Illustrations

Plates

  1. Map of main locations mentioned in text (Google Earth, 2016) 284

  2. Plan of the Susa tell indicating excavation areas (after Miroschedji 1978: fig. 48) 285

  3. Bitumen relief (Sb 2834) depicting a woman spinning thread from the Susa Acropole (author’s own image); b. limestone plaque Sb 43 excavated by J. de Morgan (after Álvarez-Mon 2010a: Pl. 44); c. limestone plaque from Susa Acropole, locus 143 (from Álvarez-Mon 2010a: Pl. 47); d. winged genius from Gate R, Pasargadae (after Stronach 1978: fig. 25) 286

  4. Stele of Atta-hamiti-Inšušinak (photographs and line drawings after Álvarez-Mon 2010a: Pls. 26–29); b. Kurangun relief (line drawing after Vanden Berghe 1984: fig. 2 superimposed over photograph courtesy of J. Álvarez-Mon) 287

  5. Kul-e Farah iv (line drawing after Álvarez-Mon 2013c: fig. 16); b. kfiii platform bearers (photograph after Álvarez-Mon 2010b: fig. 10); c. Hanni of Ayapir (photograph and line drawing after Álvarez-Mon 2010b: figs. 5, 6); kfv scene with fire altar and animal sacrifice (after Álvarez-Mon 2014b: Pl. 10) 288

  6. Elamites hastening to the Ulai River battle in Room G of Ashurbanipal’s North Palace (after Barnett 1976: Pl. 23); b. Te’umman in rosette-bordered garment in Room 33 (bb) of Sennacherib’s Southwest Palace at Nineveh (after Barnett et al. 1998: Pl. 294); c. Humban-haltaš iii depicted in Room S of Ashurbanipal’s North Palace at Nineveh (after Barnett 1976: Pl. 64) 289

  7. Reliefs from Room 33 (bb) of Sennacherib’s southwest palace at Nineveh: a. Elamite warriors in the aftermath of the battle at Ulai River (after Barnett et al. 1998: Pl. 307); b. unadorned elite Elamite female deportees (after Barnett et al. 1998: Pl. 298, Room 33); c. Elamite orchestra with adorned females (after Barnett et al. 1998: Pl. 311) 290

  8. Location of Susa tomb chamber SuC4 and photograph of the tomb during excavation (after Mecquenem 1922a: Plan 2 and Pl. viii) and a sealing from the carnelian cylinder seal found inside (after Amiet 1972: Pl. 187, no. 2169) 291

  9. Location of Susa tomb chamber SuC1 (after Mecquenem 1922c: Pl. 3) and earrings of the type found inside (after Amiet 1966: 475, fig. 357) 292

  10. Location of Susa tomb chamber SuC2 and a selection of its vessel contents (after Mecquenem 1922c: Pl. iii and fig. 8) 293

  11. Location of Susa tomb chamber SuC5 and a collection of its metal vessel contents (after Mecquenem 1922c: Pl. iii and 1922a: Pl. xix) 294

  12. Location of Susa tomb chamber SuC6, a collection of its bronze vessels, and amphorae and glazed low-capacity bottles in situ (after Mecquenem 1922c: Pl. iii; 1922a: Pl. xvii) 295

  13. Location of Susa amphorae-lined burial SuA1 and grave goods of baked clay glazed vessels (after Mecquenem 1922c: Pl. iii and fig. 6) 296

  14. Location of Susa tomb chamber SuC3 and a selection of its vessel contents including a tall “Elamite beaker” (after Mecquenem 1922c: Pl. iii; 1921: Pl. i.4) 297

  15. Susa tomb chamber SuC7 at various stages of excavation (the cleared floor almost certainly, but not definitively, belongs to this tomb) and a selection of its contents (after Mecquenem 1923: Pls. xvii, xv.4, xviii, xix.2–3) 298

  16. Susa tomb chamber SuC7 with bronze vessels, chambers SuC19 and SuC20, and pot burial SuV1 (after Mecquenem 1943: fig. 41; 1923: Pl. xix) 299

  17. Susa in situ photographs of pit burials SuP3 (after Mecquenem 1928a: Pl. v.1) and SuP4 (after Mecquenem 1929: Pl. iii.1) 300

  18. Series of bronze vessels possibly from SuU-G4 (after Mecquenem 1923: Pl. viii; “Phoenician” glass jar from Susa Unidentified Burials SuU-G10 (after Mecquenem 1930: vi.1); Two “Phoenician” glass jars excavated at Susa in 1931, probably from SuU-G11 (Mecquenem 1931a: Pls. xviiixix) 301

  19. Location of Susa tomb chamber SuC8 and photographs of the tomb at various stages of excavation (after Mecquenem 1924a: Plan iii, Pls. xiii, xiv.1) 302

  20. Location of Susa tomb chamber SuC9 and lamp found inside (after Mecquenem 1924a: Plan iii, Pl. 9) 303

  21. Location of Susa tomb chamber SuC10 and photographs of the tomb at various stages of excavation (after Mecquenem 1924a: Plan iii, Pls. xiv.2, xv) 304

  22. Location of Susa tomb chamber SuC11 and photographs of the tomb at various stages of excavation (after Mecquenem 1924a: Plan iii, Pl. xvi.1–2) 305

  23. Photograph of Susa tomb chamber SuC13 vessels in situ and a collection of the vessels photographed later (after Mecquenem 1926a: Pls. xiii, xiv) 306

  24. Susa in situ photographs of pit burials SuP1 and SuP2 (after Mecquenem 1927: Pl. iii) 307

  25. Various items collected from tombs at Susa in 1926 (after Mecquenem 1926a: Pls. xvii, xxv); b. various vessels collected from burials SuP1, SuP2 and SuP-G3 (after Mecquenem 1927: Pl. iii) 308

  26. Typical ne i vessels and a lamp from Susa pit burials SuP-G4 (after Mecquenem 1928a: Pl. vii.1); glazed frit vessel from SuU-G7 (after Mecquenem 1928a: Pl. viii.1); glazed bottle and bronze jars with “rope-band” shoulder from one or more of the burials SuU-G8, SuU-G9 and SuB1 (after Mecquenem 1929: Pl. vi.1, viii.1) 309

  27. Vessels from Susa unidentified burial type SuU2 in situ (after Mecquenem 1926a: Pl. xii.4–5) and bronze handles with bull ornamentation belonging to the pictured basin (after Amiet 1966: fig. 358a-b) 310

  28. Susa VR II levels 10–6 (after Miroschedji 1981a: figs. 6–9) 311

  29. Susa pit burial SuP8 (after Miroschedji 1981a: Pl. iii.2, fig. 22:1–2) 312

  30. Susa brick burial SuB2 (line drawings after Miroschedji 1981a: fig. 29), and grave goods and partly excavated cross-section view of SuB3 (after Miroschedji 1981a: fig. 42:2–8 and Pl. xiv.1) 313

  31. Susa pit burial SuP15 (after Miroschedji 1981a: Pl. xv.1 fig. 41:5) and brick burial SuB4 (after Miroschedji 1981a: fig. 42) 314

  32. Susa pit burials SuP12 and SuP13 (line drawing after Miroschedji 1981a: fig. 8) 315

  33. Susa pit burial SuP14 (after Miroschedji 1981a: Pl. xv.1–2, figs. 41:2–4) 316

  34. Details of construction of Susa tomb chamber SuC22 (after Miroschedji 1981a: figs. 30–31) 317

  35. Various photographs of the interior of SuC22 and objects in situ (after Miroschedji 1981a: Pl. ix) 318

  36. Locations of glazed vessels, amphorae, small conical bowls and drinking vessels in SuC22 (after Miroschedji 1981a: figs. 32, 33, 35, Pl. xii14–21) 319

  37. Locations of various large vessels in SuC22 (after Miroschedji 1981a: fig. 32, Pls. x.4, x.7, xi.1–2, xi.6) 320

  38. Locations of various non-ceramic grave goods in SuC22 (after Miroschedji 1981a: fig. 32, Pls. xiii.11–13, Pl. xiii. 22–23) 321

  39. Bowls and drinking vessels 33:1–33:14 from SuC22 (after Miroschedji 1981a: fig. 33) 322

  40. Vessel nos. 34:1–34:9, 39: 25 and diverse object nos. 40:2–40:3 from SuC22 (after Miroschedji 1981a: figs. 34, 39, 40) 323

  41. Vessel nos. 35:1–35:19 from SuC22 (after Miroschedji 1981a: fig. 35) 324

  42. Vessel nos. 36:1–36:9 from SuC22 (after Miroschedji 1981a: fig. 36) 325

  43. Vessel nos. 37:1–37:11 from SuC22 (after Miroschedji 1981a: fig. 37) 326

  44. Vessel nos. 38:1–38:9 from SuC22 (after Miroschedji 1981a: fig. 38) 327

  45. Plan of Susa indicating locations of VR-Apadana and Apadana-VR cuts and cross section of Apadana-VR cut showing pit burials SuP16–17 (after Miroschedji 1981b: figs. 45–46) 328

  46. Susa pit burial SuP16 (after Miroschedji 1981a: Pl. xvi.4, figs. 48:6–9) 329

  47. Susa pit burial SuP17 (after Miroschedji 1981b: Pl. xvi.3, figs. 48:1–5) 330

  48. Chogha Zanbil pit burial CzP1 (plan after Mofidi-Nasrabadi 2013a: Abb. 137; line drawings of burial and vessels after Ghirshman 1968a: fig. 42) 331

  49. Chogha Zanbil pot burial CzV1–V4 (plan after Mofidi-Nasrabadi 2013a: Abb. 137; pots and contents after Ghirshman 1968a: Pls. lxiv.5, xcv) 332

  50. Karkhai pit burial KhP1 and contents (line drawings and photographs after Vanden Berghe 1973: pages 26–29) 333

  51. Kalantar tomb KaT1 and vessel contents (after Valipour 2011: pages 69, 70, 73) 334

  52. Kalantar tomb KaT2 and bronze weapon (?) remnants found inside (after Valipour 2011: pages 71, 72) 335

  53. Tall-e Gazir pit burials GhP1–P2 (after Carter 1994: figs. 8, 9) 336

  54. Tall-e Gazir pit burials GhP3-P4 (after Carter 1994: figs. 10, 12) 337

  55. Tall-e Gazir brick burial GhB1 (after Carter 1994: fig. 11) 338

  56. Tall-e Gazir pit burials GhP5-P7 locations (after Alizadeh 2014: fig. 7) 339

  57. Jubaji tomb JuT1: satellite view of location (from Google Earth); plan of Jubaji archaeological site (after Alizadeh 2014: Pl. 51) and excavated tomb (after Shishegar 2015: colour Pl. 3–17) 340

  58. Reconstruction of tomb JuT1 and coffins (after Shishegar 2015: pages 64, 69) 341

  59. Vessels and bones in the entryway and locations of various stone and glazed vessels in JuT1 (after Shishegar 2015: pages 91, 92, 95) 342

  60. JuT1 coffin fragments and various objects in situ against the north wall of the tomb (after Shishegar 2015: pg. 282) 343

  61. Selection of JuT1 ceramics (after Shishegar 2015: colour Pl. 4-1-11 to 4-1-12, pages 118, 128-130) and glazed vessel (bottom left no. 22) (after Shishegar 2015: pg. 118) 344

  62. Stone vessels from JuT1 (after Shishegar 2015: colour Pls. 4-3-1 to 4-3-4) and glazed vessels (after Shishegar 2015: colour Pls. 4-1-5 to 4-1-8) 345

  63. Larger metal vessels, jar, lamps, bitumen cup, comb and mirror from JuT1 (after Shishegar 2015: colour Pls. 4-2-29, 4-2-28, 4-3-2, 4-2-34, 4-2-38, pages 333, 345, 347, 349, 351) 346

  64. Bronze vessels from JuT1 (after Shishegar 2015: colour Pls. 4-2-17, 4-2-21, 4-2-24, 4-2-25, 4-2-26, 4-2-33), silver vessels (after Shishegar 2015: colour Pl. 4-2-4) 347

  65. Fish-woman handled pans and figurines from JuT1. Top: bronze handled pan mounted with fish-woman attachments (after Shishegar 2015: colour Pl. 4-2-6) and bronze fish-woman attachments (pans missing) (photographs courtesy J. Álvarez-Mon and the National Museum of Iran); bottom: silver handled pan with fish-woman attachment (complete pan after Shishegar 2015: colour Pl. 4-2-2, pg. 371; close-up photographs of fish-woman courtesy J. Álvarez-Mon and the National Museum of Iran) 348

  66. Selection of gold and stone pieces from JuT1: stone, gold-capped stone and gold beads (after Shishegar 2015: colour Pls. 4-2-26 to 4-3-60) pins (after Shishegar 2015: colour Pls. 4-2-20, 4-2-23), clothing appliques (after Shishegar 2015: colour Pls. 4-3-67 to 4-3-100) and spindle whorls (after Shishegar 2015: colour Pls. 4-3-1) 349

  67. Gold “rings” and jewellery from JuT1 (after Shishegar 2015: colour Pls. 4-2-2 to 4-2-6, 4-2-11, 4-2-14, 4-2-16 to 4-2-18, 4-2-64, 4-2-56), faience scarab seal (after Shishegar 2015: colour Pl. 4-3-1) and ivory pieces (after Shishegar 2015: colour Pl. 4-3-2) 350

  68. Candelabra from JuT1 (after Shishegar 2015: colour Pl. 4-2-13 and pages 327-328) female figurine attachment (after Shishegar 2015: colour Pl. 4-2-12) 351

  69. Weapons from JuT1 (after Shishegar 2015: colour Pls. 4-2-1, 4-2-3, 4-2-4, 4-2-11, 4-2-39, 4-3-3, 4-3-4, p. 391) 352

  70. Location of Arjan Tomb ArT1, view inside the chamber showing plastered walls, bowl and tablet found outside the tomb, and line drawings showing position of coffin in tomb (after Álvarez-Mon 2010a: Pls. 3-5, 89, 91) 353

  71. ArT1 coffin, lid fragments and handles (after Álvarez-Mon 2010a: Pl. 8; photograph of complete coffin courtesy J. Álvarez-Mon; coffin pieces not to scale) 354

  72. Skeleton and grave goods in the bronze coffin of ArT1 (after Álvarez-Mon 2010a: Pls. 7, 11, 13, 59; photograph of ring courtesy J. Álvarez-Mon; objects not to scale) 355

  73. Grave goods deposited on tomb floor of ArT1 (after Álvarez-Mon 2010a: Pls. 4, 61, 62, 70, 78, 85-88; objects not to scale) 356

  74. Line drawings of iconography engraved inside the Arjan bowl (complete bowl after Majidzadeh 1992: fig. 1; registers drawn horizontally after Álvarez-Mon 2010a: Pl. 64) 357

  75. Lama tomb chamber LaT1 and some of its contents (after Jafari 2013: figs. 7, 8, 10, 23, 24) 358

  76. Lama tomb chamber LaT2 and cylinder seal line drawing (after Jafari 2013: figs. 7, 8, 10, 12, 15, 22); cylinder seal in situ (after Jafari 2015: page 104) 359

  77. Grave goods from LaT2 (after Jafari 2013: figs. 19, 20, 23, 24) 360

  78. Plan showing location of Malyan pit burials MaP1-P3 (after Carter 1996: fig. 45; line drawing of MaP3 after Carter 1996: fig. 46) 361

  79. Above: Coffin with moulded rope-like band (after Mecquenem 1936: Pl. 10); below: line drawings of coffins from Babylon graves 129 and 130 (after Reuther 1926: Taf. 71). 362

  80. Clay heads dated to the Neo-Elamite period (Louvre Museum, author’s own images) 363

  81. Ring from ArT1 (after Álvarez-Mon 2010a: Pl. 34); b. three rings from JuT1 (after Shishegar 2015: colour Pls. 4-2-2 and 4-2-3); c. silver ring in National Museum of Iran; d. bonze ring from Susa (Sb 18027) (c-d: images courtesy J. Álvarez-Mon); e. monarch holding a ring on Tang-i Sarvak relief ii (after Haerinck 2003: Pl. 5); f. rings as tribute offerings to the Persian king on Persepolis reliefs (after Schmidt 1953: Pl. 37) 364

  82. Inkwells and chalices. Top: from JuT1 (after Shishegar 2015: page 499); centre: from an unknown funerary context at Susa (after Mecquenem 1926a: Pl. xvii); bottom: from Susa tomb SuC22 (after Miroschedji 1981a: ix) 365

  83. Tall ne i beaker pairs: a. SuP16 (from Miroschedji 1981b: Pl. xvi.4); b. SuP3 (after Mecquenem 1928a: Pl. v.1); c. SuP1 (after Mecquenem 1927: Pl. iii); d. CzP1 (after Ghirshman 1968a: fig. 42) e. depicted in Kul-e Farah iv relief (after Álvarez-Mon 2013c: fig. 16, Panel A); f. Middle Elamite beaker pairs at Chogha Zanbil (after Ghirshman 1968a: fig. 42); g. Middle Elamite beaker pairs at Susa (after Ghirshman 1964: fig. 20) 366

  84. Storage vessels and glazed jars: a. JuT1 (after Shishegar 2015: es fig. 3); b. JuT1 (after Shishegar 2015: 95); c. SuC6 (after Mecquenem 1922a: Pl. xvii.31); d. SuU2 (after Mecquenem 1926a: Pl.xii.5); e. SuC22 (after Miroschedji 1981a: figs. 32, 35, Pl. xii.14-23). 367

  85. Line drawings of various lamps from Susa (after Mecquenem 1924b: fig. 10, 1943: fig. 43); b. bronze lamp from ArT1 (after Álvarez-Mon 2010a: Pl. 87); c. two bronze lamps from JuT1 (photographs courtesy J. Álvarez-Mon and the National Museum of Iran); d. bronze and ceramic lamps from SuC7 (after Mecquenem 1923: Pl. xviii) 368

Tables

  1. Orientations of individual burials as reported and depicted in excavation reports 65

  2. Arrangements of bodies in burials as reported and depicted in excavation reports 68

  3. Vessel types and their relationship to the body in ne I individual interments 107

  4. Vessel types and their relationship to the body in ne II individual interments 108

  5. Vessel types and their locations in ne ii tombs 115

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