IndexAbbasid, caliphate (see also Baghdad)15, 126, 144 ceremonial15 chancery114 contribution149 court103 patronage103 prototype8 tradition126administration, administrative office5, 10, 21, 30, 37, 80, 87, 89, 104–106, 114, 129, 137, 146Arghun al-Nasiri, Emir124ʿAbd al-Basit al-Hanafi, scholar102ʿAbd al-Karim al-Kutubi, Nur al-Din, book-dealer80ʿAbd al-Qadir b. Muhammad al-Khanqi al-Azhari, al-Sahsah, polymath140ʿAbd al-Rahman b.ʿAli b. Husayn al-Qurashi106Abu ʾl-ʿAbbas Muhammad al-Kutubi, Shams al-Din, book dealer74Abu ʾl-ʿAlaʾ al-Maʿarri, anthology12Abu ʾl-Faraj al-Maghribi, vizier8Abuʾl-Fath Muhammad b. Ahmad, Shams al-Din, polymath and calligrapher123, 139Abu Ishaq Ibrahim b. Abi Bakr al-Jazari al-Kutubi, book dealer78Abu ʾl-Qasim al-Saʿdi, Taj al-Din, author and copyist90al-ʿAdil, al-Malik, Ayyubid sultan10administration5, 16, 73, 85, 87, 91, 105, 129, 146, 163administrative posts10, 21, 115, 137Ahmad, al-Nasir, Sultan137Ahmad b. ʿAli b. Sayf al-Din Qurtay, Emir125, 132Ahmad b. Hasan al-Miʿmar al-Tuluni, court architect and author102Aydumur al-Dawadar, Emir124, 132–133Ahmad, al-Ashraf, son of al-Qadi al-Fadil10alchemy41, 76, 77, 85, 146, 149Aleppo, Aleppine10, 33, 37, 47, 77–78, 91, 106–107, 118, 121, 124, 131, 142Alexandria10, 106, 127–128ʿAli, Sultan ʿAlaʾ al-Din, Sultan18ʿAli b. Ahmad al-Qalqashandi, librarian31ʿAli b. Amir, Emir124alumni22, 40Amid, (Diyar Bakr)8, 10, 115al-Amir, Fatimid caliph11Anatolia, Anatolian18, 111, 119, 128annotations93anthology12, 102, 138, 146antiquarian77apprentices, apprenticeship6, 112–114architecture109, 125, 130, 144–145, 158, 162Arghun b. ʿAbd Allah al-Kamili126Arghun al-Nasiri124aristocracy16, 19, 39, 80, 85, 96, 103, 105, 113, 123, 132, 141Aristotle41art, artistic23, 96, 103, 110, 119, 120–121, 123artist (see also craftsman)117, 122, 127 Asʿad b. al-Mutran, al-Muwaffaq, physician9Ashrafiyya, mausoleum, library2, 10, 42, 64, 68, 106, 140 catalog of50–51, 161astrolabe79, 147astronomy, astrology, astronomers41, 79, 91, 146–147, 162al-Athar al-Nabawi, shrine137auction8, 38, 74–76audition, auditor, samāʿ (see also oral transmission)36, 73, 90, 93–96, 162authenticity, authentic, authentication4, 35, 73, 81, 91autograph25, 40, 77, 79, 81, 90, 92–93, 99–100, 157Aybak, al-Muʿizz, Sultan13Aybak al-Safadi, historian89al-ʿAyni, Badr al-Din Mahmud (see also madrasa)39al-ʿAyni, Shihab al-Din, historian, brother of Badr al-Din Mahmud36Ayyubid, period, rulers2, 9, 12–13, 15–18, 39, 46, 71–72, 87, 104–107, 115–116, 134, 147 background107, 134 calligraphers87, 104, 106 legacy7–9 madrasas28 palace library12Azbak min Tutukh, Emir (see also mosque of)21, 141al-Azhar, mosque2, 34, 36, 40–41, 69, 71, 72, 117–118, 122, 136, 138–139Baalbak112, 127, 131Bab al-Barid71Bab al-Futuh1Bab al-Nasr1Bab al-Saʿat, Gate of the Clocks71Bab al-Tarima121Bab Zuwayla1Background, social87, 89, 91, 93, 95, 97, 99, 101, 107, 112, 122Baghdad5–7, 10, 15, 19, 47, 51, 78, 104–106, 118–119, 126–127, 129, 131, 139, 144–145Bahadur, Emir, palace121Diyar Bakr8Baktimur al-Saqi (see also khanqah of), Emir19, 107, 119, 132 grandson of125 son of113Baraka (Berke), al-Malik al-Saʿid, Sultan115Bardabak al-Ashrafi101al-Barizi, Muhammad Kamal al-Din38, 45al-Barizi, Muhammad Nasir al-Din Nasir al-Din26, 37, 83–84Barquq, al-Zahir, Sultan (see also madrasa-khanqah)17, 18, 21, 73, 82, 97barracks4, 18, 80, 84, 96–102, 107, 111, 125, 130, 139–140, 142, 159 Ghawr98, 142 Hawsh101 Mustajadda99, 100 Rafraf101 Sunbuliyya139 Tabaqa Wusṭā85Barsbay, al-Ashraf, Sultan (see also madrasa-khanqah)32, 37, 72Barsbay al-Yusufi, Emir101Bayazid II, Ottoman sultan49Baybars al-Jashnakir, al-Muzaffar, Sultan (see also khanqah of)24, 31, 47, 85, 120, 127Baybars, al-Zahir, Sultan (see also madrasa of)15, 36, 71–72, 113, 115, 129Baydumur al-Badri124Bayn al-Qasrayn71, 109Beirut122bibliophile, collector3, 6, 9–12, 18–19, 34–35, 37–38, 47, 48, 50, 78, 81, 84, 89, 97, 124–125, 145Birkat al-Hajib93al-Bitar al-Qudsi al-Kutubi79book-binding8, 12, 50, 74, 76, 81, 122, 163 bound volume4, 12, 24, 47, 50 book-binder71, 77, 79, 91, 121–123book dealer, warrāq, kutubī4–5, 35, 47, 72–80, 85, 149borrowing, (lending) of books3, 37, 41, 43–46, 51, 78, 94broker, dallal11, 74, 77, 84building craft110, 158Bukhari17, 19, 82, 84, 120Ṣaḥīḥ82, 84, 120al-Bulqini, ʿAlam al-Din, Alam al-Din44bureaucracy, bureaucrats13, 16, 73, 83, 87–88, 96, 105, 112, 114–115, 132–133, 138, 143Bursa49al-Busiri, Burda97, 101, 125Buzlar, Emir, governor of Damascus124calligraphers and copyists ʿAbd Allah b. Hajjaj al-Barmawi al-Mukattib111, 137 ʿAbd Allah al-Haythami140 ʿAbd al-ʿAziz al-Bashbishi78 ʿAbd al-Muʾmin b. ʿAbd al-Rahman, Ibn al-ʿAjami al-Nasikh77 ʿAbd al-Qadir b. Ibn Muhammad al-Mahyawi al-Tukhi, mukattib111 ʿAbd al-Rahman b. ʿAli al-Baysani9 ʿAbd al-Rahman b. ʿAli b. Hamid al-Dakhwar al-Tabib92 Abd al-Rahman b. Ibrahim, Zayn al-Din, illuminator122 ʿAbd al-Rahman Musa b. al-Manadili84 ʿAbd al-Wahhab al-Danjihi, Taj al-Din142 Abu ʿAbd Allah Muhammad b. Bahaʾ al-Din, Fakhr al-Din129 Abu Bakr b. Ahmad b. Dhuʾayb al-Asadi al-Dimashqi48 Abu ʾl-Fadl Jaʿfar b. Muhammad al-Afdali105 Abu ʾl-Fath Muhammad al-Azhari, Shams al-Din123, 139 Abu ʾl-Khayr Muhammad118–119, 132 Ahmad b. ʿAbd al-Daʾim al-Maqdisi al-Nasikh, Zayn al-Din90 Ahmad b. al-Juban al-Dhahabi al-Dimashqi, Shihab al-Din142 Ahmad b. Masʿud al-Makki al-Mutaybir, illuminator122 Ahmad b. Muhammad b. Kamal al-Mutatabbib119 Ahmad al-Fayyumi, Shihab al-Din101 ʿAfif al-Din Muhammad al-Halabi (al-Shirazi)126, 128, 135 ʿAli b. Amir143 ʿAli b. Ibrahim al-Jawimi, Nur al-Din132 ʿAli b. Yahya b. Fadl Allah al-ʿAdawi al-ʿUmari134 ʿAli al-Halabi, ʿAlaʾ al-Din, al-Mukattib133 ʿAli al-Jarihi, Nur al-Din108, 142 Aqush al-Iftikhari123 Asad al-Din b. al-Muhsin al-Muʾayyad al-Nasikh9, 105 Aybak b. ʿAbd Allah al-Turki, ʿIzz al-Din124, 136 Ayyub b. Badr b. Mansur al-Jaraʾidi91 Bardabak al-Ashrafi100 Bilal b.ʿAbd Allah al-ʿImadi al-Biqaʿi98, 142 al-Bidmasi111 Duqmaq101 al-Farnawi, Muhammad b. Ahmad al-Hasani al-Mukattib140 al-Farnawi, Muhammad b. ʿAli, Shams al-Sin101, 140 Ghazi b. ʿAbd al-Rahman, Shihab al-Din121, 127, 129–130, 136 Ghazi b. Qutlubugha al-Turki137–138 al-Hakim al-Baghdadi104 Hibat Allah b.ʿAbd al-Rahim, Sharaf al-Din37 al-Hiti, ʿAbd Allah b. ʿAli, Jamal al-Din118, 138–141 Husayn al-Kurdi, Shams al-Din131 Ibn ʿAbd al-Malik126 Ibn al-ʿAdim, ʿUmar b. Ahmad Kamal al-Din Abu ʾl-Qasim118 Ibn al-ʿAfif, Muhammad b. Muh. b. al-Hasan, ʿImad al-Din107, 112, 126, 128, 132–133, 135–136, 138 Ibn Asad126 Ibn Baʿalbak, Mahmud b. Muhyi ʾl-Din Muhammad b. ʿAbd al-Rahim112, 127, 131, 136n60 Ibn Baktut, Muhammad al-Qarandali38, 112, 131–132 Ibn al-Bawwab24, 92, 104–105, 118, 121, 126, 128–129, 134–135 Ibn Busays, Musa b. ʿAli, Najm al-Din121, 129–130, 134 Ibn al-Harrani, Zan al-Din132 Ibn al-Jammala, Jamal al-Din9 Ibn Kizil al-ʿIsawi, Muhammad125, 141 Ibn al-Mallah Ibrahim b. ʿAli al-Dimashqi al-Mukattib, Burhan al-Din142 Ibn al-Muhaddith, Hasan b. ʿAli al-Hamadani, Badr al-Din113, 130 Ibn Muqla103–104, 114, 126, 128 Ibn al-Najjar, Ibrahim b. Sulayman Abu Ishaq, Jamal al-Din127 Ibn al-Najjar, Muhammad b. Asad, Shams al-Din129 Ibn (Abi) Ruqayba, Muhammad b. ʿAli al-Misri al-Mujawwid126, 135–136 Ibn al-Saddar, Muhammad b. Ahmad b. ʿAli al-Ibyari, Shams al-Din, also illuminator and book binder122 Ibn al-Sayigh, Abd al-Rahman b. Yusuf b. al-Mukattib76–77, 88, 110–112, 118, 120, 122, 137–141 Ibn al-Simsimani126 Ibn al-Wahid, Ibn Yusuf al-Zurʿi, Sharaf al-Din116, 118, 120, 127, 131, 134 Ibrahim b. Ahmad b. ʿUthman al-Dimashqi al-Qahiri al-Raqqi138 Ibrahim b. ʿAli al-Khunani al-Ibnasi138 Ibrahim b. Dawud b. ʿAbd Allah al-Amidi130 Ibrahim b. Muhammad Abu Ishaq al-Suwaydi, ʿIzz al-Din92 Ismaʿil b. ʿAli, Fakhr al-Din91 Janim min Qani al-Ashrafi99–100 al-Juwayni, Hasan b. ʿAli b. Ibrahim, Fakhr al-Kuttab105 Khalid b. Muhammad b. Nasr b. Saghir al-Katib al-Makhzumi106 Khattab b. ʿUmar al-Danjihi al-Azhari, Zayn al-Din139–141, 143 Majd al-Din, in Shiraz132 al-Maydumi, Muhammad b. Ibrahim b. Abi ʾl-Qasm, Sharaf al-Din134 Mubarak Shah76 Mubarak Shah Ibn Qutb al-Tabrizi, calligrapher126 Mubarak Shah al-Suyufi107, 119 Muhalhil b. Ahmad104 Muhammad Abu Ghanim, son of Ibn al-ʿAdim118 Muhammad al-Baʿalbaki Abu Durr, Jalal al-Din131 Muhammad b. Abi Bakr al-Hummusani, Shams al-Din139–140 Muhammad b. ʿAbd Allah b. Musa al-ʿIbadi31, 118, 142 Muhammad b. Ahmad al-Amshati al-Kajkawi al-ʿAyntabi118 Muhammad b. Ahmad b. Musa112 Muhammad b. Ahmad al-Harastani143 Muhammad b. Ismaʿil al-Muqriʾ al-Nasikh117 Muhammad b. Khazraj, Shaykh Abu ʾl-Saraya al-Ansari106 Muhammad b. Masʿud al-Nasikh, Shams al-Din88 Muhammad b. Muh. b. ʿAbd Allah Abu ʾl-Tayyib al-Nastarawi122 Muhammad b. Muh. al-Baʿalbaki al-Mukattib, Muhy al-Din131 Muhammad b. Muh. al-Jashshi132 Muhammad b. Muh. b. Numayr al-Sarraj, Shams al-Din113, 130 Muhammad b. Muh. Hibat Allah al-Shirazi, ʿImad al-Din120, 129 Muhammad b. Muh. al-Masʿudi al-Maqsi120, 142 Muhammad b. Najib al-Khalati129–130 Muhammad b. Ridwan, al-Sharif al-Nasikh92 Muhammad b. Saʿd al-Din al-Khazin, Shams al-Din121, 138, 140–141 Muhammad b. Sudun al-Qasrawi99 Muhammad b.ʿUthman al-Dimashqi, Jamal al-Din113 Muhammad b. ʿUthman al-Sunbati al-Hanafi124 Muhammad al-Jaʿfari143 Muhammad al-Sunbati al-Aʿraj, Abu ʾl-Fadl101, 141 Muhammad Urkumas al-Yashbaki20 Muhammad al-Zaylaʿi, Shams al-Din132 Musa b. Ismaʿil al-Kinani al-Jajjini al-Dimashqi133 Musa al-Mukattib al-Rumi, Sharaf al-Din111 al-Mushaymish ʿAli b. Muhammad98, 139 al-Nawaji, Muhammad b. Hasan, Shams al-Din138 Rashid104 Rashid al-Mundhiri127 al-Saddar, ʿAli, Nur al-Din122 al-Saddar, ʿAbd al-Rahman122 Santabay101 Shaʿban b. Muhammad b. Dawud al-Athari, Zayn al-Din38, 135–136 Shadhi b. Muhammad b. Dawud b. ʿIsa b. Abi Bakr b. Ayyub107, 134 Shahin al-Nuri140–141 Shuhda, Shaykha Zaynab126 al-Suhayli, Muhammad b. ʿAli b. Zakariyya139 al-Suhrawardi, Ahmad b. Yahya117, 126 Sulayman b. Dawud al-Hindi111 al-Tayyibi, Muhammad b. Hasan104, 108, 118–119, 125, 138 ʿUmar b. Ibrahim Ibn ʿAbd al-Rahman al-Nasikh110 ʿUsfur, ʿAli b. Muhammad al-Katib132–133 Waliyy, Waliyy al-Din al-ʿAjami al-Tabrizi9, 20, 120, 126, 129–129, 134–136 al-Wasimi, Muhammad b. Ahmad, Nur al-Din77, 111, 137–138, 141 al-Yaghmuri127 Yanis104 Yaʿqub b. Khalil b. Muhammad119 Yaʿqub al-Ghaznawi105 Yaqut al-Mawsili128 Yaqut al-Mustaʿsimi7, 24, 104, 107, 117, 119, 126–128 Yasin al-Jalali al-Mukattib125, 140–141 Yunus142 Yunus, son of Barsbay al-Yusufi101 Zayn al-Din Abu ʿAbd Allah Muhammad b. Fath b. Muh. Zayn al-Kuttab105 al-Zamlakani, Muhammad b. ʿAli, Kamal al-Din96, 130–131 al-Ziftawi, Muhammad b. ʿAli111, 118, 126, 132, 135–137calligraphy teacher, mukattib96, 98, 101–102, 111, 131, 133, 136–137, 140, 142catalog (see also inventory)2, 5, 32–33, 49chancery4, 47–48, 82, 84, 87–89, 91, 96, 103–106, 112–115, 127, 134, 143, 161charity, charitable13, 16, 27, 35, 38, 42, 71, 109, 118chemistry (see also sciences)41, 146Copernicus147Christians (see also Non-Muslims, Jews)147–148Circassian Mamluk97, 156, 157Citadel of Cairo13, 17–18, 125, 127 barracks1, 18, 96–97, 139 library12, 19, 25–26Citadel of Damascus121, 123class, lesson95, 96, 108, 112, 117, 149class, social85–86, 106, 110, 117, 130, 149client, clientele74, 76–77, 146, 150clocks, clock-making71, 93, 106codicology22, 4, 82, 166colophon81, 92–93, 100–101, 138, 165commission, of texts, manuscripts, istiktāb13, 18, 37–38, 52, 73, 75, 78, 81, 103, 106–108, 113, 123–125, 131–132, 141, 144, 146complex, religious see madrasa-khanqahcopy-office73Cordoba5court (royal)17, 39, 80, 110 architect102, 110 historiography150 patronage150 of Süleyman the Magnificent97craft38, 73, 87–88, 103, 110, 113, 117, 120, 122, 124, 135, 147–148, 160craftsman/men, artist79, 110, 112, 117, 119–122, 127, 148, 151Crimea16crises8, 19, 74, 80Crusades, Crusaders13, 15, 23, 46, 145cryptology91culture Islamic, Arabic5–7, 6, 15, 41, 91, 94, 103, 144, 150 Mamluk42, 46, 144–145, 149 Persian15, 18, 117, 149 popular95currency29, 41, 82–86curriculum20–22, 36–37, 39, 100–101, 108, 111–112, 145, 147, 149Damietta105, 120, 125, 141Dar al-Hadith al-Ashrafiyya92Dār al-Ḥikma8Dār al-ʿIlm8Dar al-Saʿada121al-Darb al-Ahmar1design73, 119, 121, 123, 130, 132 designer, rassām92, 103, 123, 139al-Dhahabi17dictation, imlāʾ75, 81, 89, 92, 96disaster (see also famine)18, 74 calamities12, 95donation, donor20, 22, 26–27, 31, 34, 36, 39, 48, 102doorkeeper, doorman29–30, 39, 42, 85, 131draft9, 48, 75–76, 81, 89economy (see also currency)3, 6, 29, 82, 85–86, 159, 165editing, editor, edition4, 73, 79, 81, 91, 93, 95embezzlement35, 139embroiderer123encyclopedia, encyclopedic7, 17, 78, 87, 90–91, 94, 117, 145–146endowment, see also waqf3, 8–10, 19, 22epics73, 95, 146esotericism116estate, inheritance13, 19, 24–25, 34, 35, 37–38, 40, 42, 46, 48, 51, 74–75, 80–82, 124Ethiopia91, 142Euclid146Europe, European6, 49, 32, 65, 148, 149al-Fadil, al-Qadi, ʿAbd al-Rahim al-Baysani8–12, 105family31, 38, 41, 76, 85, 105, 112–113, 129, 131, 134famine (see also disaster)8–9, 11Faraj, al-Nasir, Sultan25, 36, 73, 97–98, 125, 133, 138, 142fascicle, quire, karrāsa4, 12, 30, 40, 50–51, 76, 90, 94, 118–120Fatimid Egypt, caliphate, period7, 10–11, 104–105, 116, 166 book collection, library3, 7–2 bureaucrats13 school of calligraphy104 treasures8, 104fee4, 76, 78, 80–81folder40, 51Friday sermon, (khutba)6, 30, 71–72frontispiece98–99funerary complex see madrasa, khanqahfurnishing16, 24Fustat36, 71–72, 74, 135, 137Galen146geography41, 146Ghana76al-Ghawri, Sultan (see also madrasa-khanqah complex of)18–19, 29–30, 80, 99, 102, 108Ghazza28Ghiyath al-Din Muhammad b. ʿAli, merchant84gifts77, 99, 102, 104, 139, 150goldsmiths market134haberdasher123Hadith (see also Bukhari)45, 69, 84, 158ḥāfiẓ (see also memorizing)94Hajji, al-Mansur, Sultan24Hajji, al-Muzaffar, Sultan91al-Hakim bi-Amr Allah, Fatimid caliph8, 24, 47, 127Hama83, 115, 118, 130–131Hamid al-Dakhwar al-Tabib92Hanafi, legal school32, 85handwriting77, 87–88, 115, 121, 124, 143Hasan, al-Nasir, Sultan (see also mosque, madrasa)18, 91, 107, 119, 124heir12, 25, 34–35, 38, 41Herat132Hijaz118Hippocrates146history, (writing)7, 13, 24, 27, 32, 40–42, 78–79, 83, 118 historiography144–145hobby116, 125, 146holy cities15, 162horsemanship41, 146hospital14 of Qalawun40, 42, 77–72, 147 of Nur al-Din al-Zangi53, 92 of Salah al-Din148Ibn ʿAbd al-Karim, Muhammad b. Muh., book dealer, Shams al-Din79Ibn Abi al-Tayyib al-Suyuti, (librarian)29Ibn Abi Usaybiʿa (also Ibn Usaybiʿa), physician and historian13, 93Ibn al-ʿAdim, Kamal al-Din historian and calligrapher118, 128Ibn ʿArabi91–92Ibn ʿAsakir, History of Damascus13Ibn al-Athir, al-Kāmil79Ibn Biylik al-Muhsini, Muhammad, Emir and calligrapher107, 123Ibn Durayhim al-Mawsili, ʿAli b. Muham-mad b. ʿAbd al-ʿAziz, polymath90–91Ibn Fadl Allah al-ʿUmari, Ahmad134–135Ibn Hajar al-ʿAsqalani, historian, librarian (see also library of)17, 31–32, 44, 46, 82, 84, 93, 96, 111, 138Ibn al-Hajj, Maliki scholar73Ibn al-Himsi, historian93Ibn Jamaʿa, Burhan al-Din25Ibn Jamaʿa, ʿIzz al-Din76Ibn Jamaʿa, Muhammad b. Ibrahim, Badr al-Din, jurist and author43, 45, 68, 94Ibn Jamiʿ al-Israʾili al-Tabib, physician148Ibn al-Jawzi90Mirʾāt al-Zamān27, 83Ibn Khaldun17, 73, 103, 146, 149Ibn Luqman, Ibrahim, Fakhr al-Din, chancery secretary115Ibn Malik, Musnad75Ibn al-Nadim, Fihrist5Ibn Qayyim al-Jawziyya34Ibn al-Rayyan, Jamal al-Din, judge38, 131–132Ibn Sadaqa, Badr al-Din, book-binder and broker77Ibn al-Saddar, illuminator, book-binder, calligrapher see calligraphers and copyistsIbn Fadl Allah al-ʿUmari, ʿAli b. Yahya134–135Ibn Shakir al-Kutubi, Muhammad, Salah al-Din, book dealer and author79Ibn al-Shatir, astronomer146Ibn al-Shihna, scholar48Ibn Sina116, 148Ibn Taghribirdi17, 39, 94Ibn Taymiyya90, 130Ibn Tulun, historian39Ibrahim b. al-Bitar al-Qudsi, Burhan al-Din, al-Kutubi, book dealer79ijāza94, 96, 110–111, 138, 150, 166Ilkhanids19, 107, 126illumination, (manuscript)19, 99, 107, 117, 121–123, 127, 139 illuminators65, 79, 91, 107, 121–123, 129–130illustrated manuscript, painting18–19, 65, 68, 90–91, 121Inal, al-Ashraf, Sultan (see also khanqah)82India131, 137ink95, 116, 119, 130inscriptions96, 99, 108instrument medical42 scientific147intellectual(s), elite, circle13, 18–19, 72, 78, 89, 116–117, 123, 145, 150inventory32, 42, 49Iran13, 107, 126, 128Iraq11, 44, 68, 106–107, 118–119, 126–127, 149Isagoge, by Porphyry41–42, 146Isfahan68Istabl Qawsun, (palace)18Istanbul2, 40–41, 98, 102Italian Renaissance50, 164Italy86Jamaliyya quarter59Janibay al-Zahiri, Emir125Janibak, al-Dawadar, Emir118, 125Janim al-Sayfi al-Jaddawi al-Khazindari, Emir125, 140Jaqmaq, al-Zahir, Sultan18, 37–38, 44, 80, 97, 125, 142Jawad b. Sulayman, polymath122–123Jazira15Jedda125Jerusalem28, 48, 79, 106, 112–113, 118, 132, 159–160, 162Jews147–148juridical21, 116jurisprudence20, 79jurists34, 44, 14–48juzʾ7, 39, 50–52Kallasa, (Damascus)10al-Kamil, al-Malik, Ayyubid sultan (see also madrasa Kamiliyya)12, 72, 105, 115 library of12, 17Karak106Katbugha, al-ʿAdil, Sultan147katib87, 98, 103, 111, 114khadim mushaf20, 30Khan al-Khalili72, 159khanqah (see also madrasa-khanqah)16, 20–21, 108, 116–117, 145khanqah of Aqbugha ʿAbd al-Wahid135 Azdumur min ʿAli Bay21 Baktimur al-Saqi107 Sultan Barquq85 Sultan Barsbay21 Sultan Inal39, 138 Mughultay al-Jamali85 Sultan al-Nasir Muhammad at Siryaqus20, 85, 129, 166 Shumaysatiyya40 Salah al-Din138 Shaykhu, Shaykhuniyya, complex112, 121, 138–139Khatib Baʿalbak127Khushqadam, Sultan al-Zahir (see also complex of)122, 125, 140Kipchaq Turks97knowledge, academic, scholarly2, 5–6, 16–17, 34, 43, 73, 75, 77, 94–97, 110, 112–113, 121, 125, 145–146, 148–150 calligrapher’s110, 121kursī65, 69Lajin, al-Mansur, Sultan115lecture (see also class)12, 34, 43, 73, 89, 93, 95–96legal25–26, 28, 38, 41, 43–44library, collection of (see also mosque, madrasa, madrasa-khanqah and complex) ʿAbd al-Karim b. ʿAli, brother of al-Qadi al-Fadil10 ʿAbd al-Rahman al-Bulqini, scholar and judge48 ʿAbd al-Wahhab b. ʿUmar al-Husayni al-Dimashqi, deputy judge38 Abu Bakr b. Ahmad b. Dhuʾayb al-Asadi al-Dimashqi48 Abu ʾl-Hasan b. Ghazal13 ʿAli b. Ibrahim al-Wasiti al-Baghdadi al-Dimashqi47 ʿAli b. Mahmud al Mughli, ʿAla al-Din38 ʿAli b. al-Nafis al-Qurashi40 ʿAli b. Sulayman al-Abshadi40–41 Amid, Diyar Bakr, Artuqid8, 10 Ashrafiyya mausoleum in Damascus33 Badr al-Din b. Ghanim47 Baktimur al-Saqi19 al-Barizi, Muhammad Kamal al-Din29, 37–38 al-Barizi, Muhammad Nasir al-Din37–38 Bayazid II, Ottoman sultan49 Ibn Fatik11 the Fatimid palace7–9 Sultan al-Ghawri’s complex35 Gonzaga, Mantua50 mosque of al-Hakim24 Ibn Hajar al-ʿAsqalani47–48 Ibn Qayyim al-Jawziyya34–35 Ibn Taghribirdi39 Ibrahim b. ʿAbd al-Rahim b. Jamaʿa, Burhan al-Din, judge25 Ibrahim b. Abi Bakr47 Ibrahim b. Musa al-Ibnasi39 Ibrahim al-Wasiti al-Baghdadi al-Dimashqi47 Ifraʾim b. al-Zaffan11 ʿIsa b. al-Zawawi al-Din Sharaf al-Din Abu ʾl-Rawh40 Kings College, Cambridge49 Mahmud b. Muhammad al-Qarafi, Safiy al-Din40 Mahmud, Jamal al-Din al-Ustadar, Mahmudiyya25, 26–27, 44, 46 Mátyás, king of Hungary49 Molla Yegân49 Müeyyedzâde, Ottoman scholar49 Muhammad al-Banjadihi10 Muhammad b. ʿAbd al-Rahman b. ʿUmar al-Qazwini47 Muhammad b. Mufaddal b. Fadl Allah al-Qibti Katib Qibjaq48 Muhammad b. ʿUmar b. Abi Bakr Taj al-Din12 Muhammad Nasir al-Din al-Faqqusi31 Muhibb al-Din Abu ʾl-Tayyib32, 41–42, 50 Petrarch50 al-Qasim b. Muhammad b. Yusuf al-Birzali, scholar and historian38 Queen’s College, Cambridge50 Samhudi, historian48, 90 Shaʿban b. Muhammad al-Athari, poet and calligrapher38 Shafiʿ b. ʿAli, Nasir al-Din47 Sorbonne49 ʿUbayd Allah b. Yaʿqub33, 47 ʿUmar b. ʿAli b. al-Mulaqqin9–10 ʿUmar b. Raslan al-Bulqini39 Usama b. Munqidh46 Yahya b. ʿAli b. Aqbars, Sharaf al-Din84 Yusuf b. ʿAbd al-Hadi, historian38 Yusuf, Jamal al-Din al-Ustadar see madrasa-khanqahlibrarian of the madrasa of Mahmud al-Ustadar29, 31–32, 44, 48, 118, 142lifestyle6, 18, 42, 116literati75, 78, 89literature (see also poetry)adab15, 78, 101 Arabic6, 15 belles-lettres22, 24, 40, 47, 81 calligraphy103, 140 Mamluk147 Persian18 Turkish, Ottoman18, 117, 123loss, books, libraries, dispersal of3, 7–9, 12, 25, 31, 35, 39, 45–46, 72Louis XI, French king16luxury manuscript, edition2, 4, 7, 35n, 52, 83, 88, 106, 108, 117, 123, 131madrasa of, madrasa-mosque, funerary madrasa (see also madrasa-khanqah, complex)1, 3, 9–10, 14–16, 22–23, 25–31, 34, 36–39, 43–44, 48–49, 52–53, 71–72, 108, 110–113, 116–118, 149–150 ʿAsruniyya36 ʿAziziyya129 Diyaʾiyya44 Ghanamiyya, madrasa123 Hanbaliyya35 Kamiliyya, of Sultan al-Malik al-Kamil134 Mustansiriyya6–7, 51 Qaymariyya129 Qilijiyya84, 129 Rawahiyya131 Sabiqiyya, of Emir Mithqal31 Sahibiyya Bahaʾiyya35 ʿUmariyya39 Zahiriyya Juwanniyya121 ʿAbd al-Basit, Basitiyya29, 38, 132 al-ʿAyni, Badr al-Din29, 36, 39 Sultan al-Zahir Baybars46, 72, 113, 136 al-Fadil (al-Qadi)9dar al-hadith10 Ibn al-Jiʿan140 Jawhar al-Lala30, 52 Jawhar al-Qunuqbaʾi53 Sultan Qalawun22–23, 53 Mahmud al-Ustadar, Mahmudiyya, library25–27, 31–32, 44, 46, 142 Sultan al-Nasir Muhammad20, 29 Sultan al-Salih Najm al-Din Ayyub71 Sarghitmish29, 77madrasa-khanqah, funerary complex21, 24, 30–31, 56, 85, 116 of Sultan Barquq29, 56–58, 85, 111, 137, 140–142 of Sultan Barsbay in the city20, 30–33, 38, 62, 64, 72, 75, 85, 110–111, 140–141 of Sultan al-Ghawri30, 32, 62, 68, 80, 86, 108, 110–111, 141–142 of Sultan Khushqadam31, 111 of Sultan al-Muʾayyad Shaykh, mosque, mausoleum, complex, library21, 25, 27, 29, 32, 37, 60–63, 83, 85, 98, 110, 138, 141 of Qurqumas21 of Sultan Shaʿban24, 83 of Sultan Qaytbay in Jerusalem28 of Uljay al-Yusufi108 of Yusuf al-Ustadar, Jamal al-Din24, 30, 59, 133Maghreb, North Africa36, 40, 73 Maghrebi students40Mahmud, Ghurid Sultan of Ghazna144Mahmud al-Ustadar (majordomo), Jamal al-Din see madrasa and librarymajmūʿ, miscellena52maktab, primary school, class of calligraphy23, 39, 108–109, 112, 136, 141–142Maliki law school40al-Manawi, Sharaf al-Din, scholar44Mankalibugha al-Zahiri, Emir125manual, of calligraphy104, 108, 116, 118, 120, 125, 136, 138–139, 141manual crafts (see also craftsmen)78, 113, 119, 122maqāla, article52Maqamat al-Hariri68, 94, 95al-Maqrizi17, 51Maragha observatory51market inspector39, 78, 82, 131, 137, 124–125Masʿud al-Makki al-Mutaybir122mathematics, mathematician91, 122, 146–147 arithmetic40–41, 147 geometry41, 147mausoleum16, 21–22, 56, 64, 108, 133, 162–163 library of Sultan Qalawun22–23Mecca15, 117, 137, 139, 156medicine22, 32, 40–42, 45, 79, 92, 146–147 veterinarian123Medina15, 48, 132Mehmet the Conqueror49memorizing, learning by heart94–96, 123merchants6, 12, 37, 41, 83, 85, 91, 95, 121, 129metal ware, vessels121, 123, 130military (see also soldier)80 establishment15, 16, 18, 96–103 recruits97Mongol invasion, Mongols15, 23, 92, 1119, 126–127, 145mosque (see also Umayyad mosque) Friday mosque6, 20–21, 24, 42, 111 great mosque10, 16, 28, 34, 71 of ʿAmr Ibn al-ʿAs71 of Azbak min Tutukh21, 141 of al-Maridani139 of Ibn Tulun139, 147 of Sultan Qaytbay, mausoleum30, 62, 65–66, 69, 86, 110 of Qijmas al-Ishaqi56, 60Mosul91muʾaddib108al-Muʾayyad Shaykh, Sultan19, 29, 45, 131, 141Mughals144Muhammad, al-Nasir, Sultan (see also khanqah, madrasa)19, 23–24, 47, 82, 107, 115, 123–125, 134–135Muhammad, son of Sultan Jaqmaq97–98Muhammad Abu Ishaq al-Suwaydi92Muhammad b. ʿAli Abu Talib al-Makki, author of Qut al-Qulub20Muhammad b. Bahadur al-Zarkash, scholar75Muhammad b. Muh. b. ʿAbd al-Karim, poet, calligrapher and book dealer79Muhammad b. Muh. b. Abd al-Rahman al-Sunbati al-Kutubi, book dealer79–80Muhammad b. Muh. b. ʿIsa al-Kutubi b. al-Kutubi79Muhammad b. Muh. b. al-Khatib al-Baʿalbaki governor of Baalbak and scholar112Muhammad b. Muh. b. Salah Abu ʾl-Fath, book dealer77Muhammad b. Nashi, Shams al-Din, book dealer78Muhammad b. Qurqumas al-Aqtamuri, scholar and librarian31Muhammad b. ʿUmar, scholar and librarian29Muhammad b. ʿUthman al-Kutubi, book dealer79mujallad, (bound volume)40–41, 50–52Musa b. Ifrayim b. Dawud b. Ifrayim b. Yaʿqub, Jewish physician148Musa al-ʿIbadi118Musa al-Ibnasi39musicologist117Mustafa Darir, Anatolian poet, (Siyer-i Nebi)18Mustansiriyya, madrasa7, 51Müstaqim-zade, Ottoman historian87al-Mutanabbi, (poetry)94Najm al-Din b. Sasari, chief judge and copyist90Nasir-i Khusraw12, 155Nizam al-Mulk, Saljuk vizier13non-Muslim (see also Christians, Jews)16, 73, 148 -ahl al-kitāb5notary, work75, 88, 120–121, 143Nur al-Din Mahmud Zangi, ruler of Syria106al-Nuwayri2, 17, 79, 84, 90, 118occultism, occult sciences occult41, 146, 149Öljaytü, Quran manuscript107oral, transmission94–95, 130, 160Ottoman, conquest33, 42, 47, 121, 143 Egypt2 Empire22 libraries22, 33, 37, 49–50, 159 palace scribes97palace libraries7, 12, 17, 49, 104paleography2, 105paper12, 71, 74, 76–77, 82–83, 86, 129 -dast, quire82 sheet51, 83farkha83laffa82–83waraq al-ṭayr, birds paper129 wrapping12, 82part-time jobs, occupation29, 80, 85, 87, 89, 120pen-box151–152Persian and Turkish calligraphic traditions116physician9, 12, 13, 40, 92, 93–95, 110, 121, 147–148 surgeon40 orthopedic42 poet12, 18, 38, 46–47, 78–79, 89, 92, 113, 116–119, 123–124, 127, 131–132, 135–137, 142poetry, poems6, 15, 22, 42, 69, 75, 78, 94, 101, 116, 125, 130, 142, 136–137, 146polymath, polymathy42, 75, 79, 89, 91, 118, 122–123, 139–140, 147practitioners113, 119, 147primary school see maktabprinting35, 49, 150private, activity, domain, initiative3, 18, 22, 43, 45–46, 89, 95, 105, 112, 115, 145, 149, 150 education, classes84, 89, 95, 110, 113, 130, 149private secretary26, 37, 45, 106, 115, 134–135Qalawun, al-Mansur, Sultan (see also mausoleum and madrasa, hospital)71Qansuh see al-GhawriQaytbay, al-Ashraf, Sultan (see also mosque, madrasa, sabil)18, 21, 32, 98–100, 118, 139–141Qijmas al-Ishaqi, Emir (see also mosque)97, 125Qus91, 106Rawda, island in Cairo72recitation22, 36, 95riwāq, hall, apartment56, 60, 93remuneration29–30, 116, 118Renaissance, (Europe)50, 144, 149renaissance of Islam, revival19, 157, 149Rumayla Square98sabīl-maktab (see also maktab)14, 39, 62, 68, 108–109, 141 of Sultan Qaybay108Safad130al-Safadi89–90, 91Safavids19, 144al-Sakhawi17, 25, 48, 145Salah al-Din, Yusuf b. Ayyub, Sultan7–11, 13–14, 71, 104–106, 129, 138, 148salary (see also fee)8, 21–22, 28–30, 39, 41–42, 85, 111, 113, 145sale8–9, 11, 34, 38, 73–74, 77, 81, 84, 92 wholesale74Saliba Street1, 108Salihiyya quarter38, 39al-Salih, Najm al-Din, Ayyubid sultan13, 16, 71Saljuks13Samarkand125Samhudi, historian48, 146Sandal, illuminator127Saraj al-DinʿUmar al-Warraq, book dealer78Sarim al-Din Ibrahim, Emir124scale-making79sciences, natural, rational (see also mathematics)13, 92, 94, 147–149script, calligraphy style92, 96, 103–108, 110, 113–114, 117, 122, 126–127, 129–139ʿajami (Persian)142 cursive103–104ḥawāshī style118Kufic9, 92, 96, 108, 117, 130mansūb, khaṭṭ mansūb104, 131–132, 135muḥaqqaq106, 124, 126, 129, 138muhaqqaq bi-qalam al-faddah131muzdawaj130naskh118, 126–127, 137, 140naskh faḍḍāḥ131proportional103rayḥān126al-rasm al-ʿuthmānī117taʿlīq130scriptorium4, 9, 11, 13, 18, 52, 73, 80, 97–98, 101, 107, 123secular, subject, book5–6, 37, 42, 91, 146, 148Selim I, Ottoman sultan18, 40–41Seville106Shaʿban, al-Ashraf, Sultan (see also madrasa-khanqah of)18, 24, 119, 107, 133, 135–136 mother, madrasa of45, 124, 136Shaʿban, al-Kamil, Sultan91, 135Shadhiliyya, Sufi order116shadow-play146Shahinshah, al-Afdal, vizier11, 115Shahnameh, of Firdawsi144shaykh al-kuttāb87, 88, 110, 130, 131, 135–137Shaykh see al-Muʾayyad, SultanShaykhu al-Qazani al-Nasiri, Emir124Shaykh Shihab al-Din Ahmad al-Fayyumi101Shiraz, Shirazi origin129, 132, 143shop74–77, 80, 93, 113, 120–121, 123, 129, 139signature80, 91, 97, 99, 101, 107, 115, 119, 128, 133Siirt115Siryaqus see khanqah of al-Nasir Muhammadsocial standing, status13, 78, 103, 128, 132, 151soldier8, 17, 100, 103Spain86storage, of books4, 43, 45, 47, 49, 51–69 chest9, 65 shelves52–53, 62–63, 65, 68, 76 container8–9, 38, 40–41 cupboard53 -khizāna, khizānat kutub9, 19, 40, 47, 52–59, 61, 63–67, 98kutubiyya53, 62storytelling95student1, 3–4, 9, 21, 24, 29, 32, 34, 40–41, 43–46, 51–52, 64, 68, 73, 75–76, 78al-Subki, Taqiyy al-Din124al-Subki, Taj al-Din45, 73–74Sudun al-Zahiri, Emir133Sufi14, 20–21, 29–30, 77, 85, 91, 102, 108, 110, 115–117, 130, 138, 142, 145Sufism15, 21, 32, 110, 115, 116, 161khirqat al-taṣawwuf11waẓīfat taṣawwuf116Sulayman Abu Ishaq127Süleyman, Ottoman sultan, Süleymaniye49Sunnism13, 15al-Suyuti17, 95, 146n9, 25Taghribirmish, Emir125Tales of the 1001 Nights95, 146Tankiz al-Nasiri, Emir48, 123, 131 foundations in Jerusalem and Damascus of28Tatar, al-Zahir, Sultan18Taybugha al-Anuki, Emir124time-keeper106, 132, 147transmission, chain of1, 5, 72–73, 81, 94–96, 103, 110Tripoli124Tughay, Emir124, 136Tunis127Turkish18, 75 calligraphic traditions116 collections, libraries3, 18, 97 literature18Uljay, Sayf al-Din, Emir124Umayyad mosque34, 64, 71, 79, 91, 96, 106, 124, 147–149, 158Upper Egypt140ʿUthman, caliph, 9, Quran manuscript ofʿUthman, Fakhr al-Din, librarian of the Mahmudiyya32Venice157, 160–161waqf, endowment, system, donation1, 3, 13, 16, 21, 24–25, 28, 31, 34–42, 44, 46, 48, 71, 81 supervisor of, nāẓir31, 45 private endowment34–35, 37, 39, 41 supplementary endowment10, 28, 36–37, 112al-Watwat, Muhammad b. Ibrahim al-Kutubi, book dealer78–79Yaqut al-Hamawi al-Rumi78Yashbak al-Faqih, Emir140Yashbak min Mahdi, Emir, great secretary32, 52, 101, 118, 123, 139–141Yashbak al-Muʾayyadi, Emir125Yemen131, 137, 142, 151Yusuf, Jamal al-Din al-Ustadar, Emir see madrasa-khanqahZakariyya al-Ansari, scholar31, 146n12Zangids2, 10, 13, 15, 128, 147, 162zawiya116, 122, 158Zayn al-Din Muhammad al-Jamali, librarian and doorkeeper39

The Book in Mamluk Egypt and Syria (1250-1517)

Scribes, Libraries and Market

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