List of symbols and abbreviations in alphabetical order

in The unity of the capitalist economy and state

General notation

Roman symbols and abbreviations

Greek symbols

Unusual signs in equations

Unusual signs in texts

Symbol or abbreviation

Meaning

Section first use

Remark

General notation

x

rate of growth [of any variable underlined] = (xt-1 – xt) / (xt-1) = ∆x/x [time indices omitted]

2§4, fn

xt

rate of growth [of any variable underlined] = (xt-1 – xt) / (xt-1)

2§4, fn

| x |

limited value of a variable (x)

2§5

xP

planned production value of a variable (x)

3§10

Roman symbols and abbreviations

å

ratio of capital accumulation out of surplus-value (a variable; amplified in 3§11 and 5D1)

2§3

a, ring

Ag

amenities (sum of subsidies to enterprises, to households and to cultural institutions)

8§2

B

net current borrowing flow of the state (B < 0 in case of a fiscal surplus)

8§4

C

consumption by households (Ck+Cw)

3§10

CB

Central Bank

2§9-a

CFg

current finance of state expenditure (net)

8§4

CG

consumer goods

3§2-b

Ci

[in italics] any commodity (other than commodity j) [used in this Explication only]

1§4-c

Cj

[in italics] any commodity (other than commodity i) [used in this Explication only]

1§4-c

Ck

consumption by capital owners

3§10

ClB

Clearing Bank

2§9

CPE

Classical Political Economy

1§5-b

Cqg

consumption out of interest paid by the state

8§6

Cw

consumption by wage earners (enterprises)

3§10

Cwe

[italics] consumption by enterprises’ wage earners (after the state domain being explicit)

8§6

Cwg

consumption by the state’s wage earners

8§6

Czg

consumption out of social security transfers

8§6

e

rate of surplus-value (or profit per labour-year-compensation) [e = Π/wL]

2§5

E

macroeconomic net expenditure

3§10

Ee

final expenditure of the non-state sector with the enterprises sector

8§6-b

Eg

direct and indirect expenditure of the state sector with the enterprises sector

8§6-b

FDI

foreign direct investment

11§10-b

Fg

state expenditure on floating inputs, including replacement investment

8§1

G

sum of state expenditure (net)

8§2

GCOL

state expenditure on collective goods and services

8§1

GDP

Gross domestic product

1§14

HIC

high-income country (World Bank definition)

11§2-a

I

investment by enterprises (net)

3§9

i

[in italics] average rate of interest for enterprises: the weighted average of the rates paid to banks and to other financiers

5§1

Ie

[italics] net investment by enterprises (after the state domain being explicit)

8§6

Ig

investment expenditure by the state (net)

8§2

iεK

surplus-value distributed to external financiers

5§1

K

active capital (value in terms of MVD): assets of balance sheet total

1§13

Kt

idem, year average

1§13

Kt′

idem, at beginning of year t

1§13

L

labour-capacity (amount of in going fte per year, unless specified as per hour)

1§14

LHS

left hand side (of an equation)

LIC

low-income country (World Bank definition)

11§2-a

Lα

actual labour (labour-capacity exerted at a power α) [the unique source of valorisation]

1§14

LMC

lower-middle-income country (World Bank definition)

11§2-a

M

money (amount)

1§4-c

m

actual unit monetary value of labour (per year, unless specified as per hour); more specifically: the realisation constraint resulting in the unit monetary value labour

1§14

mLα

actual monetary value of labour (realised) = net value-added

1§14

MP

means of production

3§2-b

MVD

monetary value dimension

1§4

NDP

Net domestic product

1§14

ø

rate of undesired overcapacity (undesired overcapacity/production capacity)

5§5

o stroke

OR

other receipts of the state

8§4

PD

sum of dividends and interest distributed to capital owners

5§3, fn.

PVF

pre-validating finance (of enterprises by banks)

3§2

Qe

net interest paid by enterprises to their external financiers

8§6-c

Qg

interest payments on the state debt

8§2

R

internal profit (surplus-value after interest payments)

5§1

cf. 3§1, Fig. 3.2b

R

[italics] internal profit (after the state domain being explicit)

8§6-c

Rat

internal profit, after taxes on internal profit (after the state domain being explicit)

8§7a

RHS

right hand side (of an equation)

ROC

restructuring of capital

4§2-b

RPVF

remaining PVF (pre-validating finance of enterprises by banks)

3§6

S

saving

3§9

Sg

current saving of the state (the fiscal surplus TH– G)

8§8

Smg

state mediated savings (Swg + Sqg + Szg)

8§6

SNA

System of national accounts

Sqg

saving out of interest paid by the state

8§6

SSC

sum of social security contributions

8§4

Sw

saving out of wages (wage earners enterprises)

3§10

sw

fraction saved out of wages (non-constant)

5§3

Swe

[italics] saving out of wages sum paid by enterprises (after the state domain being explicit)

8§6

Swg

saving out of wages paid by the state

8§6

Szg

saving out of social security transfers

8§6

T

sum of taxes

8§4

TERP

tendency to equalisation of average inter-sector rates of integral profit

4§2

TH

‘hybrid taxes’ (simplifying notation: TH = Tsv + To + SSC + OR)

8§8

THo

‘other hybrid taxes’ (simplifying notation: THo = To + SSC + OR)

8§8

To

all other taxes, next to Tsv (the latter being enterprises’ taxes on surplus-value)

8§7

To*

all other taxes, next to Tr (the latter being enterprises’ taxes on internal profit)

8§7a

Tr

taxes on the internal profit (R)

8§7-a

Tsv

taxes paid by enterprises, with surplus-value being the tax base

8§7

TUP

tendency to uniform prices within a sector or market

4§3

U

unemployment (number) [reserve of labour-capacity]

2§4

u

rate of unemployment in % [u ={U/(L+U)}* 100]

2§4

UMC

upper-middle-income country (World Bank definition)

11§2-a

w

wage rate (wage in going fte per year, unless specified as per hour)

1§14

W

wages sum enterprises (W=wL)

3§10

We

[italics] wages sum paid by enterprises (after the state domain being explicit)

8§6

Wg

wages sum paid by the state (g for government) = wages of civil servants (before their taxes)

8§1

wL

wages sum

1§14

Xd

desired (current) production

3§10

Xt

output of production per year (realised)

1§14

Y

net value-added (macroeconomically this would be NDP)

1§14

Y

[italics] net value-added total economy (after the state domain being explicit)

8§6-b

Ye

net value added enterprises (after the state domain being explicit)

8§6-b

YG

gross value-added (macroeconomically this would be GDP)

1§14

Yg

net value-added (net product) of the state

8§1

Zg

social security transfers

8§2

Greek symbols

α

production power of labour (in terms Lα) [Lα = Lα ϊ]

1§14

alpha

technique-associated productive power of labour (in terms Lα)

1§14

alpha, with tonos

|α|

limited production power of labour (because of limited intensity of labour)

2§5

δ

fraction of the total assets K, equivalent to the used up fixed assets

1§14

delta

Δ

change [see also x]

2§3

delta (capital)

ε

share of ‘external’ finance in capital (banks plus other financiers)

5§1

epsilon

εK

external capital (passive capital furnished by external financiers)

5§1

ϊ

intensity of labour (in terms Lϊ)

1§14

iota, with dialytika

|ϊ|

limited intensity of labour (physical or compliance limit)

2§5

μ

fraction of the total assets K, equivalent to the used up floating means of production (usually a larger sum than the sum that appears on the balance sheet)

1§14

mu

Πt

surplus-value (= integral profit) produced per year

1§13

pi

Π

[italics] surplus-value (= integral profit), after the state domain being explicit

8§6

Πat

surplus-value, after taxes on surplus-value (after the state domain being explicit)

8§7

ρ

rate of internal profit on the internal capital

5§1

rho

Σ

summation

3§6-c

sigma

τ

capital-labour ratio [τ = K/L]

2§4

tau

ω

rate of integral profit (Πt / Kt′)

1§13

omega

Unusual signs in equations

🢔

right hand side to left hand side determination

1§14

🢔 =

equality with right to left hand determination

1§14

Unusual signs in texts

decrease (e.g. I↓)

increase (e.g. I↑)

results in / gives rise to

x – → y

negatively related effect of x on y

2§4

x ← – y

negatively related effect of y on x

2§4

x +→ y

positively related effect of x on y

2§4

x ←+ y

positively related effect of y on x

2§4

The unity of the capitalist economy and state

A systematic-dialectical exposition of the capitalist system

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