Milan, Biblioteca Ambrosiana, T. 27 sup.
Ordo scrutiniorum (a ritual text) including biblical lections. Copied in the eleventh century in North Italy. The original compilation was made at the end of the sixth century.
The only Pauline passages are Romans 10:13–17 and 2 Corinthians 1:19–22. (Although the index in Lambot suggests that there is a reference to 2 Cor. 10:5 in the prologue ot the Creed, this is a very loose allusion and not part of a lection.) The liturgical addition of fratres is indicated in the collation.
The transcription reproduces C. Lambot, North Italian Services of the Eleventh Century. Recueil d’ ordines du XIe siècle provenant de la Haute-Italie. Henry Bradshaw Society 67 (London: Henry Bradshaw Society, 1931).
Wolfenbüttel, Herzog-August-Bibliothek, Weißenburg 76
Lectionarium Guelferbytanus. A Gallican lectionary, probably representing that compiled by Claudianus Mamertus in Vienne in 470–474. Copied in the first half of the sixth century, possibly in Clermont Ferrand. Palimpsested around 700 in Burgundy with Julius Pomerius De uita contemplatiua.
The lections included in this volume are as follows (with current folio number): Romans 8:28–29, 39 (fol. 94); 15:9–13 (fol. 46r); 1 Corinthians 7:25–38 (fol. 90); 15:51–58 (fol. 89); 2 Corinthians 5:11–20 (fol. 97); 6:1–10, 14–18, 7:1 (fol. 66r).
The transcription reproduces Alban Dold, Das älteste Liturgiebuch der lateinischen Kirche. Ein altgallikanisches Lektionar des 5./6. Jhs aus dem Wolfenbütteler Palimpsest-Codex Weissenburgensis 76. Texte und Arbeiten 26 (Beuron: Beuroner Kunstverlag, 1936). The liturgical addition of fratres is indicated in the collation. Images of the manuscript are available at
Stockholm, Kungliga Biblioteket, A. 148
Codex Gigas. A very large manuscript containing a complete Latin Bible with extracts from other authors including Josephus and Isidore. Copied in Bohemia between 1204 and 1227. Written in minuscule script with numerous abbreviations.
Present for all four epistles. The text is predominantly Vulgate.
Transcribed from colour images published online by the Kungliga Biblioteket at
Paris, Bibliothèque nationale de France, lat. 321
Codex Perpinianensis. A Latin New Testament copied in the second half of the twelfth century in Roussillon. Written in minuscule script with numerous abbreviations.
Present for all four epistles. The text is predominantly Vulgate.
Transcribed from digitised monochrome microfilm and proofread against online colour images at
Orlando FL, The Scriptorium, VK 799
Codex Wernigerodensis. A small-format Latin New Testament copied in Bohemia (possibly Teplá) in the second half of the fourteenth century. Written in minuscule script with numerous abbreviations: some (including certain nomina sacra) are simply represented by a slightly elevated letter, which is sometimes ambiguous. Czech interlinear glosses are present in Romans.
Present for all four epistles. The text is predominantly Vulgate.
Transcribed from new colour digital images made by the COMPAUL project in 2012.
Dublin, Trinity College, TCD MS 52
Liber Ardmachanus; Book of Armagh. A Latin New Testament preceded by texts relating to St Patrick, some written in Old Irish, and followed by Sulpicius Severus Vita Martini. Copied in 807/8 in Ireland. There are two columns per page with some larger marginal initials. Lists are often presented as separate units. Written in Irish minuscule script with common abbreviations and occasional use of Greek characters.
Present for all four epistles. The Old Latin text is very similar to the lemmata in manuscript B of Pelagius (Oxford, Balliol College MS 157).
Transcribed from J. Gwynn, Liber Ardmachanus, The Book of Armagh (Dublin: Hodges Figgis & Co., 1913) and proofread against digitised monochrome microfilm. There are some marginal alternative readings, indicated as 61alt.
Munich, Bayerische Staatsbibliothek, Clm 6436
Munich, Universitätsbibliothek, 4o 928 frg. 1–2
Göttweig, Stiftsbibliothek, s.n.
Fragmenta Frisingensia; Freising Fragments. A copy of the fourteen Pauline Epistles made in the second half of the sixth century, probably in Africa. Written in uncial with very few abbreviations. There are some orthographical variations, such as b for v, and weak final -m, which is sometimes erroneously present. Several replacement leaves and the Catholic Epistles were added in the seventh century.
The following passages are extant: Romans 5:16–6:19 (replacement leaf); 14:10–15:13; 1 Corinthians 1:1–3:5; 6:1–7:12; 7:19–26; 13:13–14:5; 14:11–18; 15:14–43; 16:12–24; 2 Corinthians 1:1–2:10; 3:17–5:12; 5:14–6:3; 7:10–8:12; 9:10–11:21; 12:14–13:10; Galatians 2:5–4:3; 4:6–5:2; 6:5–18. The Old Latin text is very close to that of Augustine.
The initial transcription was based on D. De Bruyne, Les fragments de Freising (Épîtres de S. Paul et Épîtres catholiques). Collectanea Biblica Latina 5 (Rome: Biblioteca Vaticana, 1921). De Bruyne occasionally reconstructs multiple lines of missing text; although these are included in the electronic transcription, the full collation indicates that such reconstructions should be treated with caution and the manuscript is not cited in variation units where it is completely absent. For 1 and 2 Corinthians, the transcription was proofread against digitised monochrome microfilm at
León, Archivo Catedralicio, 15
Palimpsestus Legionensis. Remains of a Latin Bible copied in the seventh century, possibly in Toledo. Spanish half-uncial script, with few abbreviations. Palimpsested in the ninth century with Rufinus’ translation of the Church History of Eusebius.
The following portions are extant: Romans 11:2–16:6; 2 Corinthians 1:1–7:4; 12:18–end; Galatians 1:1–3:29. The text is Vulgate.
The transcription was made from black and white photographs supplied by the Vetus Latina-Institut, on which the undertext had been reconstructed in red.
Paris, Bibliothèque nationale de France, grec 107 and 107A
Codex Claromontanus. Greek–Latin bilingual manuscript of the fourteen Pauline Epistles copied in Southern Italy around the middle of the fifth century. The Greek is on the verso, the Latin on the recto of each opening: each language is set out in short sense lines. The Latin is written in uncial script with few abbreviations: the nomina sacra feature the earlier forms dms or dom as well as dns. There are some orthographic errors and nonsense readings; numerous later corrections are often present in the margin. This manuscript served as the exemplar for VL 76 and VL 83.
Present for all four epistles apart from one missing page which contained the Latin text of 1 Corinthians 14:9–17; certain pages were stolen in the sixteenth century and, on their return, were kept separate and catalogued as grec 107A. Corrections marked with the marginal ‘ro’ sign, which appears to indicate a separate tradition, are indicated by 75ro.
The transcription was made from digitised monochrome microfilm and subsequently checked against colour images published online at
St. Petersburg, National Library of Russia, F.v. XX
Codex Sangermanensis. Greek–Latin bilingual manuscript of the fourteen Pauline Epistles, copied in the ninth century. Uncial; two columns per page (Greek on the left, Latin on the right).
Present for all four epistles apart from lacunae comprising Romans 8:21–33 and 11:15–25. This manuscript was copied from VL 75, incorporating most of the corrections (although a couple are treated as marginal glosses): the text of 1 Corinthians 14:9–17, missing from the exemplar, was supplied from another Old Latin source.
Transcribed from digitised monochrome microfilm in the New Testament Virtual Manuscript Room at
Dresden, Sächsische Landesbibliothek, A. 145b
Codex Boernerianus. Greek–Latin bilingual manuscript of thirteen Pauline Epistles, copied in St Gall in the second half of the ninth century. There is one column on each page; the interlinear Latin version is written in insular minuscule script above each Greek word and is often abbreviated. For certain Greek words multiple Latin renderings are offered, separated by the symbol for uel (ł). Although at least one Latin biblical manuscript was used as a source, many of the forms have been adjusted to match the grammar of the Greek below and stand apart from the rest of Latin tradition. There are also omissions or duplications where the copyist had difficulty matching the two languages.
The manuscript is complete, but gaps have been left corresponding to the following verses: Romans 1:1b–5a, 2:16b–25a, 8:1b, 16:16b; 1 Corinthians 3:8–16a and 6:7–14. A marginal note at 1 Cor. 3:8 confirms that this text was absent from the Greek exemplar: the copyist clearly estimated the amount of space missing based on a Latin witness and intended to provide it later for both traditions (cf. the narrower line spacing at 6:2, where missing text may have been provided). There is also a gap of six lines after Romans 14:23, suggesting that the doxology of Romans 16:25–27, which is not included in its normal sequence, was present in Latin at this point (cf. Romans 14:24 in this collation).
Transcribed from online colour images at
Cambridge, Trinity College, B.17.1
Codex Augiensis. Greek-Latin bilingual manuscript of fourteen Pauline Epistles (Hebrews in Latin only). Copied in Reichenau in the second half of the ninth century. The Greek in the inner column of each page derives from the same source as VL 77, with the same gaps at 2 Corinthians 3:8–16a and 6:7–14 and no doxology at Romans 16:25–27. The Latin, based on a different source, is present throughout, written in Caroline minuscule script in the outer column of each page. In addition, occasional Latin glosses are written above words in the Greek column: these often differ from the text of the Latin column and are marked as 78gl. There are numerous minor copying errors and gaps left for initial letters which were never provided.
The manuscript is lacunose in Romans 1:1–3:19. The text largely matches the Vulgate.
The initial transcription followed F.H. Scrivener, An Exact Transcript of the Codex Augiensis (Cambridge: Deighton Bell, 1859), but was then proofread against new colour digital images in the Reichenau–St. Gall virtual library at
Wolfenbüttel, Herzog-August-Bibliothek, Weißenburg 64, foll. 255–256, 277, 280.
Codex Carolinus. Two bifolia from a Latin-Gothic bilingual manuscript of Romans. Written in uncial in North Italy at the end of the fifth century; the Gothic is in the left column and the Latin in the right. The manuscript was palimpsested before the middle of the eighth century with Isidore’s Etymologies.
The surviving text is as follows: Romans 11:33–12:5; 12:17–13:5; 14:9–20; 15:3–13.
The initial transcription was based on Alban Dold, “Die Provenienz der altlateinischen Römerbrieftexte in den gothisch-lateinischen Fragmenten des Codex Carolinus von Wolfenbüttel” in Georg Leyh (ed.), Aus der Welt des Buches. Zentralblatt für Bibliothekswesen, Beiheft 75 (Leipzig: Otto Harrassowitz, 1950), pp. 13–29. It was proofread against new online colour images at
Heidelberg, Universitätsbibliothek, 1334
A portion of a leaf of Romans written in uncial in the seventh century, probably in Italy.
It contains Romans 5:14–17; 5:19–20; 6:1–2, with a text similar to VL 64.
The transcription reproduces R. Sillib, “Ein Bruchstück der Augustinischen Bibel.” Zeitschrift für die neutestamentliche Wissenschaft 7 (1906) 82–86.
Marburg, Hessisches Staatsarchiv, Best. 147
Codex Waldeccensis (pars secunda). A fragment from a Greek-Latin bilingual manuscript of the Pauline Epistles copied in the tenth century, possibly in Corvey.
The only passage in this collation is 2 Corinthians 11:33–12:14. The exemplar for the manuscript was VL 75.
The transcription was made from digitised monochrome microfilm in the New Testament Virtual Manuscript Room at
Vatican City, Biblioteca Apostolica Vaticana, Reg. lat. 9, foll. 2–3.
A list of lections quoting Pauline verses on the first two folia of a Vulgate manuscript of the Pauline Epistles, copied in North Italy in the middle of the eighth century.
The beginning of each extract is given as a few words from each verse. The liturgical addition of fratres is indicated in the collation. The manuscript cites parts of the following verses: Romans 1:13; 6:3; 6:12; 8:3; 8:28; 10:8; 11:13; 13:12; 15:8; 1 Corinthians 1:26; 2:10; 3:1; 3:16; 5:6; 7:25; 8:4; 9:7; 9:24; 10:1; 11:23; 12:1; 14:4; 15:1; 2 Corinthians 1:3; 4:6; 6:2; 6:12; 7:4; 9:6; 10:15; 11:19; Galatians 2:9; 3:11; 3:27; 4:1; 4:12; 6:7. The text is Vulgate with occasional Old Latin readings.
The transcription was made from black and white images and follows A. Dold, Die im Codex Vat. Reg. lat. 9 vorgeheftete Liste paulinischer Lesungen für die Meßfeier. Texte und Arbeiten 35 (Beuron: Beuroner Kunstverlag, 1944). Colour images are available at
Monza, Biblioteca Capitolare, i-2/9
Remnants of the latter part of a two-volume Latin Bible copied in the second half of the ninth century in North Italy (Monza or around Milan); Italian minuscule script.
The following verses are present: Romans 1:1–10:2; 10:6; 12:13–16; 13:8–10; 14:8–10; 14:23 (followed by 16:24–25, treated here as 14:23–24); 15:11–16:24; 1 Corinthians 1:1–5. The text is Old Latin, but the manuscript features some doublets.
The transcription reproduces H.J. Frede, Altlateinische Paulus-Handschriften. Aus der Geschichte der lateinischen Bibel 4 (Freiburg im Breisgau: Herder, 1964). Frede’s identification of corrector hands has been followed, with the sigla 86C, 86C2 and 86C3. The manuscript has deteriorated significantly due to mould.
Sélestat, Bibliothèque Humaniste, 1B
Eight leaves from a Pauline lectionary copied in the second half of the eighth century, probably in Italy, in late uncial script. The liturgical indications and initial capitals are in red ink. Certain pages have been palimpsested.
The following passages are present: Romans 11:30–36; 12:1–16; 1 Corinthians 10:17–31; 2 Corinthians 6:2–10; 6:12–18; 10:7–14; Galatians 3:24–4:7. The liturgical addition of fratres is indicated in the collation. The text is Vulgate, with numerous errors of orthography.
The initial transcription was made from black and white photographs supplied by the Vetus Latina-Institut, and proofread against online colour images from
Basle, Universitätsbibliothek, B.I.6
Part of a Latin Bible copied in the ninth or tenth century in western Germany in Caroline minuscule script. There are a few alternative readings added by the first hand in the margins, preceded by the indication al(ii) and indicated by 88alt.
Present for all the Pauline Epistles. The text is Vulgate throughout, apart from folio 21 (2 Corinthians 7:3–10:18), which has an Old Latin affiliation similar to VL 64 and Augustine. The manuscript has been corrected in many places, and the original readings often correspond to Old Latin forms.
Transcribed from digitised monochrome microfilm.
Budapest, National Széchényi Library, Cod. Lat. 1
Biblical lemmata from an anonymous Latin commentary on the fourteen Pauline Epistles (AN Paul). Copied around 800 in Saint-Amand. The biblical text is indicated by diplai alongside each line. This witness is treated as a biblical manuscript because the compiler appears to have integrated commentary text from the margins of a codex of the epistles into a single continuous text, thus producing alternating sections of lemmata (some of which are lengthy) and exegesis. The commentary appears to have been composed in Rome at the end of the fourth century.
Present for all the Pauline Epistles, although a few phrases have been omitted (often through eyeskip). There are frequent errors of case, mostly involving final -m. The text is very similar to VL 75.
Transcribed from colour digital images. A transcription of the commentary text is available at
Milan, Biblioteca Ambrosiana, E. 26 inf.
The Bobbio Bible. A two-volume Bible with the biblical books ordered according to the Roman Liturgy. Copied in North Italy in the second quarter of the ninth century in Caroline minuscule script.
Present for all the Pauline Epistles, but only cited in this collation for Romans and Galatians. The text is generally Vulgate, apart from the last two chapters of Romans. The manuscript has been corrected in many places, and the initial readings often appear to match Old Latin forms.
Transcribed from the original in Milan in February 2016: limitations of time meant that only Romans and Galatians could be transcribed in full. 1 Corinthians 1 and 2 Corinthians 1–4 were examined for Old Latin characteristics, but their text was largely Vulgate and they have not been included in the present collation.
Paris, Bibliothèque nationale de France, latin 9427
Lectionarium Luxoviense (the Luxeuil Lectionary). A Gallican Lectionary written in Luxeuil minuscule script around the year 700.
The following readings are present: Romans 6:3–11; 7:24–8:4; 8:15–27; 10:15–17; 15:17–29; 1 Corinthians 1:26–31; 3:9–17; 7:25–40; 9:7–12; 9:7–15; 10:1–13; 10:14–31; 15:1–19; 15:1–22; 15:12–28; 15:31–45; 15:47–58; 15:51–58; 2 Corinthians 6:2–15; Galatians 5:13–6:2; 6:7–14. Overlapping readings do not always present an identical text: variants are marked as 2511, 2512 and even 2513 as necessary. The liturgical addition of fratres is indicated in the collation. The text is Vulgate.
The transcriptions were initially based on P. Salmon, Le lectionnaire de Luxeuil. Collectanea Biblica Latina 7 (Rome: Biblioteca Vaticana, 1944), and proofread against colour digital images of the manuscript from
Toledo, Catedral, Biblioteca del Cabildo, 35-5
Liber misticus. A lectionary copied in Toledo in the thirteenth century in Visigothic minuscule script, following the tradition of the Mozarabic Missal.
The following lections are present: Romans 6:1–11; 1 Corinthians 5:6–6:11, 11:20–34; Galatians 1:3–12. The text is largely Vulgate and the orthography characteristic of Spanish witnesses, although there are Old Latin readings in 1 Corinthians not reported by Fröhlich.
Transcribed from digitised monochrome microfilm supplied by the Hill Museum and Manuscript Library, Saint John’s Abbey and University, Collegeville, Minnesota.
Toledo, Catedral, Biblioteca del Cabildo, 35-6
Liber misticus. A lectionary copied in Toledo around 1000 in Visigothic minuscule script, following the tradition of the Mozarabic Missal.
The following lections are present: Romans 8:22–27; 1 Corinthians 3:1–2 and 7, 4:9–15, 9:7–17; 2 Corinthians 4:5–5:1 (erroneously entitled 1 Corinthians). The text is largely Vulgate and the orthography characteristic of Spanish witnesses. Again, there are Old Latin readings in 1 Corinthians not reported by Fröhlich.
Transcribed from digitised monochrome microfilm supplied by the Hill Museum and Manuscript Library, Saint John’s Abbey and University, Collegeville, Minnesota.
London, British Library, MS Add. 30851
A liturgical manuscript copied in Spain (probably Silos) in the tenth or eleventh century in Visigothic minuscule script.
It contains a brief lection made up of 1 Corinthians 16:13–14 and 2 Corinthians 13:11.
Transcribed from the original in London in October 2014. The text is identical to that given by Fröhlich, and so the further manuscripts with this lection (VL 414 and 415) have not been included in the collation.
B Commentaries (in Chronological Order)
The biblical text from Marius Victorinus’ Commentary on Galatians (MAR Gal in the Vetus Latina Repertorium) as reconstructed in S.A. Cooper, Marius Victorinus’ Commentary on Galatians (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2005), pp. 366–369. The commentary was composed at some point after 363.
The commentary of Victorinus is lacunose in the following verses: Galatians 3:8b; 3:10b–19; 5:17b–6:1. In addition, Cooper relies on the commentary to reconstruct parts of Galatians 2:8–9; 4:14; 4:25; 5:17.
No variant readings are given in this reconstruction, as the textual tradition of Marius Victorinus is both very late and slender.1
The biblical text used for the Pauline commentary of Ambrosiaster, composed in Italy between 366 and 384, as reconstructed in H.J. Vogels, Das Corpus Paulinum des Ambrosiaster. Bonner biblische Beiträge 13 (Bonn: Hanstein, 1957).
Vogels includes an apparatus of variant readings from 16 manuscripts and 2 editions, sometimes using different sigla to those adopted for the critical edition of the whole text. Certain witnesses have a consistently different biblical text (which is independent of the authorial recensions of this work). These are:
AMstA (Amiens, Bibliothèque municipale, 87) in Romans, 1& 2 Corinthians;
AMstD (Ghent, University Library, 455) in 1 & 2 Corinthians;2
AMstW (Vienna, ÖNB, lat. 743) in Romans;
AMstZ (Florence, BML, Ashb. 60) in Galatians.
Where a reading is only attested in these manuscripts, they are cited by siglum; otherwise the indication AMstvar is used for any combination of witnesses. In addition, the 1579 Roman edition, based on a manuscript now lost, often has a very distinctive biblical text (sometimes shared with the Maurist edition printed in Paris in 1690): where a reading is only attested in the Roman edition (or in both these editions), this is indicated with the siglum AMstR. In a few places, Vogels’ apparatus is not completely transparent: it is not clear whether duplicate words in a witness are a scribal or editorial error.
The biblical text of Jerome’s Commentary on Galatians (HI Gal), extracted from the lemmata in Giacomo Raspanti (ed.), Commentarii in Epistulam Pauli Apostoli ad Galatas. Corpus Christianorum series latina 77A (Turnhout: Brepols, 2006). Variant readings, indicated as HIvar, may be alternative readings in the manuscript tradition of the lemmata, the body of the commentary, or the manuscript tradition of the commentary. Some of these are Old Latin in affiliation and have a claim to be original: see H.A.G. Houghton, “The Biblical Text of Jerome’s Commentary on Galatians” JTS ns 65.1 (2014) 1–24. The commentary was composed in 386.
The biblical text in the lemmata of Augustine’s Expositio Quarundam Propositionum ex Epistola ad Romanos (AU Rm), Epistolae ad Romanos Inchoata Expositio (AU Rm in) and Epistolae ad Galatas Expositio (AU Gal) as extracted from J. Divjak (ed.), Sancti Aureli Augustini Opera IV.1. Corpus Scriptorum Ecclesiasticorum Latinorum 84. (Vienna: Hölder-Pichler-Tempsky, 1971). All three works were composed in 394/5. The Inchoata Expositio only covers Romans 1:1–7. The Expositio of Romans treats the following verses, with a handful of others quoted out of sequence: Romans 1:4, 11, 18, 21, 24, 28–29, 32; 2:1, 5, 15, 29; 3:20, 31; 4:2, 4, 5, 15, 17, 20; 5:3, 13–20; 6:1–2, 6, 14; 7:2, 8–11, 13–15, 19–20, 23–25; 8:1, 3–4, 7, 10–11, 15–16, 19–23, 26–30, 35, 38–39; 9:5, 11–22, 24–25, 27; 10:1, 8–10, 19; 11:1, 11; 12:20, 13:1, 3–5, 8–11, 14; 14:1–6, 22; 15:8–9, 16; 16:17–18. The commentary on Galatians provides the whole epistle with the exception of a few part-verses and some gaps at the end end of Galatians 4. In addition, a sequence of sermons on Romans (AU s 151–156, especially the expository AU s 153–156) provides a continuous text of Romans 7:5 to 8:17, which has been extracted from G. Partoens (ed.), Sancti Aurelii Augustini. Sermones in Epistolas Apostolicas I. Corpus Christianorum, series latina 41Ba (Turnhout: Brepols, 2008). The principal text given for Romans under the siglum AU is that of AU Rm. The only verse shared with AU Rm in is Romans 1:4, which is identical in both works. Where the lemma text in sermons 153–156 differs from AU Rm, it is noted as AUS. The siglum AUvar indicates variation in the textual tradition of Augustine or differences between the lemmata and other quotations.
This commentary dates from the late fourth century. Its biblical text is reported as a separate manuscript, VL 89 (see above).
The biblical text from the Latin translation of Origen’s Commentary on Romans by Rufinus of Aquileia (RUF Rm), as reconstructed in Caroline Hammond Bammel, Der Römerbrieftext des Rufin und seine Origenes-Übersetzung. Aus der Geschichte der lateinischen Bibel 10 (Freiburg im Breisgau: Herder, 1985), pp. 503–537. This reconstruction has a double apparatus of variant readings: many of those in the tradition of Rufinus are nonsense or orthographical variants and have been discounted, but genuine alternatives are marked as RUFvar; the lower apparatus of variants in Ambrosiaster’s text, supplied by Frede, has been ignored.
Rufinus translated the commentary in 405/6, and provided the lemmata directly from a Latin biblical codex. Where the reconstructed text differs from the lemmata in Hammond Bammel’s subsequent edition of the whole commentary (Der Römerbriefkommentar des Origenes. Aus der Geschichte der lateinischen Bibel 16, 33, 34 [Freiburg im Breisgau: Herder, 1990–1998]), the alternative reading is indicated as RUFed2. It may be that some of these are typographical errors.
The biblical text in the lemmata of the Pauline commentary of Pelagius, composed in Rome between 406 and 410. There are two principal witnesses to this:
PELA (Karlsruhe, Badische Landesbibliothek, Aug. 119)
PELB (Oxford, Balliol College, MS 157).
The biblical text of PELA is similar to the Vulgate and believed to be closer to that of the author than PELB, whose lemmata have apparently been substituted with a text close to VL 61. There is an early fragment covering Romans 7:10–14, but its biblical text is not distinctive, and its variants have been included as PELvar with the rest of the manuscript tradition.
The reconstruction of the text of Romans is supplied from Theodore de Bruyn, Pelagius’ Commentary on St Paul’s Epistle to the Romans (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1993) pp. 168–193. For this Epistle, we follow De Bruyn’s editorial text (indicated by PELed), with variants supplied from his apparatus: PELA and PELB are always identified when they differ from the reconstruction. For the three other epistles we used Alexander Souter (ed.), Pelagius’ Expositions of Thirteen Epistles of St Paul. Texts & Studies 9.2 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1926).3 Because of the complexity of this edition, with many readings in square brackets, we reconstructed the complete text of PELA and PELB (identifying which of them corresponded to Souter’s editorial text of the lemma), with variant readings from the apparatus. The transcription was then proofread against colour digital images of both manuscripts. Where both manuscripts agree, the siglum PEL is used. If Souter’s editorial text relies on a variant rather than manuscripts A and B, this is marked as PELvar(ed); reconstructions in his editorial text with no manuscript support are marked as PELed.
There is a large lacuna in PELB from 1 Cor. 11:28–15:3, while PELA omits many verses from 1 Cor. 16.
The biblical text in the lemmata of the Latin translation of Theodore of Mopsuestia’s Commentary on Galatians (THr Gal), probably made in Italy in the early fifth century. The text has been extracted from the edition of H.B. Swete (ed.), Theodori Episcopi Mopsuesteni in Epistolas B. Pauli Commentarii (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1880). Swete is of the opinion that the lemmata are a direct translation from the Greek and therefore stand apart from the rest of Latin tradition. Variant readings are identified as THrvar. Swete’s edition only relies on two manuscripts: several additional manuscripts of Theodore’s commentary have subsequently been identified (see AMstD above), but reference has not been made to these.
The biblical text in the lemmata of Cassiodorus’ Complexiones (CAr cpl), composed in Italy around the year 580. This is a brief commentary on the Epistles and Acts, dealing with selected passages preceded by lemmata. The text has been extracted from Roger Gryson (ed.), Cassiodori Senatoris Complexiones Epistularum et Actuum Apostolorum. Corpus Christianorum series latina 98B (Turnhout: Brepols, 2016), in which the lemmata are italicised: other biblical references are not sufficiently verbatim to be easily extracted.
The following verses are quoted, normally in part: Romans 1:1–3, 8, 18, 24; 2:1, 14; 3:1, 27; 5:1, 18; 6:3, 15; 7:1, 12, 25; 8:15, 24, 31; 9:1, 14, 22, 30; 10:5; 11:1, 13, 25, 33, 36; 12:4; 13:1, 6, 7; 14:1, 5, 7, 12; 15:4, 17; 16:1; 1 Corinthians 1:1, 4, 14, 31; 2:1; 3:1, 16; 4:9; 5:1; 6:1, 7:1, 12, 25; 8:1; 9:1, 16; 10:1, 14, 26; 11:1, 16, 27; 12:4; 13:1; 14:2, 13, 26; 15:1, 21, 39; 2 Corinthians 1:1, 3, 12, 23; 2:12; 3:7; 4:3, 16; 5:11; 6:2; 7:1, 12; 8:9, 22; 9:10; 10:7; 11:1; 12:1, 14; 13:7; Galatians 1:1, 6; 2:6, 14; 3:1, 24; 4:19; 5:10, 14; 6:1, 8.
The work is transmitted in a single early manuscript, often erroneous and with non-standard orthography: variant readings indicate where this witness has a difference from the editorial text which is a possible alternative reading.
C Testimonia (in Chronological Order)
Ad Quirinum (CY te). Three books of biblical testimonia compiled by Cyprian of Carthage in 248 or 250. The scriptural citations were conformed to differing Latin texts in the early transmission of the work, with the result that no fewer than five strands are represented in the textual tradition. The text has been taken from R. Weber (ed.), Cyprianus. Opera I. Corpus Christianorum series latina 3 (Turnhout; Brepols, 1972), along with variant readings from his critical apparatus.
The following verses are cited: Romans 1:25–26; 2:1; 2:3–6; 2:12–13; 3:8; 3:23–24; 5:2–5; 8:16–18; 8:24–25; 8:35–37; 9:3–5; 9:25–26; 11:20–21; 11:33–36; 12:14; 12:17; 12:19; 12:21; 13:3; 13:7–8; 14:4; 14:17; 1 Corinthians 1:10; 1:17–24; 3:1–3; 3:16–20; 4:7; 4:20; 5:7–8; 6:1–2; 6:7–11; 6:15–20; 7:1–7; 7:10–11; 7:29–34; 7:39–40; 8:2; 8:8; 9:24–25; 10:1; 10:12–13; 10:22–23; 11:3; 11:19; 11:27; 11:33–34; 13:2–8; 13:12; 14:34–35; 15:33; 15:36; 15:41–44; 15:47–49; 15:53–55; 2 Corinthians 3:14–16; 5:10 (twice); 6:14; 8:12–15; 9:6–7, 9–12; 12:7–9; Galatians 1:10; 3:6–9; 4:4; 5:14–15, 17, 19–24; 6:1–2; 6:14. The text is Old Latin. Significant variants are recorded as tesvar, although Vulgate readings which characterise two later manuscripts (E and F) have not been included. Certain verses are quoted more than once, but in each case the editorial text is identical.
Ad Fortunatum (CY Fo). One book of biblical testimonia assembled by Cyprian of Carthage in 252/3. As with Ad Quirinum, the scriptural citations were conformed to differing Latin texts in the early transmission of the work. The text has been taken from R. Weber (ed.), Cyprianus. Opera I. Corpus Christianorum series latina 3 (Turnhout; Brepols, 1972), along with variant readings from his critical apparatus, which are reported as forvar.
The following verses are cited: Romans 5:2–5; 8:16–18, 35–37; 12:1–2; 1 Corinthians 6:19–20; 9:24–25; 11:3; 2 Corinthians 5:15; 12:2. The text is Old Latin.
Liber de diuinis scripturis (PS-AU spe). A collection of biblical testimonia assembled in Italy at the beginning of the fifth century and pseudonymously attributed to Augustine. Although arranged by topic, the extensive scriptural quotations have sometimes been treated as a biblical manuscript (with the name Speculum and/or the siglum m). This Speculum should not be confused with the later Augustinian Speculum (see spe below). Initially, the biblical text was taken from the reordered version provided by J. Belsheim (ed.), Fragmenta Noui Testamenti in translatione Latina antehieronymiana ex libro qui uocatur Speculum (Oslo [Christiania]: A.W. Brøggers, 1899). However, this is omissive, includes several typographical errors and is only based on a single manuscript, so the transcription was thoroughly revised based on the critical edition of F. Weihrich (ed.), Sancti Aureli Augustini Opera III.1. Corpus Scriptorum Ecclesiasticorum Latinorum 12 (Vienna: Geroldus, 1889). It is Weihrich’s editorial text which is cited, along with variant readings recorded in his critical apparatus.
The following verses are included: Romans 1:22–26; 2:1–3; 2:13; 2:16; 5:3–5; 5:8–10; 5:19; 6:3–13; 6:17–18; 7:25; 8:1–2; 8:9–11; 8:14; 8:31–32; 8:35–36; 9:5; 11:33–36; 12:1–2; 12:10; 12:13–21; 13:1–8; 13:10; 13:13–14; 14:1; 14:16–21; 15:1–7; 15:13–14; 15:18–19; 15:26–27; 16:17–20; 1 Corinthians 1:20; 1:23–24; 1:26–29; 2:7–8; 2:10–15; 3:3; 3:16–17; 3:18–20; 4:5; 5:6–8; 6:9–11; 6:15–20; 7:10–11; 7:25–26; 7:29–34; 7:38; 8:4–5; 8:6; 9:25–27; 10:19–21; 10:31; 12:3–11; 12:31; 13:1–8; 13:13; 14:1; 14:12; 14:26; 15:20–24; 15:33–46; 15:51–53; 16:13–14; 2 Corinthians 1:2–3; 1:21–22; 2:5–11; 3:17–18; 4:1–4; 4:8–11; 5:1–5; 7:9–10; 8:21; 9:5–7; 10:3–5; 10:7; 11:12–15; 13:13; Galatians 3:3; 3:19–20; 4:4–5; 4:6; 4:8–12; 6:7–10.
The affiliation is Old Latin. Occasionally, second-position connectives seem to have been omitted for contextual reasons or replaced by inquit. Certain phrases have perhaps been left out as irrelevant or overlooked due to eyeskip; when verses are quoted more than once, differences in the editorial text are marked as spmed and spmed2.
Speculum quis ignorat (AU spe). A selection of verses from the Latin Bible arranged by book, believed to have been made by Augustine in 427/8. Unlike Augustine’s other quotations of the New Testament outside the Gospels these largely correspond to the Vulgate, probably because of a revision early in the work’s transmission. The text is taken from F. Weihrich (ed.), Sancti Aureli Augustini Opera III.1. Corpus Scriptorum Ecclesiasticorum Latinorum 12 (Vienna: Geroldus, 1889).
The following verses are quoted: Romans 1:16–32; 2:1–10; 2:13; 2:21–24; 5:1–5; 6:12–13; 6:19; 8:12–14; 8:17; 8:25; 8:28; 8:35–39; 10:10–13; 11:20–22; 12:1–21; 13:1–14; 14:1–25; 15:1–7; 15:26–27; 15:30; 16:17–19; 1 Corinthians 1:10–13; 1:30–31; 3:3–4; 3:16–19; 4:5–7; 4:11–14; 5:1–13; 6:1–10; 6:15–20; 7:1–40; 8:1–4; 8:7–13; 9:4–27; 10:1; 10:5–14; 10:20–33; 11:1; 11:4–5; 11:17–22; 11:27–34; 12:24–31; 13:1–8; 13:13; 14:1; 14:12; 14:20; 14:26; 14:34–36; 15:33–34; 15:58; 16:1–10; 16:13–14; 2 Corinthians 1:12; 2:5–11; 4:1; 4:2; 4:5; 4:7–13; 4:16–18; 6:1–10; 6:13–18; 7:8–11; 8:1–21; 9:1–15; 10:17–18; 11:23–30; 12:9–10; 12:14–15; 12:20–21; 13:7; 13:11; Galatians 1:10; 5:6; 5:13–6:10.
See H.A.G. Houghton, “The Layout of Early Latin Commentaries on the Pauline Epistles and their Oldest Manuscripts” in Studia Patristica vol. XCI. Papers presented at the Seventeenth International Patristics Conference, ed. M. Vinzent (Leuven: Peeters, 2017), 71–112, esp. 80.
It should be noted that this manuscript only transmits Ambrosiaster’s commentary in these two epistles: Romans is absent, and from Galatians to Philemon it is a witness to Theodore of Mopsuestia. See E. Dekkers, “Un nouveau manuscrit du commentaire de S. Théodore de Mopsueste aux Epîtres de S. Paul.” Sacris erudiri 6 (1954) 429–433.
Wilbert Stelzer, A New Reconstruction of the Text of 2 Corinthians in Pelagius’ Commentary on the Pauline Epistles. Texts & Studies 3.17 (Piscataway NJ: Gorgias, 2018) appeared too late to be incorporated in the collation.