asia edited by Denis Sinor. 343–370. Cambridge UK: Cambridge University Press 1990.

  • Harris Rachel. “National Traditions and Illegal Religious Activities amongst the Uyghurs.” In Music and the Play of Power in the Middle East North Africa and Central Asia edited by Laudan Nooshin 165–186. Abingdon: Routledge 2016.

  • Harris Rachel and Dawut Rahilä. “Mazar festivals of the Uyghurs: Music Islam and the Chinese State.” British Journal of Ethnomusicology 11/1 (2002) 101–118.

  • Howarth H.H. “The Northern Frontagers of China” Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society July 1898 467–502.

  • Jarring Gunnar. Literary Texts from Kashghar. Lund: CWK Gleerup 1980.

  • Kochnev Boris. “Les frontières du royaume des Karakhanides.” Cahiers d’ Asie centrale 9 (2001) 41–48.

  • Kochnev Boris. Numizmaticheskaia istoriia Karakhanidskogo Kaganata (991–1209). Moscow: Sofiia 2006.

  • Levi Scott C. and Ron Sela eds. Islamic Central Asia: An Anthology of Historical Sources. Bloomington IN: Indiana University Press 2010.

  • Masami Hamada. “Le Mausolée et le culte de Satuq Bughrâ Khân.” Journal of the History of Sufism 3 (2001–2002) 62–87.

  • Minoru Sawada. “Pilgrimage to Sacred Places in the Taklamakan Desert: Shrines of Imams in Khotan Prefecture.” In Central Asian Pilgrims: Hajj Routes and Pious Visits Between Central Asia and the Hijaz edited by Alexandre Papas Thomas Welsford and Thierry Zarcone 278–294. Berlin: Klaus Schwartz 2012.

  • Muginov A.M. Opisanie uigurskikh rukopisei Instituta narodov Azii. Moscow: Izd. Vostochnoi Literatury 1962.

  • Papas Alexandre. Soufisme et politique entre Chine Tibet et Turkestan: étude sur les Khwajas Naqshbandis du Turkestan oriental. Paris: Librarie d’ Amérique et d’ Orient Jean Maisonneuve successeur 2005.

  • Papas Alexandre. “Islamic Brotherhoods in Sixteenth Century Central Asia: the Dervish the Sultan and the Sufi Mirror for Princes.” In Faith’s Boundaries: Laity and Clergy in Early Modern Confraternities edited by N. Terpstra A. Prosperi and S. Pastoria 209–231. Turnhout: Brepols 2012.

  • Papas Alexandre. “Khojas of Kashgar.” Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Asian Studies (

  • Paul Jürgen. “Nouvelles pistes pour la recherche sur l’ histoire de l’ Asie centrale à l’ époque karakhanide (xe–début XIIe siècle).” Cahiers d’ Asie centrale 9 (2001) 13–34.

  • Paul Jürgen. “Hagiographic Literature.” Encyclopedia Iranica. XI fasc. 5 536–539.

  • Paul Jürgen. “Au début du genre hagiographique à travers la tadhkirat al-awliyāʾ de Farid al-dīn ʿAttār.” In Saints Orientaux edited by Denise Aigle 15–38. Paris: De Boccard 1995.

  • Renard John. Friends of God: Islamic Images of Piety Commitment and Servanthood. Berkeley CA: University of California Press 2008.

  • Ross Lisa Alexandre Papas Rahilä Dawut and Beth Citron eds. Living Shrines of Uyghur China. Monacelli Press: 2013.

  • Schomberg Colonel R.C.F. Peaks and Plains of Central Asia. Lahore: Al-Biruni 1979 [1933].

  • Schwartz Stephen. The Other Islam: Sufism and the Road to Global Harmony. Harmony 2008.

  • Schwarz Florian. “Unser Weg schliesst tausend Wege ein”: Derwische und Gesellschaft im islamischen Mittelasien im 16. jahrhundert. Berlin: Klaus Schwarz 2000.

  • Sela Ron. The Legendary Biographies of Tamerlane: Islam and Heroic Apocrypha in Central Asia. Cambridge UK: Cambridge University Press 2011.

  • Sharma Gauri. “Sufism: An Answer to Global Terrorism.” International Journal of Interdisciplinary Social Sciences 5/7 (2010) 223–230.

  • Shinmen Yasushi Sawada Minoru and Edmund Waite eds. Muslim Saints and Mausoleums in Central Asia and Xinjiang. Paris J. Maisonneuve 2013.

  • Singh Chann Naindeep. “Lord of the Auspicious Conjunction: Origins of the Sāhib-Qirān.” Iran and the Caucasus 13/1 (2009) 93–110.

  • Skrine C.P. Chinese Central Asia. London: Methuen & Co. 1926.

  • Stein M. Aurel. Sand-Buried Ruins of Khotan: Personal Narrative of a Journey of Archaeological and Geographical Exploration in Chinese Turkistan. London: Hurst and Blackett 1904.

  • Stein M. Aurel. Ancient Khotan: Detailed Report of Archaeological Explorations in Chinese Turkestan Vol. 1. Oxford: Clarendon Press 1907.

  • Stein M. Aurel. Ancient Khotan: Detailed Report of Archaeological Explorations in Chinese Turkestan Vol. 1. Oxford: Clarendon Press 1907.

  • Jun Sugawara. “Expanded Texts of ‘Martyrdom’: The Genesis and Development of the Uighur Legend of Abdurahman Han.” Eurasian Studies 12 (2014) 417–435.

  • Sykes Percy and Sykes Ella. Through Deserts and Oases of Central Asia. London: MacMillan and Co. 1920.

  • Tao Hua. “Satuq Bughra Khan and the Beginning of Islamization in the Tian Shan Region.” In Islam edited by Jin Yijiu 116–135. Leiden: Brill 2017.

  • Tharoor Ishaan. “Can Sufism Defuse Terrorism?” Wednesday July 22 2009 (,8599,1912091,00.html)

  • Thum Rian. The Sacred Routes of Uyghur History. Cambridge MA: Harvard University Press 2014.

  • Thum Rian. “Untangling the Bughrakhan Manuscripts.” In Mazar: Studies on Islamic Sacred Sites in Central Eurasia edited by Sugawara Jun and Rahile Dawut 275–288. Tokyo: Tokyo University of Foreign Studies Press 2016.

  • Thum Rian. “Modular History: Identity Maintenance before Uyghur Nationalism.” Journal of Asian Studies 71/3 (2012) 627–653.

  • Yamin Mohammed. “Sufism: A Syncretic Path for Peace.” Transcendent Philosophy Journal 9 (2008) 205–224.

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