For a comprehensive review of the embodiment process, see Paula M. Niedenthal et al., “Embodiment in the Acquisition and Use of Emotion Knowledge,” in Emotion and Consciousness, eds. Lisa Feldman Barrett, Paula M. Niedenthal, and Piotr Winkielman (New York: Guilford Press, 2005), 21–50.
Giacomo Rizzolatti, Leonardo Fogassi, and Vittorio Gallese, “Mirrors in the Mind,” Scientific American, 295 (2006), 54–61.
A. Guy Larkins et al., Teacher Enthusiasm: A Critical Review (Hattiesburg, MS: University of Southern Mississippi, 1985). Although behavioral indicators vary across cultures, in this study learners interpreted the teacher’s value for the subject through these five actions:
- Speaking with some variation in tone, pitch, volume, and speed
- Gesturing with arms and hands
- Moving around the room to illustrate points and respond to questions
- Making varied emotive facial expressions where appropriate
- Displaying energy and vitality
Sigmund Freud, “Interpretation of Dreams”, in The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud, ed. and trans. Abraham A. Brill (New York: Random House, 1938). Although The Interpretation of Dreams was originally published in 1900, Freud was prescient when he wrote that the processes that give energy to behavior are complex and varied, including multiple influences from the preconscious, unconscious, and conscious. Years later he identified instincts which represent the somatic demands on mental life in Sigmund Freud, An Outline of Psychoanalysis (New York: W. W. Norton, 1949) (Originally published in 1938).
Harry F. Harlow, Margaret Kuenne Harlow, and Donald R. Meyer, “Learning Motivated by a Manipulation Drive,” Journal of Experimental Psychology, 40 (1950), 228–234. Harry Harlow and his colleagues found that monkeys solved puzzles for the gratification of manipulating them. A generation later, Edward Deci found that children enjoy putting together a three dimensional puzzle similar to a Rubik’s cube for the satisfaction of the task itself. Many of these experiments are reported in Edward L. Deci, Intrinsic Motivation (New York: Plenum, 1975).
This idea is documented and discussed at length in Raymond J. Wlodkowski and Margery B. Ginsberg, Enhancing Adult Motivation to Learn: A Comprehensive Guide for Teaching All Adults, 4th ed. (San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 2017).
This quote is found on page 32 of Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi, Finding Flow: The Psychology of Engagement with Everyday Life (New York: Basic Books, 1997), a book that documents flow experiences across cultures and describes why a cherished engrossing interest is worth learning and lasting over time.
Fausto Massimini, Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi, and Antonella Delle Fave, “Flow and Biocultural Evolution,” in Optimal Experience: Psychological Studies of Flow in Consciousness, eds. Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi and Isabella Selega Csikszentmihalyi (New York: Cambridge University Press, 1988), 60–84. This article documents how flow may contribute across cultures to behavior that develops into an evolutionary trend or norm. Similar to a meme, it may be a sense that humans have developed in order to recognize patterns of action that are worth preserving.
Jeanne Nakamura and Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi, “The Construction of Meaning through Vital Engagement,” in Flourishing: Positive Psychology and The Life Well-Lived, eds. Corey Keyes and Jonathan Haidt (Washington, DC: American Psychological Association, 2003), 83–104. This article describes the similar characteristics of a variety of flow experiences.
For a detailed description of how to deepen engagement and challenge through flow experiences with adult learners see: Wlodkowski and Ginsberg, Enhancing Adult Motivation to Learn, 260–263.
The more people meet their needs for autonomy, connectedness, and competence through valued challenging work, the more likely they are to contribute to compassionate and caring societies. This idea is discussed at length in Richard M. Ryan and Edward L. Deci, Self-Determination Theory: Basic Psychological Needs in Motivation, Development, and Wellness (New York: The Guilford Press, 2017).
Emmy E. Werner, “Resilience in Development,” Current Directions in Psychological Science 4 (1995), 81–85. Children and youth who are better able to appraise stressful life events more accurately are also better able to figure out strategies for coping with adversity.
Edwin A. Locke and Gary Latham, “Building a Practically Useful Theory of Goal Setting and Task Motivation,” American Psychologist 57 (2005), 705–717. When expectancy for learning is high, learners more easily commit to given learning goals, resulting in an increase in their performance and motivation.
Bernard Weiner, “Interpersonal and Intrapersonal Theories of Motivation from an Attributional Perspective,” Educational Psychology Review 12 (2000), 1–14. There is considerable research indicating that to what learners attribute their success affects their motivation while learning. Effort is an aspect of behavior over which most learners feel some degree of control. It makes sense that exerting more effort would lead to higher achievement.
Victoria C. Plaut and Hazel R. Markus, “The Inside Story: A Cultural-Historical Analysis of Being Smart and Motivated, American Style,” in Handbook of Competence and Motivation, eds. Andrew J. Elliot and Carol S. Dweck (New York: Guilford Press, 2005), 457–488. When learners realize they are the ones most responsible for their learning, they build self-efficacy and the capacity to bring energy and direction to their learning.
Linda Nilson, Creating Self-Regulated Learners: Strategies to Strengthen Students’ Self-Awareness and Learning Skills (Sterling, VA: Stylus, 2013). An introduction to self-regulated learning and a compendium of learning strategies for faculty to use with students.
Motivation and Teaching: A Practical Guide which I wrote in in 1978 was one of the first books directly written for teachers on the topic of how to encourage student motivation through the use of teaching strategies in the classroom. It was published by the National Education Association.
Richard A. Depue, “A Neurobiological Framework for the Structure of Personality and Emotions: Implications for Personality Disorder,” in Major Theories of Personality, eds. John Clarkin and Mark Lenzenweger (New York: Guilford Press, 1996), 347–390. This chapter describes how behavioral inhibition systems function.
Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi and Barbara Schneider, Becoming Adult: How Teenagers Prepare for the World of Work (New York: Basic Books, 2000). Mental discipline and persistence appear to be forms of motivation that are a mix of habit and attitude that have been developed within adults through practice and the modeling of important others. The story of Charles Darwin and the beetles is cited on p. 18.
Holly S. Hodgins and C. Raymond Knee, “The Integrating Self and Conscious Experience,” in Handbook of Self-Determination Research, eds. Edward L. Deci and Richard M. Ryan(Rochester, NY: University of Rochester Press, 2002), 87–100. Relevance is intrinsically motivating because it stimulates natural curiosity. We want to make sense of things that matter to us, and we are prone to seek out challenges to further our understanding.
Barry J. Zimmerman and Manuel Martinez-Pons, “Construct Validation of a Strategy Model of Student Self-Regulated Learning,” Journal of Educational Psychology 80 (1988), 284–290. What I had learned through trial and error were metacognitive skills that are part of a set of self-regulation strategies learners use to maintain engagement and learning through their own agency.
Many examples of strategies for deepening engagement and challenge through flow experiences using the characteristics of clear goals, feedback, and challenge are described in Wlodkowski and Ginsberg, Enhancing Adult Motivation to Learn, 260–299. For a full discussion of flow see Living a Motivated Life see Part 2, Chapter 17. For activities for understanding and feeling the value of flow for adults in courses and professional development see Part 2, Chapter 19.
We were immersed in vital engagement, a form of flow which is characterized both by experiences of flow (enjoyed absorption) and by meaning (subjective significance). Nakamura and Csikszentmihalyi, “The Construction of Meaning through Vital Engagement,” 87. Vital engagement is an ideal state of learning that involves challenge; it creates a valued relationship to learning that stretches learners’ capacities while completely occupying their interest and participation. For a full discussion of vital engagement in Living a Motivated Life see Part 2, Chapter 17.
Jack Mezirow, “Learning to Think like an Adult: Core Concepts of Transformation Theory,” in Learning as Transformation: Critical Perspectives on a Theory in Progress, eds. Jack Mezirow and Associates (San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 2000), 3–33. Transformative learning refers to learning that results in a deep change in our beliefs, assumptions, or perspectives, making them more discriminating and able to construct opinions that will prove more true to guide our actions. For a full discussion of transformative learning and activities for understanding and feeling its emotional value for adults in courses and professional development see Part 2, Chapters 18 and 19 in Living a Motivated Life.
Jack Mezirow, “Transformative Learning Theory,” in Transformative Learning in Practice: Insights from Community, Workplace, and Higher Education, eds. Jack Mezirow and Edward W. Taylor (San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 2009), 18–31. A more recent discussion of transformative learning by the scholar most responsible for developing transformative theory and its phases of learning.
Sharan B. Merriam and Laura L. Bierema, Adult Learning: Linking Theory and Practice (San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 2014), 82–103. This section offers an overview and critique of transformation theory that contains both a cultural perspective as well as accounts of educators trying to implement and assess transformative learning.
For a discussion of the influence of a transformative friendship or relationship see Edward W. Taylor and Melissa J. Snyder, “A Critical Review of Research on Transformative Learning Theory, 2006–2010,” in The Handbook of Transformative Learning: Theory, Research, and Practice, eds. Edward W. Taylor and Patricia Cranton (San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 2012), 37–55.
According to Jack Mezirow, this often is a necessary step for the establishment of a perspective transformation in a person’s development. Jack Mezirow, Education for Perspectives of Transformation: Women’s Re-Entry Programs in Community Colleges (New York: Center for Adult Education, Teachers College, Columbia University, 1975).
One transformative experience can connect to the next one building a succession of integrated ideas that give adults the motivation to try new roles and risk developing new relationships. Mezirow, “Learning to Think Like an Adult.”
Finley’s regard for me helped me to look further and more deeply to understand with whom I might be intimate and where I might live. Ibid.
I didn’t tell anyone using this expression because to me such words seemed pretentious. I was 21 years old. It gave my life direction to retain that feeling. I think for most people who love learning it’s a quiet certainty, more so than some passionate romance. It’s a feeling that gives a peaceful vitality and steady confidence. Wlodkowski and Ginsberg, Enhancing Adult Motivation to Learn, 94–96; 262–263.
This rudimentary empathy is essential for people to be effective in the helping professions and can be found among nurses and teachers across various cultures. Marsha Rossiter, “Radical Mutuality and Self-Other Relationship in Adult Education,” in Global Issues and Adult Education: Perspectives from Latin America, Southern Africa, and the United States, eds. Sharan B. Merriam, Bradley C. Courtenay, and Ronald M. Cervero (San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 2006), 387–398. Some degree of compassion is an essential ingredient for any excellent teacher. There seems to be universal agreement in the field of education concerning the importance of compassion in teaching adult learners. For centuries, religious and spiritual leaders have used words like “understanding” and “compassion” to describe how fundamental these qualities are for human life on earth.
Fritz Redl and William W. Wattenberg, Mental Hygiene in Teaching (New York: Harcourt, Brace & Company, 1951). Fritz Redl and William Wattenberg, professors at Wayne State University, were specialists in human behavior and educational psychology. They presented the first theory-based approach to humane classroom discipline and are considered twentieth century pioneers for their approach to supporting mental health in educational settings.
Using the goal of student self-discipline as a means to enhance their character development became a popular idea across education with numerous books and programs leading to the initiation of The Journal for Social Responsibility and Character Education in 2004.
Again, I am going through some of the transformative learning phases as described by Jack Mezirow in “Learning to Think like an Adult”: A disorienting dilemma; self-examination with feelings of shame; exploration of options for new actions; and a reintegration into a life based on a new perspective.
M. Suzanne Donovan, John D. Bransford, and James W. Pellegrino, How People Learn: Bridging Research and Practice. (Washington, DC: National Academy Press, 1999). Evidence for when learners have a deep understanding of a subject, they are more able to transform mere information into useable knowledge.
Mimi Bong and Einar Skaalvik, “Academic Self-Concept and Self-Efficacy: How Different Are They Really?” Educational Psychology Review 15 (2003), 1–40. Self-efficacy is a personal assessment of one’s capability to perform a specific task. For example the confidence and high self-efficacy one might have for solving algebraic equations among classmates could vary widely from one’s lack of confidence and low self-efficacy for playing tennis well among peers. Self-efficacy beliefs are stronger predictors of adult behavior than self-perceptions such as self-concept and self-esteem which have more global meaning and are more powerful predicators for children’s behavior.,
Jonathan Kozol, Death at an Early Age: The Destruction of the Hearts and Minds of Negro Children in the Boston Public Schools (Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1967). It won the U.S. National Book Award in the Science, Philosophy and Religion category.
Bruno Bettelheim, Love Is Not Enough: The Treatment of Emotionally Disturbed Children (New York: The Free Press, 1950). Today Bruno Bettelheim is a controversial figure. His theories on the causes of autism have been largely discredited, and his reporting rates of cure at the Sonia Shankman Orthogenic School have been questioned.
Karl Halvor Teigen, “Luck: The Art of a Near Miss,” Scandinavian Journal of Psychology 37 (1996), 156–171. Since there was no way to determine how much the other doctoral candidates deserved admittance to the program and clearly the reason given for my rejection was “merit,” I attributed my near miss to causes such as insufficient knowledge and experience rather than “bad luck.” I could control for these determining factors in the future through greater effort and learning. Thus, I could reasonably expect more success as a psychologist.
Jacob S. Kounin, Discipline and Group Management in Classrooms (New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, Inc., 1970). His most influential book is considered a classic in the analysis of authentic, ongoing classroom teacher and student behavior. It offers concrete, non-punitive techniques to manage students and to increase their motivation to learn.
Eveoleen N. Rexford, “The Life Space Interview Workshop, 1957, Strategy and Techniques of the Life Space Interview,” American Journal of Orthopsychiatry 29 (1959), 1–18. Emotional first aid is one of the basic techniques of the Life Space Interview, an intervention method originally developed by Dr. Redl to provide emotional support using events surrounding a youth’s disruptive actions to expand his understanding of the behavior and the responses of others. Emotional first aid is still advocated today among mental health professionals as a means to assist people who are experiencing “floods” of emotion and includes strategies such as having a drink of water, taking a walk, or assisting the person to breath evenly.
Wlodkowski and Ginsberg, Enhancing Adult Motivation to Learn. This book contains sixty documented motivational strategies for teaching adults.
Neil Postman and Charles Weingartner, Teaching as a Subversive Activity (New York: Delta, 1969). With an apple emitting a burning fuse on the cover, it was one of many books advocating, or better yet, shouting for a radical change in how people learned in schools.
Robert Rosenthal and Lenore Jacobson, Pygmalion in the Classroom: Teacher Expectation and Pupils’ Intellectual Development (New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1968).
Raymond J. Wlodkowski, “The Effect of Dissonance and Arousal on Assignment Performance as They Relate to Student Expectancy and Teacher Support Characteristics,” Journal of Educational Research 67 (1973), 23–28. A refereed journal article that summarizes the findings of my dissertation.
B. F. Skinner, Beyond Freedom and Dignity (New York: Knopf, 1971). In this book, the most influential psychologist of his day and advocate for operant conditioning offers his philosophical treatise that people can achieve a better society and greater well-being by letting go of their pretensions concerning the freedom and dignity of man. He explains why it is necessary for human beings to take total control of their evolution by consciously designing an entire culture that it will shape the behavior needed for survival. On the New York Times best seller’s list for twenty-six weeks, it was probably the most debated book in academe for a decade after its publication.
Albert Bandura, “Self-Efficacy Mechanism in Human Agency,” American Psychologist 37 (1982), 122–147. The powerful influence of models whom we observe and with which we identify was originally derived from the research of Albert Bandura.
Barry J. Zimmerman and Anastasia Kitsantas, “The Hidden Dimension of Personal Competence: Self-Regulated Learning and Practice,” in Handbook of Competence and Motivation, eds. Andrew J. Elliot and Carol S. Dweck (New York: Guilford, 2005), 509–526. A compendium of research studies that offers evidence in academics and athletics of the motivation and success of people who learn vicariously from models in their lives. See also Nicole M. Stephens, Andrea G. Dittmann, and Sarah S. M. Townsend, “Social Class and Models of Competence,” in Handbook of Competence and Motivation, 2nd eds. Andrew J. Elliot, Carol S. Dweck, and David S. Yeager (New York: Guilford, 2017), 512–528.
David Benjamin Oppenheimer, “Martin Luther King, Walker v. City of Birmingham, and the Letter from Birmingham Jail.” UC Davis L. Rev. 26 (1992), 791.
Maggi Savin-Baden, Facilitating Problem-Based Learning (Berkshire, England: Open University Press, 2003). The book offers a variety of useful problem-based learning methods.
Jeannie Brooks-Gunn and Greg J. Duncan, “The Effects of Poverty on Children,” The Future of Children (1997), July 55–71. This article examines the relationships and the consequences for children who grow up poor.
Ian M. Harris, “Criteria for Evaluating School Desegregation in Milwaukee,” Journal of Negro Education 52 (1983), 423–435.
Erin Richards and Lydia Mulvany, “60 Years after Brown v. Board of Education, Intense Segregation Returns” Milwaukee Sentinel (May 17, 2014). http://www.jsonline.com/news/education/60-years-after-brown-v-board-of-education-intense-segregation-returns-b99271365z1-259682171.html
Jack Dougherty, More than One Struggle: The Evolution of Black School Reform in Milwaukee (Chapel Hill, NC: The University of North Carolina Press, 2004), 161.
“Lengthy School Strike Feared,” Milwaukee Sentinel (April 19, 1977). http://www.mu.edu/cgi-bin/cuap/db.cgi?uid=default&ID=3901&view=Search&mh=1
Raymond J. Wlodkowski, Motivation and Teaching: A Practical Guide (Washington, DC: National Education Association, 1978), 7.
Frederick Perls, Ralph Hefferline, and Paul Goodman, Gestalt Therapy: Excitement and Growth in the Human Personality (New York: Julian, 1951). The book that most influenced our initial work in the Milwaukee Gestalt Training Group.
Raymond J. Wlodkowski, Motivation to Learn: How Parents and Teachers Can Help (Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development, 1990).
Malcolm S. Knowles, The Modern Practice of Adult Education: From Pedagogy to Andragogy, 2nd ed. (New York: Cambridge Books, 1980). A comprehensive treatment of the need, theory, and research that supports andragogy for adult learners. Though highly respected, most adult learning scholars today would consider this book dated and regard adult learning as more complex and culturally influenced.
Carol E. Kasworm, Amy D. Rose, and Jovita M. Ross-Gordon, eds. Handbook of Adult and Continuing Education: 2010 Edition. (Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage, 2010). For an overview of the depth and expanse of adult education as a discipline, this is a fine book to peruse.
Finley Hooper, Greek Realities: Life and Thought in Ancient Greece (New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons, 1967).
Carol Kasworm, “Enhancing Adult Motivation to Learn: A Comprehensive Guide for Teaching All Adults,” The Review of Higher Education 32 (2009), 280–281. This review contains a concise overview and critique of the contents of the third edition of this book.)
Raymond J. Wlodkowski, “An Analysis of the History, Status, and Impact of Peer Coaching at the British Columbia Institute of Technology,” Report to the Learning Skills Center of the British Columbia Institute of Technology (Vancouver: British Columbia Institute of Technology, 1992).
Horace Mann, Horace Mann on the Crisis in Education (Antioch, OH: Antioch Press, 1865). His landmark book remains a significant progressive influence on the philosophy of education practiced throughout Antioch University.
Wlodkowski and Ginsberg, Enhancing Adult Motivation to Learn, 20–28. Degree and certificate completion among underserved and diverse adult learners in postsecondary education is a complex dynamic which has to be seen through the lenses of income, race, gender, ethnicity, age, and disability to more fully understand the troubling disparities and challenges that emerge.
Margery B. Ginsberg and Raymond J. Wlodkowski, Diversity and Motivation: Culturally Responsive Teaching in College, 2nd ed. (San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 2009). The current edition of the book we wrote in 1995. Both editions contain the Motivational Framework for Culturally Responsive Teaching, an internationally recognized and researched model to design lessons and create intrinsically motivating learning environments for learners from culturally diverse backgrounds.
John J. Ratey, A User’s Guide to the Brain: Perception, Attention, and the Four Theatres of the Brain (New York: Pantheon, 2001), 247.
Paul R. Pintrich, ed. Special Issue: “Current Issues and New Directions in Motivational Theory and Research,” Education Psychologist 26 (1991), 199–205.
Ehud Ahissar et al., “Dependence of Cortical Plasticity on Correlated Activity of Single Neurons and on Behavioral Context,” Science 257 (1992), 1412–1415.
Richard M. Ryan and Edward L. Deci, “When Rewards Compete with Nature: The Undermining of Intrinsic Motivation and Self-Regulation,” in Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivation: The Search for Optimal Motivation and Performance, eds. Carol Sansone and Judith M. Harackiewicz (San Diego: Academic Press, 2000), 14–56.
Coalition for Psychology in Schools & Education, Top 20 Principles from Psychology for PreK–12 Teaching and Learning (Washington, DC: American Psychological Association, 2015), 16.
Wlodkowski and Ginsberg, Enhancing Adult Motivation to Learn. Ryan and Deci, Self-Determination Theory. Daniel H. Pink, Drive: The Surprising Truth about What Motivates Us (New York: Riverhead Books, 2009).
Sharan B. Merriam, B., Rosemary S. Caffarella, and Lisa M. Baumgartner, Learning in Adulthood: A Comprehensive Guide 3rd ed. (Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons Inc., 2007).
Jeanne Nakamura, “The Nature of Vital Engagement in Adulthood,” New Directions for Child and Adolescent Development 93 (San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 2001), 8, 5–18.
Sharon Daloz Parks et al., Common Fire: Leading Lives of Commitment in a Complex World (Boston: Beacon Press, 1996).
Nakamura, “The Nature of Vital Engagement in Adulthood.” Ryan and Deci, Self-Determination Theory. Victor E. Frankl, Man’s Search for Meaning (Boston: Beacon Press, 2006).
John M. Dirkx, “Images, Transformative Learning, and the Work of Soul,” Adult Learning 12 (2001), 15–16.
Michael Kroth and Patricia Cranton, Stories of Transformative Learning (Rotterdam, The Netherlands: Sense Publishers, 2014), 9.
Christine Jarvis, “Fiction and Film and Transformative Learning,” in The Handbook of Transformative Learning: Theory, Research, and Practice, eds. Edward W. Taylor and Patricia Cranton San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 2012), 486–502. Kroth and Cranton, Stories of Transformative Learning.