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Index

Abbas, Mahmoud xix, 197
Abdel Jawad, Saleh xv, xvi, 18, 32n71, 254, 258, 259
abolitionists 106, 315
Abou Shehadeh, Sami 47
Absorption of Discharged Soldiers Law 172
Abu Amsha, Nader 54
Abu Mazen.Abbas, Mahmoud
Abu Rabieh 54
Abu Rogaig, Mariam 36, 54
Abu Sitta, Salman 29n26, 32n71
The Accidental Empire (Gorenberg) xxi
Achille Lauro hijacking 179
Adalah, 43, 53, 122, 245, 314
Addameer, 53, 314
Adelson, Sheldon 57
Adnan’s story 67
Afghanistan 80, 238
Africa 69, 149
African Americans.civil rights movement, American
back-to-Africa movement and 106, 107
parallels to Jewish experience 99–103, 105, 109
parallels to Palestinian experience 318
as superpatriots 81
welfare programs and 197
Afsai, Shai 295n4
Agrexco 316
Ahdut HaAvoda party 265n31
Aida refugee camp 55, 250, 251, 314
AIPAC (American Israeli Public Affairs Committee) 275
airplanes, prejudice on 79
Ajami (film) 48
Akram, Susan 159
Al Aqsa Mosque 96, 205
Alfei Menashe settlement 205
Algeria 153, 164, 178, 201, 262, 274, 288
Al Haq, 315
Alimi, Eitan 187
aliyah, 41, 104, 199, 235, 251
Allon, Yigal 224n45
Aloni, Shulamit 246
Al Qaeda 206
Amer, Hani and Monera 50
American Colonization Society 106
American Indians 76, 77, 90n53
American Israeli Public Affairs Committee (AIPAC) 275
American Jews
contradictory views of xvii
democracy and 57, 58
Freedom Summer and 313
Israeli nationality and 151
lobbyists 154
population of 12
travel to Israel by 109, 251, 313
Zionism and 107, 119, 280, 283, 295n7
Americans for a Vibrant Palestinian Economy 316
Amir, Yigal 203
Amnesty International 283
Anarchists Against the Wall 53, 314
Anderson, Benedict 82, 84, 86, 92n91
ANM (Arab National Movement) 179
Annapolis Conference (2007) 213, 221
anthropology 281, 282
anti-Arab racism 78–82, 172
anti-Semitism
“clash of civilizations” and 289
in European history 13–15, 97, 102, 117, 277
new xix
Operation Protective Edge and 80
renewed 288
self-defense framework and 235
Zionism and 9, 97, 98, 108, 255, 261, 277
Anwar’s story 37, 40
apartheid
Bennett’s use of term 247, 267n70
definition of 247
Dugard on 246–248
as framework 245–252, 261, 262
Kerry’s use of term 58, 247
racism and 247, 249
in South Africa 7, 15, 58, 200, 245–252, 263, 274, 306
Appelfeld, Aharon 148
Arab Association for Human Rights 171, 314
Arab Higher Committee 130
Arabic language 86
Arabization 17
Arab League 162, 184, 207, 213, 220
Arab National Movement (ANM) 179
Arab Peace Initiative (2002) 212, 213, 221, 237
Arab peace overtures 270n120
Arab Rebellion (1936–1939) 131, 133, 134, 139, 179
Arab Revolt against Ottoman Empire (1916–1918) 127, 128
Arabs
Christian 77, 78
Jewish 78, 123
Muslim 77
prejudice against 78–82
roles in American history 5
sacred texts in common with Jews 14
stereotypes about 5, 77
Arab Spring 201, 216, 237, 286
Arafat, Yasir
Camp David Summit and 212
Fatah/PLO merging and 162, 178
Iraqi invasion of Kuwait and 188, 208
Letters of Mutual Recognition and 211
on Mandela’s remarks 245
as PLO head 162, 178, 179, 182, 183
Rabat Declaration and 182, 207
return to Palestine 203, 207
Saddam Hussein and 188, 208
second Intifada and 205
two-state solution and 188, 220
United States exclusion of 188, 200
Wye River meeting and 211, 221
Arendt, Hannah 8, 55, 84, 98, 278, 289, 316
Argentina 108, 118
Ariel settlement 316
Ariel University 245
Armenia 127
Arms Export Control Act 314
arms races 234, 287
Arutz Sheva 29n28
Ashkenazi Jews 104, 147
Asimov, Isaac 95, 280
assimilation 99–101, 105, 110n11
assimilation, fear of 117, 140n6, 279, 283, 320n22
Aswan Dam project 156
Ateek, Naim 241
Aung San Suu Kyi 67
Auschwitz concentration camp 81, 235, 285
Australia 261, 262
Avineri, Shlomo 117, 140n6
Ayalon, Ami 195
Ayn Hod 36
Azaria, Elor 249
back-to-Africa movement 106–109, 254
Bahrain 201, 292
Baker, James 209
Balbus, Isaac 197
Baldwin, James 310
Balfour, Lord 130, 256
Balfour Declaration 86, 119, 120, 123, 126–128, 132, 139
Balkan Republics 84, 102
Barak, Ehud
American-Israeli relations and 299n52
on apartheid 58, 247
Camp David and 211, 212, 221
Sharon and 24, 32n83
“villa in the jungle” metaphor 24, 32n83
Bardem, Javier 215
Barenboim, Daniel 284
Barnea, Nahum 197
Basel Plan/Program 118, 255
Basic Laws of Israel 56, 151, 159, 311
Battle of Karameh, 178
BDS.Boycott, Sanctions, Divestment movement (BDS)
Bedouins 29n26, 36, 54, 122, 151, 172, 292
Begin, Menachem 135, 175, 184
Beinart, Peter 280, 313
Beisan (Bet She’an) 241
Beit-Hallahmi, Benjamin 274
Beit Sahour cows 187
Beit Shemesh, Israel 45
Belgium 84, 85
Ben Gurion, David
on aggression and self-defense 232, 236
creating a national framework and 146, 147
ethnic cleansing and 255, 256, 260
The Land of Israel, Past and Present, 18
Palestinians as security risks and 158
partitioning and 133, 135
“unused land” and 147, 157
Bennett, Naftali 79, 247, 267n70
Ben-Shemen Agricultural School 148
Bentham, Jeremy 315
Ben Zvi, Yitzhak 18, 256
Berlin, Germany 104
Bethlehem, West Bank
Aida refugee camp in 55, 250, 251, 314
Combatants for Peace meeting in 303
West Bank division and 209
YMCA in 54
The Biggest Prison on Earth (Pappe) xxi
bilateral challenges 234, 236, 237
Bili’in (village) 53, 205, 238, 311, 314
Bill of Rights, U.S. 68, 295
bi-national state solution 56, 153, 278
biological metaphors 75. race
Birthright 109, 124, 251
Birzeit, West Bank 53
Birzeit University 54
Black American experience xxii, 318
Black capitalism 102, 103
black goats 292
Black Lives Matter 295
Black Muslims 103
Black Noise (Rose) 111n24
black rap and hip hop 103, 111n24
blacks.African Americans
black separatism 103
Black September (1970) 180
Blackstone, William 68
blue boxes 120
Bolsheviks 120, 127
Borochov, Ber 18
Boycott, Sanctions, Divestment movement (BDS) 215–217, 219, 234, 236–238, 250, 286, 287, 315–317
Brandeis, Louis 120
Brazil 78
Breaking the Silence, 49, 74
“break their bones” policy 196, 203
BRIC nations 78
British Empire 16, 20, 84, 119, 126–129
British Mandatory Palestine
Balfour Declaration andBalfour Declaration
British withdrawal from 135, 137
division of land of 135
Jordan and 24, 168n88
period of rule 16, 24
Six Day War and 164, 170
Sykes-Picot Agreement and 130
Zionism and 256, 257
Bruce, Lenny 284
B’Tselem
expulsion of Palestinians from Jerusalem and 44
fatality statistics of 72, 239, 299–300n62
reporting on human rights violations 53, 158
settlement statistics of 175
settler talking points and 42
Zionism and 283
Buber, Martin 8, 55, 98, 278
Budrus, demonstrations in 238, 314
Bulgaria 85
bureaucratic domination 37, 40
Burg, Avraham 59, 236, 283, 284, 294
Bush, George H. W. 80, 209
Bush, George W. 205–207, 216
Butler, Judith xx
Buttu, Diana 285
Campbell-Bannerman Report 16, 23, 31n47, 108, 126, 155, 198
Camp David Accords (1978) 183, 185, 208, 220
Camp David Summit (2000) 211–213, 221
Canaanites 16, 17
Canada 84, 85, 261, 262
Canada Park 122
capitalism 102, 103
Carter, Jimmy 183, 246
Caspit, Ben 249
Caterpillar, sanctions against 315
Central Committee of the Palestinian resistance 179
Central Conference of American Rabbis 80
CERD (Committee on the Elimination of Racial Discrimination) 69
Charlottesville, Virginia, neo-Nazis in 108
Chavez, Caesar 5, 315
checkpoints 48, 49, 51, 74, 195, 244, 309
China 78, 156, 163, 208, 209
Christians
anti-Semitism in Europe by 13–15, 117, 255
Holy Land of 9
Jewish relations with, in pre-modern era 13, 14, 30n42, 117
in Lebanon 159, 180, 181
national identities in Middle East 85
Palestinian 9, 11, 51, 130, 238, 244, 260, 287
population transfers 85
Zionist xx, 15, 108, 109, 274, 295n7
Churchill, Winston 132, 152
CIA 164
Citizenship Law (1952) 189n6
civil rights movement, American 81, 99–103, 313
Civil War, American 5
Cizling, Aharon 240, 265n31
“clash of civilizations,” 78, 275, 289, 290, 295
climate change xx, 233, 291–294, 318
climate refugees 291, 292
Clinton, Bill 205, 211, 212, 221
Clinton Parameters 212, 213
Coates, TaNehisi 74, 76
co-existence policy 47
Cohen, Mark 14
Cold War
American self-interests in Palestine during 20
end of 85, 104, 275
human rights and 68
Israeli-American alliance in 182
non-aligned nations in 155
otherness and 104
Palestinians and 161
Soviet bloc 152, 153, 155
superpowers and 165
Western bloc 152, 155
world divided by 199
collaborators 185
collective actors or parties 15, 30n44
colonialism 16, 73, 81, 245, 254, 274
colonization, Zionism as 232
Combatants for Peace 303, 304, 314
Committee on the Elimination of Racial Discrimination (CERD) 69
Communism 104, 127, 245
confrontation 103–105, 110n11
containment 46–50
Convention on the Elimination of Racial Discrimination 248
Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of Genocide (1948) 242
Convention on the Suppression and Punishment of the Crime of Apartheid 247, 248
Copernicus 65
Council for Peace and Security 176
Cox, Archibald 181
Coyne, Jeremy 273
Cruz, Penelope 215
Cunningham, Alan 136
Custodian of Absentee Property 157, 165, 196, 307
Czechoslovakia 176
Czech Republic 84, 104
Dachau concentration camp 240, 241
DAM (hip-hop group) 54
Darwish Museum 53
Dawabshe, Ahmed 21
Dawabshe, Ali 21
Dawabshe, Hussein 22
Dawkins, Richard 273
Dayan, Moshe 232, 236, 260
Declaration of Independence, American 90n53
Declaration of Independence, Israeli 151
Declaration of Principles 211
decolonization era 69, 97, 102, 139, 152–156, 165
Defamation (film) 235
Deir Yassin massacre 136
democracy 57, 274, 282
Democratic Front for the Liberation of Palestine (DFLP) 179
demolition of homes and villages
on Daoud Nasser’s land 46
green-washing 487
in Jaffa 47, 48
Lifta (village) 55
Munir’s 40
in Sheikh Jerrah neighborhood 50
Wadi al Na’am (village) 54
DeNiro, Robert 215
Denmark 85
Derrida, Jacques 284
Desai, Chandni 270n117
Desert Daughter 54
desertification 291, 292
Deutsch, Karl 82
DFLP (Democratic Front for the Liberation of Palestine) 179
Dheisheh refugee camp 54
Dignity (Free Gaza ship) 218
Dimona reactor 153, 163
Disengagement Plan 206, 207
Djibouti 201
Dome of the Rock mosque 205
domestic challenges 234, 237, 238
Doron, Yifat 246
Druze 172
Dugard, John 245, 247, 248
Dylan, Bob 284
East Jerusalem
annexation of, by Israel 29n28, 44, 71, 174
containment in 46
destruction of Maghrebi neighborhood 174
efforts to achieve Palestinian state in 182
election campaigns in 216
Israeli control of 181, 196
Jewish settlers in 191n38, 198
Palestinian residents in 44, 170, 174
Rabat Declaration and 207
Eban, Abba 20, 175, 214
Economic Efficiency Law of 2009 172
economic tools for change 315–317
educational tools for change 312–314
education and national identity 83
Efrat, West Bank 41
Egypt
Arab Jews in 149
Arab Spring in 201
army invasion of Israel 137
brief control of Palestine (1834) 129
control of Gaza 10, 138, 155, 156
in decolonization era 154, 155
Israeli invasion over Suez Canal 156, 236
peace deals offered to Israel 270n120
peace treaty with Israel 183–185, 208, 220
refugee camps in 10, 11, 157, 159
regional power struggles and 200, 234
Russian/Soviet alliance with 156, 179, 181
Six Day War and 162–164
support of Palestinian factions by 179
Syria’s rivalry with 161
United Arab Republic and 156
war of attrition with Israel 179
Yom Kippur War and 181
Einstein, Albert 8, 55, 98, 240, 278, 284
El Al airplane hijackings 179
Elias (Palestinian dentist) 145
Ellis, Marc 283, 298n47
Encounter 313
England 85, 117. Great Britain
Enlightenment rationalism 117, 138, 293, 315
Entry into Israel Law (1952) 189n6
environmental degradation 233
environmentalism 55, 275
environmental sustainability 55, 68
Epstein, Yitzhak 252, 256
Erdogan, Recep Tayyip 227n119
eruv, 103, 104
ethnic cleansing/sociocide
black goat prohibition and 292
genocide compared to 243, 276
Judaization and 20
of Lydda and Ramle 203
pine tree plantings and 292
settler colonialism framework and 252–262
Zionism and 134, 137, 138, 143n79, 255–262, 274, 276–280
ethnocentrism 281, 282
European Jews
African Americans compared to 99, 102
Balfour Declaration and 127
“new Jew” expectation and 148, 149
refugees from WWII 147, 149
shared ancestry with Palestinians 18
Six Day War and 164
universalism and 282
victimization and 98
Zionism as project built for 260, 261
Zionism origins and 97, 107, 117, 118, 255, 273, 285
European Union
boycotts from 236, 287, 316
Madrid Conference and 208
Palestinian Authority and 210
Palestinian elections and 216
“Eurozionism and its Discontents” (Pitersberg) 81
Eve’s stories 115, 195, 290
exit, as a response to prejudice and exclusion 105–109, 110n11
Exodus (book and film) 110n15, 275
expulsion of Palestinians
bureaucratic 43
during and after Nakba, 10, 11, 136–139, 150, 257
ethnic cleansing and 257, 260
indigeneity and 19
as Israeli strategy 43
Six Day War and 170, 257
statistics on 28n25
United States and 275
use of force for 19, 31n61
extremist groups and views 21–23, 32n72
Facebook 45, 104, 169, 304
facts and frameworks 65–66
Faculty for Israeli-Palestinian Peace xv
Family Circle of the Bereaved 314
family unification 43, 244, 249
Fanon, Franz 179
Farouk, King (of Egypt) 155
Fatah, 161 162, 178, 179, 204, 216
Fauda (Israeli TV series) 6
fear 67, 117, 140n6, 279, 281
fedayeen, 178
Feldman, Yotam 294, 301n86
female genital mutilation 107
fictive kinship 89n42
film industry 53
Finkelstein, Norman xxi, 98
first Intifada.Intifada, first
Fisher, Max 299n58
Five Broken Cameras (documentary film) 54
Flag and Emblem Law (1949) 173
Fourth Geneva Convention, Article 49 70, 71
Foxx, Jamie 81
frameworks
apartheid 245–252, 261, 262
evaluative vs. descriptive 232
facts and 65–66
genocide 240–245, 261, 262
human rights 66–73, 305
Israeli self-defense 232–240, 261, 305
nationalism 82–87
race 74–82
settler colonialism 252–263, 270n117
France
Algerian revolution against 153, 178
decolonization and 274, 288
Dimona reactor and 153
Egypt invaded by 156
head scarves ban in 92n92
Holocaust and 81
laicism in 85
Lebanon and Syria’s independence from 154
Six Day War and 164
Sykes-Picot Agreement and 127, 130
Frankfurter, Felix 120
Freedom from Fear (Aung San Suu Kyi) 67
“Freedom Rides,” 53
Freedom Summer 313
Free Gaza Movement 218, 219
Free Trade Agreement talks 215
Freud, Sigmund 98, 284
Friedman, Thomas 291
Gainsbourg, Serge 284
Galilee 20, 36, 79, 132, 138
Galileo 65
Garroutte, Eva 76
Garvey, Marcus 106
The Gatekeepers (film), Ayalon’s quote in 195, 221n3
gay rights movement 277, 278
Gaza
depicted as a woman 75
destruction in 206, 216, 241, 242
Disengagement Plan and 206, 207
efforts to achieve Palestinian state in 182, 187, 188
Egyptian control of 10, 138, 155, 156
first Intifada and 201, 202
food shortages in 243
genocide and 241
Israeli blockade of 124, 184, 218
Israeli control of 11, 181, 185, 196, 206, 207
Israeli raids and invasions of 155, 197
Israeli security concerns and 55
Israeli settlements in 198, 206
Israeli siege of 206, 207, 213, 218, 238
Israeli snipers and 196, 243
Israeli use of violence against 40, 44, 201, 201n38, 215, 216
medical clinics in 259
military rule established in 173, 174
as open-air prison 248
Operation Cast Lead inOperation Cast Lead
Operation Pillar of Defense in 200, 213
Operation Protective Edge inOperation Protective Edge
Peel Commission Report and 132
Rabat Declaration and 207
refugee camps in 10, 11, 157, 186
rocket fire from 72, 196, 286
two-state solution and 188
U.N. peacekeepers removed from 163
Gaza Community Mental Health Center 314
Gellner, Ernest 82, 83, 92n87
Gelvin, James 178, 186
gender relations 61n49, 73, 105
The General’s Son (Miko Peled) xv
General Strike 131, 139
Genesis (15:18) 95
Geneva Conventions on the Rules of War 67, 70–72, 173
Geneva Initiative 213
genocide 240–245, 261, 262, 276
German language 86
Germany 81, 85, 101, 102, 104, 119, 153, 173
GI Bill of Rights 77, 99
Ginsburg, Asher 278
globalization 284, 289–95, 318
goats 292
Golan Heights
Israeli control of 181, 183, 196
Jewish settlements in 11, 175, 198
Syrian incursions from 162
Syria’s claim on 11
Yom Kippur War and 181, 183
Goldstein, Baruch 48, 203
Goldstone Report 89n27
Go Palestine summer camp 314
Gordon, Neve xix, xx
Gorenberg, Gershon xvi
Gouldner, Alvin 65
grand apartheid 248
Great Britain.British EmpireBritish Mandatory PalestineEnglandPeel Commission ReportUnited Kingdom
Cold War and 152
decolonization and 154, 155, 274, 288
Egypt invaded by 156
Israel’s special relationship with 130, 131
Palestine as Jewish homeland and 108, 119, 120, 132, 273
during pre-state period 126–134, 139, 147
sanctions against Israel and 215
Six Day War and 164
Truman and 153
War of Independence and 139
Great March of Return 238, 243
great powers.superpowers
Greece 85
green building construction 55
Green Line
Arab Peace Initiative and 237
definition of 10
erased from textbooks 78
Israel’s boundaries and 10, 11, 24, 56, 175, 278
Israel’s growth to 138
road network and 71
separation barrier and 46
through Jerusalem 290
green-washing 48, 292
Guess Who’s Coming to Dinner? (film) 110n15
Gulf of Aqaba 183
Ha’am, Ahad 278, 297n25
Ha’aretz, 27n20, 169, 235, 279, 283, 287, 299n52
Haddad, Heskel 30n42
Haganah, 123, 136
Haifa, Israel 145
Hajjar, Lisa 159
Hallowell, A. Irving 298n41
Halper, Jeff 294
Hamad, Suheir 74
Hamas
blockade and 244
execution of collaborators 45
Fatah rivalry with 216
food shortages and 244
Israeli operations against 197, 198
Israeli’s early support/tolerance of 203, 204, 238, 239
Palestinian 2006 elections and 213, 216, 259
Palestinian Authority and xix
Palestinian statements in charter 22, 80
PLO and 203, 204, 238
revised charter (2017) 23
second Intifada and 204, 206
Hammad, Suheir 54
Hammerman, Ilana 312
Hamoked, 314
Hapsburg empire 84, 102
Haram-al-Sharif, 96, 205
Harlem Renaissance 99
Haysbert, Dennis 81
health care system, Palestinian 54
Hebrew language 86
Hebrew textbooks 78
Hebron, West Bank
Israeli soldiers in 36, 41
kuffiyeh factory in 53
massacre of Muslims worshipers in 203
Orthodox Jews murdered in 134
settler neighborhoods in 48, 175, 209
student visits to 48, 58
West Bank division and 209
Zionist observations of 279
heritage tourism 107
Herzl, Theodor
anti-Semitism and 108
definition of Jews and 283, 287
first Zionist Congress and 118
letter from Arab leader to 129
Old New Land, 255
quotes of 23, 81, 95, 115, 256
Zionism’s aim and 119, 255, 260
Herzliya Conference (2010) 244
Heschel, Abraham Joshua 318
Hidalgo (film) 77
hijab, 77, 79
Hillel, Rabbi 284
Hillels, campus 57, 124
Hindus 85
Hitler, Adolf 85, 241, 243
Hoffman, Alice 35
Hohenzollern empire 84, 102
Holland 316
Holmes, Sherlock 217
Holocaust
European Islamophobia and 81
genocide framework and 242
human rights framework and 67
number killed in 277, 296n18
self-defense framework and 235, 236
Zionist movement and 9, 97, 134, 135, 148, 275, 278, 290
Holocaust Remembrance Day 283
Holocaust survivors
criticisms of Gaza massacre by 45
fear for safety and 285
Israel as safe haven for 7, 145, 147, 148, 255
Israeli story of 145
Jewish Agency and 123, 124
taxes on reparations to 27n20, 148
Zionism and 135
“How Jewish is Israel?” (Karon) 283, 284
human rights
environmental sustainability and 55, 68
as framework for understanding 6, 8, 66–73, 305
for gay people 277, 278
of groups vs. individuals 72
international support for 214–219
inter-state vs. intra-state violence and 69
Israel’s lack of compliance with standards 10, 44, 70–72, 89n27, 279, 287
Jewish concern for 275
key documents 67
need for reform and 274
Oslo process and 210, 211, 213, 220
political 68
religion and 68
selective application of standards 69
social and economic 68
standards 4, 6–8, 12, 66, 286, 305, 306
violations of 8, 70–72, 85, 98, 107, 254, 305
women’s 61n49, 73, 107, 146, 147
human rights (humanitarian) law 70, 72, 210. Geneva Conventions on the Rules of War
Human Rights Watch 283
Hungary 108, 156, 164
Huntington, Samuel 289
Hussein, King (of Jordan) 162, 177, 180, 182, 183, 207
Hussein, Saddam 80, 188, 200, 208, 220, 238
Hussein bin Ali, King 128
Hussein-McMahon correspondence 119, 126–128, 139
hybridity 77
Iberia 117
Ibrahimi Mosque 48, 203
ICC.International Criminal Court (ICC)
ICJ.International Court of Justice (ICJ)
ideal types 110n11
Illuz, Eva 287
immigration and gender relations 73
Immigration and Nationality Act of 1965 77
incremental genocide 241
India 78, 85, 208, 209, 274, 288
individualism 72
International Committee of the Red Cross 71
International Court of Justice (ICJ)
Fourth Geneva Convention, Article 49 and 71
PA application to 215, 216, 226n98, 314
Palestine’s upgraded status and 69, 236
Palestinian rights and 68
on separation barrier 204, 205, 287
Zionism and 283
International Criminal Court (ICC)
focus on African cases and individuals 69
Fourth Geneva Convention, Article 49 and 88n20
PA application to 215, 216, 218, 226n98, 314
Palestine’s upgraded status and 236
Palestinian rights and 68, 69
Rome Statute of 218
Zionism and 283
internationalization 218, 219, 314
International Solidarity Movement 218
intersectionality and settler colonialism 270n117
Intifada, first 24, 74, 186–189, 196, 201–203, 208, 209, 219
Intifada, second
beginning of 205, 212
lynching of Israelis during 205, 238, 311
9/11 and 206
peace process and 219
repression of armed struggle in 250
results of 206
suicide bombings during 204, 205, 250
torture during 244
Iran
American-Israeli relations and 299n52
Arab Jews in 149
“iron wall” and 184
Islamic state installed in 184
Israeli alliance with 155, 184
nuclear weapons and 235, 286, 299n58
regional power struggles and xviii, xx, 200, 234, 311
revised Hamas charter and 23
sanctions re-imposed on 286
Sneh on 235
Iran-Iraq War 184, 208
Iraq.ISIS (Islamic State in Iraq and Syria)
American invasion of 80, 206, 212
Arab Jews in 149
army invasion of Israel 137
current 185
in decolonization era 154, 155
desertification and 292
destruction in xx
invasion of Iran 184
invasion of Kuwait 188, 199, 200, 208, 220
power struggles with other Arab countries 200
refugees from 237
support of Palestinian factions by 179
unrest in 201
Irgun 184
“iron fist,” 186
Iron Sheik 54
“iron wall,” 184
Isaac’s story 280
ISIS (Islamic State in Iraq and Syria) xviii, 78, 80
Islam
Arabization and 17
disputes between branches of 85
politicalpolitical Islam
recognition of Jewish and Christian antecedents 14, 29n37
Islamic Jihad 23, 184, 203
Islamic Resistance Movement 22
Islamic waqf, 9, 22
Islamophobia 5, 77, 80, 81, 206
Is Multiculturalism Bad for Women? (Okin) 73
Israel
admiration for 109
American alliance with 154, 181, 182, 184, 198, 199, 206, 286
American knowledge of 7
anti-discrimination laws in 122
anti-Palestinian prejudice in 79, 82, 172
anti-Semites and 108
Arab wars against 178, 179, 181
arms sales and security consulting xix
army veterans of 172
Basic Laws of 56, 151, 159, 311
bilateral challenges of 234, 236, 237
blockade of Gaza 124
boundaries of 10, 11, 24, 56, 175, 176, 209
“break their bones” policy 196, 203
casualties of civilians of 72, 240
citizenship vs. nationality 151, 165, 171, 172
Cold War and 182
control of historic Palestine 11, 20, 24, 164, 165, 170–176, 196
Custodian of Absentee Property 157, 165
domestic challenges of 234, 237, 238
Egypt invaded by 156, 236
Four Legal System 171
Geneva Conventions and 70
global challenges for 233, 234, 236
Holocaust survivors and 7, 145, 147, 148
human rights doctrine and 70, 211
human rights violations by 70–72, 89n27, 287
ID cards issued by 51
immigration of Arab Jews 147, 149, 150
infrastructure created by 217
invasion by Arab armies 137
Iran’s alliance with 155
Jewish criticism of 275
Jewish identity and 283
Jewish immigrants to 47, 104, 147, 148, 188, 199, 209
Jewish population of xviii, xxiii n12
language struggles in 86
Lebanon invaded by 185, 219, 237
militarism 237, 294
military rule 158, 159, 165, 170, 171, 175, 189, 196, 217, 219
national framework creation 146–152
“new Jews” and 148, 149
Occupation byOccupation
Occupied Territories and danger to 236, 238
one-state solution and 87
operations against Palestinians 237
out-migration from 251, 268n86
Palestinian citizens of 11, 36, 43, 79, 121, 151, 158–159, 170–173, 237–238, 249
Palestinian elections and 216
Palestinian homes demolished in 253, 254
Palestinian land appropriated by 157, 158, 196, 204, 307
peace process and 198–200, 209, 213, 219
peace treaty with Egypt 183–185, 208, 220
peace treaty with Jordan 221
pink-washing and women’s rights in 61n49
PLO and 179
poverty in 27n20, 148, 172
raids on West Bank and Gaza 155
regional challenges of 234, 236, 237
religious disputes among Jews in 85
Resolution 181 and 135
revised Hamas charter and 23
safety in 284–289
secularism in 85
securitization and security training 294, 295
Six Day War and 162–165, 236
social services, discrimination in 172
special relationship with Great Britain and US 130, 131
state creation 10, 19, 117, 118, 127, 136, 137, 139 Israeli state, early national period
state land 42
State of Emergency declared by 158, 159, 171
Turkey’s alliance with 155
two-state solution and 175, 176, 198
victimization emphasis of 98, 239, 288
Yom Kippur War and 181–183, 236
young Jews leaving 104
Israel Day Parade 57
Israeli Apartheid Weeks 314
Israeli-Arab wars 150
Israeli Defense Forces (IDF)
creation of 123
Disengagement Plan and 206
efforts to prevent dating between groups 320n22
expulsion of Palestinians by 10, 307
harassment and violence by 38, 246
Jewish immigrants and 47
killing of Palestinians by 203, 238, 239
Operation Protective Edge and 44
refusal to serve in 52
vandalization of jeep 57
veterans of 172
Israeli dissidents 37, 39
Israeli Egg and Poultry Board 245
Israeli High Court 205
Israeli Independence Day 173
Israeli National Security Council 79
Israelis
following Six Day War 170–176
national framework created by 146–152
opposed to Occupation 37, 58, 169, 251, 286
peace process and 196–200
racism and 82, 149
Israeli self-defense, as framework 232–240, 261, 287
Israeli settlements
in and around Hebron 209
danger to settlers in 239
expansion of 198–199, 210, 213, 219, 222n12, 237, 257, 297n19, 307
following Six Day War 175, 176, 189
as human rights violation 70
media coverage of 5
as National Priority Areas 172
population of 12, 29n28, 175, 217
as source of difficulties for Israelis 287
as strategy to control Palestinians 40–43, 46
vigilante violence and 41, 45
Israeli state, early national period 145–168
Israelis during 146–152
Palestinians during 156–161
summary of 165
superpowers and 152–156
tragic spiral 161–164
Israeli story 145
Israeli Supreme Court 43, 56, 151, 172, 249, 311
Israelites 14–17, 256
Israel Ministry of Education 245
Israel/Palestine
background information 9–12
balance of power 72, 98
complexity of issues in 6
division of land in 9
ethnoracialization of conflict 82
finding the tipping point in 317–319
history of 116, 307
hopeful signs 311, 312
human rights issues inhuman rights
Israeli control of 11, 20, 24, 164, 170–176, 196, 213, 257
lessons from the past and 307–310
media depiction of violence in 5
Palestinian population in xviii, xxiii n13, 11
time line 325–337
tools for change in 310–317
Italy 81, 84, 85
Itamar settlement 238
JA.Jewish Agency (JA)
Jabalya refugee camp 186
Jabotinsky, Vladimir 184, 232, 236, 255, 260
Jackson, Jesse 79
Jaffa, Israel 47, 123, 279
Jaffa Muslim-Christian Council 23
Jefferson, Thomas 90n53
Jenin, West Bank 209
Jericho, West Bank 209
Jerusalem.East Jerusalem
Arab Quarter of Old City 95, 96
Bethlehem neighborhood re-zoned into 39
boundaries redrawn 174
checkpoint for entry into 51
emergency room in 309
negotiations and 200, 209
Palestinian residents of 174, 175
seam line within 290
settler neighborhoods in 175
U.S Embassy’s relocation to 108, 221, 311
Jerusalem-Bethlehem corridor 135
Jewish Agency (JA) 108, 118, 123–124, 136, 139, 154, 307
Jewish Diaspora 284, 294
Jewish identity 98, 103, 134, 283, 284
Jewish National Fund (JNF) 107, 118, 120–123, 126, 131, 139, 151, 307
Jewish nation-state bill 56
Jewish state vs. Jewish homeland 8, 55
Jews.Orthodox Jewsultra-Orthodox JewsZionismZionists
admiration for 81
African 260, 261
AmericanAmerican Jews
Arab 78, 123, 147, 149, 150, 260, 261
Christians and, in pre-modern era 13, 14, 30n42, 117
communities of, in Palestine 9, 14, 30n43, 59, 63n75, 129
Ethiopian 123
EuropeanEuropean Jews
German 101, 118, 119
immigrants to Israel 47
Marxist 108
Muslims and, prior to Zionism 13, 14, 30n42
“new Jews,” 148 149, 250
otherness embraced by 103, 104
Palestinian 9, 123, 129
parallels to African American experience 99–103, 105, 109
Promised Land of 9
Russian 199, 209
shared ancestry with Palestinians 17–19
socialism and 102, 103
Soviet and post-Soviet 123
universalism and 59, 282
world population of 12
Jimmy Carter Center 216
JNF.Jewish National Fund (JNF)
Johnson, Lyndon 164
Jordan
Arab Jews in 149
army invasion of Israel 137
control of West Bank 10, 137, 138, 155, 156, 185
in decolonization era 154, 155
Madrid Conference and 208, 209
Palestinian Diaspora in 86, 138
peace deals offered by 270n120
peace treaty with Israel (1994) 185, 221
PLO and 178–181
refugee camps in xx, 10, 11, 157, 159
refugee influx to 237
Six Day War and 162, 164
Transjordan option and 25, 42
unrest in 201
Jordan, June 74
Jordan River 162
Jordan Valley 175, 212, 312
Judaism
Constantinian vs. prophetic 298n47
conversion of Palestinians to, imagined 255, 256
disputes between shades of 85
Herzl and 283, 287
universalistic ethic of 281–284
Judaization of the land 13, 19, 20, 54, 79, 122, 172
Judis, John 297n25
Judt, Tony 99, 217
Kafka, Franz 284
Kahan Commission 181
Kanazi, Remi 54
Karen’s story 276–278
Karine A (ship) 205
Karmi, Ghada 32n71
Karon, Tony 247, 283, 284, 298n41
Kasrils, Ronnie 241, 247
Kathleen’s story 233
Kearney, Michael 226n98
Kellman, Naamah 310
Kennedy, John F. 195, 319
Keret, Etgar 197
Kerry, John 58, 213, 221, 247
Khalidi, Rashid 28n25, 32n71
Khalidi, Walid 29n26, 32n71
Khartoum Declaration 23, 177, 178, 207, 220
Kibbutz Megido 122
Kimmerling, Baruch 32n71
King, Martin Luther 100, 303
The Kingdom (film) 81
kinship 75, 89n42
Kissinger Doctrine 182, 189
Knesset, 82, 172, 173, 183, 237, 244, 249, 287
Kramer, Martin 244
Kristalnacht, 241
kuffiyeh factory in Hebron 53
Kuhn, Thomas 65–66, 173
Ku Klux Klan 106
Kurds and Kurdish nationalism xx, 86, 308
Kuwait 188, 199, 200, 201, 208, 220
Kweli, Talib 81
The Lab (Feldman film) 294, 301n86
Labor Party, Israeli 175, 260
laicism 85
Lajee Center 55, 314
Lajun (Palestinian village) 43, 122
The Land of Israel, Past and Present (Ben Gurion and Ben Zvi) 18
La’or, Yitzak 81
Laurens, Henri 274
Law and Governance Article 18A 173
The Law In These Parts (documentary film) 191n35, 192n83, 243
Law of Return 150, 151, 171, 189n6, 199
League of Nations
failure to prevent war 67
mandatory system 120, 127
Palestine Mandate 24, 120
Lebanon
agricultural sector damage 131
Arab Jews in 149
army invasion of Israel 137
Christian treatment of refugees in 159, 180, 181
in decolonization era 154, 155
Israeli invasion of 185, 219, 237
Israeli withdrawal from 205
Madrid Conference and 208, 209
Palestinian Diaspora in 86, 138
PLO and 179–181, 185, 189
political compromises in 237
refugee camps in xx, 10, 11, 157
unrest in 201
legal and advocacy tools for change 314
legalization 245, 266n57
Letters of Mutual Recognition 211
Leunig, Michael 3
Levi, Primo 240, 284
Leviev 316
Levy, Gideon 128, 274, 275, 284
Liberia 106, 107, 109
Libya 149, 201, 292
Lifta (village) 43, 55
Likud Party 79
Little Town of Bethlehem (film) 303
A Liturgy for Ordinary Radicals 317
Lod, Israel 21
Lubavitcher Jews 103
Lusztig, Elliot 316
Lydda, ethnic cleansing of 279
Madrid Conference 188, 200, 208, 209, 220
Maghreb 149
Maghrebi neighborhood in East Jerusalem 174
Magnes, Judah 55, 278
Maher, Bill 75
Maimonides 282, 284
Mali 201
Malthus, Thomas 315
Mamdani, Mahmood 69, 92n92
Mamilla Cemetery, Jerusalem 80
Mandela, Nelson 66, 245, 247
Mandelbaum Gate 290
Mansfield, Michael 310
market systems, global 292, 293
Marshall, George C. 137
Marx, Karl 98, 103, 284
Massachusetts Bay Colony 104
Massad, Joseph 102
Maureen’s story 289, 295
Mauritania 201, 209
Mavi Marmara (ship) 184, 218, 219, 227n119
McCarthyism 104
McMahon, Henry 128
medical practices, unorthodox 105
Mekorot 316
Merchant of Venice (Shakespeare) 100
Migdal, Joel 32n71
Mira’s story 285
Misgav, Uri 242
Modi’in Illit settlement 205
monotheism 282
Morocco 201, 209, 289, 320n13
Morris, Benny 29n26, 32n71, 143n79, 241, 276, 278
Motorola, sanctions against 315
“mowing the lawn,” 200 218
Moynihan, Daniel Patrick 8, 300n68
Mubarak, Hosni 185
multiculturalism 73, 105, 261, 320n13
Multi-National Peacekeeping force 180
Munir’s story 39, 40
Museum of Tolerance 80
Museum on the Seam 290
music industry 54
Muslim Brotherhood 203
Muslims
Arab 77
Islamic waqf of 9
Jews and, prior to Zionism 13, 14, 30n42
Palestinian 9, 11, 130, 238, 244, 260
population transfers 85
world population of 12
Mussolini, Benito 85
My Promised Land (Shavit) 279
Nabi Saleh, West Bank
Israeli soldier in 249
protests and demonstrations in 238, 288, 314
spring water access in 49, 53
tear gas canister garlands in 311
Zionist observations of 279
Nablus, West Bank 14, 44, 59, 63n75, 209
Nader, Ralph 5
Nakba (the Catastrophe).War of Independence
agreement on facts about 21, 32n71, 234
beginning of 136, 142n71
end of 10
fear and 279
Israeli school curriculum and 55, 313
Jaffa and 47, 279
Palestinians displaced in 137, 139, 150 expulsion of Palestinians
planting over villages destroyed in 121
soft Zionism and 278
statistics on 28n25
Zionist interpretation of 110n15, 278–280
Zochrot and 55
Nakhleh, Khalil 289
Nasser, Daoud 46
Nasser, Gamal Abdel 155, 156, 162–164, 178, 183
Nasserism 130
National Priority Areas (NPA) 172
nation and nationalism 66, 82–87
emerging nations and 92n87, 102
history of 84
human rights violations and 85
language and 84, 86, 92n91
Marxist Jews and 108
mediating institutions 83, 92n86
in Middle East 85
modern nation states xx, 83–86
nation states as imagined communities 84, 86
Palestinians and 84, 129, 279, 308
prehistory to nationalism 92n91
racial classification compared to 84
religion and 85
settler colonialism and 260
skepticism of 278
Zionism and 290, 308
Nation of Islam 103
Native Americans 76, 77, 90n53, 270n117, 298n41
Nazis 104, 108, 134, 240–242, 244, 245, 306
Negev, Israel
Bedouins in 54, 292
climate change and 292
Egypt’s peace deal offered to Israel and 270n120
human rights groups and 5
Judaization of 20, 54, 79, 122, 172
National Priority Areas in 172
oil possibilities in 154
Palestinian community in 36
Peel Commission Report and 132
refugees from 31n59
Negotiations Support Unit of PA 67
neocolonialism 69, 73, 245
Nestle’s, boycott against 315
Netanyahu, Benjamin
Abu Mazen and 197
American-Israeli relations and 299n52
anti-Semites and 108
Bar Ilan University speech and 213
corruption scandals xix
one-state solution and 56
pacification of Palestinians and 44
Palestinian refugees and 161
peace process and 210, 211, 213
post-post-Zionism and 28n21
violence and 203
new anti-Semitism xix
New Historians, xxi 18, 32n71, 148
“new Jews,” 148 149, 250
New York Times, 5, 45, 297n19
New Zealand 261, 262
NGOs.non-governmental organizations (NGOs)
Nili’in (village) 53, 238, 314
9/11 terrorist attacks 78, 80, 81, 105, 206, 212, 237
972 Magazine, 45
1967 (Segev) xxi
Nixon, Richard 181
non-governmental organizations (NGOs)
debates and hesitations about 61n44
Israeli 37, 53, 55
Palestinian 53, 61n44
Nordau, Max 118
Noriega, Manuel 238, 239
North Africa 149
Northern Ireland 15
Norway 316
NPA (National Priority Areas) 172
nuclear weapons 234, 235, 286, 287, 299n58
Obama, Barack 105
Occupation 169–193
as apartheidapartheid
bilateral challenges and 234
discrimination against Palestinians under 69, 171–173
domestic challenges and 234
as elephant in the room 7
ethnic cleansing and 257–258
global indifference and expansion of xviii
Israeli establishment of 170–176, 189
Israelis opposed to 37, 58, 169, 251, 286
Israeli spending on 104
in Israeli textbooks xv
oppression of Palestinians and 15, 36, 186
Palestinian agriculture and 186, 192n86
Palestinian resistance to 12, 52–55, 178–181, 185–189, 201–203, 235, 238, 250, 307, 314
Palestinians under Israeli control 170, 171
planning and implementation of 163, 173, 174
psychological warfare used in 244
revised version of events surrounding xxi
rock-throwing and 5
soft Zionism and 278
summary of 189
superpowers and 176–178, 189
totalitarian precedent for 245
tragic spiral and 181–188
as trap 8
violence used by 39, 40
Occupied Palestinian Territories.GazaWest Bank
apartheid in 246
containment within 46–50
dangers to Israel and 236, 238
geographic divides and 248
Israeli control of 24, 170, 173, 196, 245, 307
Israel’s encouragement of settlements within 71, 175, 210, 217
medical permits to leave 244
military rule of 171, 173, 196, 249
peace process and 200
population in 11
securitization of 294
settler only roads in 176, 248
OCHA (UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs) 55, 107
Ofer Military Court 246
oil interests 78, 153, 154
oil shock 182
Ojibwa people 298n41
Okin, Susan Muller 72
Old New Land (Herzl) 255
Old Testament 14
Olim Berlin 104
Olim Prague 104
Olmert, Ehud 58, 247
Olympics in Munich (1972) 179
Oman 201, 209
Omar (film) 54
One Democratic State Campaign 263, 314
one-state solution.two-state solution
alternatives to 93n98
civil rights struggle and 57, 214, 217
increased interest in 87
Netanyahu government and 56
Transjordan option and 25
OPEC (Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries) 91n63, 182
Open Hillels 57, 314
Operation Brothers Keeper.Operation Protective Edge
Operation Cast Lead
criticism of Israel and 237
Free Gaza flotilla and 218
genocide comparisons 241
“mowing the lawn” and 200
pacification and 44
peace process and 213, 219
trip to Palestine/Israel during 95
Zionist defense of 283
Operation Dani 203
Operation Defensive Shield 197, 219, 237
Operation Pillar of Defense 200, 213, 219, 237
Operation Protective Edge
anti-Semitism and 80
BDS and sanctions and 215
cease-fire in 197
criticism of Israel and 237
fatalities and 45
Free Gaza flotilla and 219
Gaza as a woman and 75
genocide comparisons 241
motive for 216
“mowing the lawn,” 200 218
peace process and 196, 197, 200, 213, 215, 219
ratio of deaths between Palestinians and Israelis 239, 265n28
United States and 276, 314
Zionist defense of 283
Order of the Kotel (Western Wall) 174
Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) 91n63, 182
orientalism 77, 275
Orthodox Jews 103, 134
Oslo Accords
Camp David Summit and 183
as disaster for Palestinians 213
failure of 211
Palestinian acceptance of 24
peace process and 138, 202, 203, 209–211, 220
second Intifada and 205
settlement expansion after 198
suicide bombings during negotiations 204
Taba negotiations and 67, 211
two-state solution and 86, 208
water shortages and 209, 210, 213, 220
West Bank divisions and 12, 209, 210, 220
otherness, embracing of 103–105, 110n11, 111n24
Ottoman Empire
Arab revolt against 127, 128
dismemberment of lands of 126, 127
Egyptian troops and 129
end of 102
Herzl and 119
land laws 175, 185
nationalism and 84, 308
Palestine Office and 123
Palestinian economic struggle and 131
ruling of land of Israel/Palestine 16, 20, 117, 124–126
Tanzimat reforms 125, 126, 139
out-migration from Israel 251, 268n86
Oz, Amos 280
pacification 44, 58, 132, 170, 183–186, 196, 203, 213
Pakistan 85
Palestine.Israel/PalestineOccupied Palestinian TerritoriesPalestinians
agricultural sector damage 131
as choice for Jewish homeland 108, 117–119
Christian communities in 9, 51
competing claims on 9, 17, 86, 133
de-Arabization of 134, 136, 157
Jewish communities in 9, 14, 30n43, 59, 63n75, 129
news coverage of 5
as observer state 24, 69, 215, 236
partitioning of 9, 10, 135
peace process and 213, 219
Peel Commission Report and 132
pine tree plantings in 121, 292
population of xvii
residents of 11, 12
search for just peace in 4, 7
size of 9
villages destroyed in 10, 29n26, 121, 137, 138
Zionist immigration to 9, 117–120, 123, 131
Palestine, Peace not Apartheid (Carter) 246
Palestine Arab Delegation 115
Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO)
commando tactics by 179, 180
diverse factions of 179
elections awaited by 259
first Intifada and 202
formation of 162, 220
Hamas and 203, 204, 238
Jordan and 178–181
Lebanon and 179, 180, 185
merging with Fatah, 162, 178
Muslim Brotherhood and 203, 204
as national authority 182, 192n76, 207, 220
as observer entity 182
Oslo Accords and 203, 211
Palestinian unity and 23
Rabat Declaration and 182, 207
second Intifada and 206
Ten Point Program and 192n76
two-state solution and 86
United States exclusion of 188, 200, 208
village leagues and 185
weakening in Ramallah 206
Palestine National Council/Congress (PNC) 188, 259
Palestine Office 123
Palestine Zionist Executive 123
Palestinian Authority
Adnan’s story and 67
applications to ICC and ICJ 215, 216, 226n98, 314
Camp David Accords and 208, 220
establishment of 208, 210, 220
IDs issued by 51
observer state status and 215
Oslo agreements and 183, 210, 213
political illegitimacy of xix
possible implosion of 317
Rabat Declaration and 207, 208, 220
revised Hamas charter and 23
Rome Statute of ICC and 218
UN and 238, 259
Palestinian Diaspora 86, 138, 314, 316
Palestinian Fair Trade Association 53
Palestinian Islamic Jihad (PIJ) 204
Palestinian Legislative Council 216, 259
Palestinian refugees
appropriation of land from 157, 158
discrimination against 171
Fatah founded by 161
Jewish refugees compared to 150
in Jordan 237
numbers of xviii, xxiii n14, 28n25
PLO and 180
protection gap 159–161
in refugee camps 10, 11, 31n59, 156, 159, 160, 185
Resolution 242 and 176, 177
right of return 11, 150, 160, 171, 182, 209, 212, 306
rights denied for 217
at time of Israeli state formation 137
Palestinians.Palestine
Arab Rebellion (1936-1939) 131, 133, 134, 139
child-naming practices 29n37
Christian 9, 11, 51, 130, 238, 244, 260, 287
civilian casualties 72
containment of 46–50
creativity and resilience of 51–55
disarming of 133
discrimination against 79, 122, 171–173, 186, 237, 244, 245
distribution in Israel/Palestine 11
educational attainment of xviii, xxiv n15, 53
elections held by 216
excluded from labor 131, 186, 199, 234, 250, 256
expulsion ofexpulsion of Palestinians
fatalities, compared to Israeli deaths 239, 265n28
General Strike by 131, 139
Hamas charter statements 22, 80
human rights violations by 71, 89n27
internal displacement of 10, 121, 131, 157
International Court of Justice and 69
in Israel following Nakba, 157–159, 161
as Israeli citizens 11, 36, 43, 79, 121, 151, 158–159, 170–173, 237–238, 249
Israeli motorists and 205, 238, 311, 312
Israeli state creation and 156–161, 165
Jewish 9, 123, 129
land captured from 123, 157, 158, 196, 204, 307
lobbying efforts to British 130
as long term residents of Israel/Palestine 17, 125
under military rule 158–159, 165, 170–171, 217, 249, 259
Muslim 9, 11, 130, 238, 244, 260
nationalism and national identity of 84, 86, 129, 279, 308
national liberation struggle 214, 216
Occupation andunder Occupation
one-state solution and 87
pacification efforts by Israelis 44, 58, 132, 183, 186, 196, 203, 213
partitioning of land and 135
peace process and 201–207, 213, 214, 219, 220
population of xviii, xxiii n13
prejudice against 79, 82
in pre-state period 129–133, 139
proverb of 303
refugeesPalestinian refugees
rock-throwing by children 5, 196
safety of 285, 287
self-determination pursuit by 20
shared ancestry with Jews 17–19
Six Day War and 164, 170
statelessness of 84, 86, 207
story of, difficulties in sharing 5
Zionism as disaster for 278
Zionists and lack of concern for rights of 108
Palestinian story 145
Palmach militia 265n31
PalTel 53
pan-Arabism 130, 155, 162, 165, 178
Pappe, Ilan xxi, 28n25, 32n71, 241, 257
Paradise Now (film) 54
particularism 280–282, 285
Partition Plan (1947) 135, 136, 139, 153, 184
Patinkin, Mandy 215
Paul’s story 35, 56
peace process 195–227
beyond 214–219
changing boundaries and 138
chronology of 220, 221
Israelis and 196–200, 209, 213
Palestinians and 201–207, 213, 214
summary of 219
superpowers and 200, 201
tragic spiral 207–214
United States and 188, 198, 200, 205–209, 211, 212
Peel Commission Report 86, 132, 133, 257
Peled, Matti xv
Peled, Miko xv
Peled, Yoav xv
Peled-Elhanan, Nurit xv
Peled-Elhanan, Smadar xv
pension funds and BDS 316
Pentagon 164
Persian Gulf 127
Peter’s story 82
petro-politics and petro-power 165, 178, 275. oil interests
petty apartheid 248
PFLP (Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine) 179, 204
Philistines 16
Picot, Francois Georges 126
PIJ (Palestinian Islamic Jihad) 204
pine trees planted in Palestine 121, 292
pink-washing 61n49
Pitersberg, Gabriel 81
Plan Dalet (Plan D) 136
PNC (Palestine National Congress) 188
Poitier, Sidney 110n15
Poland 85, 108
political Islam
American race relations and 78
blacks as superpatriots and 81
otherness and 104, 105
pan-Arab unity and 130
peace process and 219
politicide 259
polygamy 73
polytheism 281
Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine (PFLP) 179, 204
population transfers 70, 71, 85, 88n20, 254, 256, 257
post-post-Zionism 28n21
Powell, Colin 81
Prague, Czech Republic 104
present absentees 157
pre-state period in history of Zionism 117–143
great powers in 124–129
Palestinians in 129–133
summary of 139
tragic spiral 134–139
Zionists in 117–124
price tag attacks 45
Prince, Stephen 231
protection gap 159, 160
Proust, Marcel 284
psychological warfare 244
Ptolemy 65
Qalandiya checkpoint 195, 309
Qalqilya, West Bank 209
Qatar 209
Qibya, West Bank 155
Quakers 315
Quran, Fadi 53
Qur’an 14
R2P (Responsibility to Protect) 69
Rabat Declaration 182–184, 207, 208, 220
Rabin, Yitzhak 203, 211, 224n45
Rabkin, Yakov 89n30
race.racism
apartheid and 247, 248
blacks as superpatriots 81
as framework for understanding 66, 74–82
gender and 77
history and 78
invidious nature of distinctions 77, 82
naming of other and 76
nationhood compared to 84
power and 77
scientific definition of 75, 81
as social construction 76, 82, 248
race riots, American 197
racism.race
anti-Arab 78–82, 172
Arafat’s comment about struggle against 245
back-to-Africa movement and 106
JNF and allegations of 122
national identity in U.S. and Europe and 291
“new Jews” and 148
Palestinians as demographic threat as 287
settler colonialism and 260, 261
Sneh’s statement 235
Zionism and 256
Ramallah, West Bank 36, 145, 205, 206, 209, 238, 259
Ras a-Tire (village) 205
Rashomon effect 231
Ravitch, Diane 280
realpolitik, 7, 305
reasonable inference 116
Reconstruction, failure of 106
Red Scare 104
Reel Bad Arabs (documentary) 5
reform 101–103, 105, 110n11
Reformation 117
refugee camps
expelled Palestinians in 10, 11, 138, 157, 159, 160
first Intifada and 202
Holocaust survivors in 148
massacres in 180, 181
numbers in 11, 31n59
PLO in 180, 185
rationing of water and electricity to 248
in surrounding countries 10, 11, 31n59, 157, 159
in West Bank and Gaza 10, 11, 31n59, 157
Refugee Convention (1951) 160, 161
Refugee Protocol (1967) 160, 161
refuseniks 52
Regev, Miri 249
regional power struggles xviii, xx, 200, 201, 234, 236, 237
religion
ethnocentrism and 281, 282
human rights and 68
nationalism and 85
resistance as a tool for change 314
Resolution 181 9, 70, 86, 135, 153, 177, 308
Resolution 194 70
Resolution 242 70, 176–178, 183
Resolution 338 211
Responsibility to Protect (R2P) 69
Ricardo, David 315
Rice, Condoleezza 81
Richard’s story 3
Rihanna 215
Riwaq 53
Road Map 213
Rodinson, Maxime xxi
Rogan, Eugene 32n71
Romania 237
Romanov empire 84
Rome Statute of ICC 218
Ronit’s story 52
Roots (TV mini-series) 107
Rose, Tricia 111n24
Royal Commission (1937) 115
Ruffalo, Mark 215
Russell Tribunal 247, 310
Russia.Soviet Union
alliance with Egypt 156, 179, 181
Cold War and 152, 153
global economy and 78
Herzl and 119
Jewish immigrants from 199, 209
Jewish immigrants returning to 104
Occupation and resistance and 178
peace process and 208
recognition of Israel 154
Six Day War and 163, 164
Sykes-Picot Agreement and 127, 128
WWI and 119, 120
Al Ruwwad Children’s Dance Theater 55
al Sabawi, Khaled 55
Sabeel 241
Sabra, 148
Sabra refugee camp massacre 180, 181, 185, 288
Sadat, Anwar 183, 184, 270n120
safety, promise of 284–289
Said, Edward 214, 217
Said-Foqahaa, Nader 169, 170, 189n3
Saleh, Mohsen 31n47
Samaritans 14, 30n43, 59, 63n75
Samuel, Herbert 119
“Saturday Night Massacre,” 181
Saudi Arabia
army of 137
disinterest in Palestinian plight xix
oil interests and 154
regional power struggles and xviii, xx, 234, 311
unrest in 201
Sea of Galilee 270n120
secessionist movements 84
secularism 85
securitization 294, 295
Segev, Tom xxi, 18, 32n71, 107, 148, 284
self-defense 244, 287. Israeli self-defense, as framework
separation barrier, Israeli
around homes 50
attempts to breach 251
containment and 46
ICJ on 205, 287
listening to people affected by 309
national security as rationale for 204, 233
Palestinian labor exclusion and 250
protests and 53, 238
suicide bombings and 204
separation of church and state 105, 153
September 11 terrorist attacks.9/11 terrorist attacks
service work as a tool for change 314
settler colonialism, xxi 252–263, 270n117, 306. ethnic cleansing/sociocide
Shafir, Gershon xxi
Shaftsbury, Earl of 295n4
Shahian, Abdel Aziz 33n84
Shah of Iran 184, 201, 208
Shakespeare, William 100
Shamir, Yitzak 252
Shamir, Yoav 235
Shapira, Anita 31n61, 134
Shapira, Yonatan 75, 303
Sharon, Ariel
election of 212
massacre in Qibya and 155
pacification of West Bank and 185
refugee camp massacres and 181
second Intifada and 205
settlement building and 175
siege of Gaza and 206, 207
war on Arab terror and 81, 206
Shatila refugee camp massacre 180, 181, 185, 288
Shavit, Ari 134, 140n6, 235, 236, 279, 280
Sheikh, Fazal 291
Sheikh Jerrah, East Jerusalem 50, 58
Shepherd, Matthew 277
Sherman, Matt 74
Shlaim, Avi 32n71, 133
Shula Aloni’s story 246
Siegman, Henry 202, 287
Sierra Leone 106
Simon Wiesenthal Center 80
Sinai Peninsula 175, 177, 181, 183, 184, 270n120
Six Day War (1967)
as “defensive war,” 162 163
expulsions and 170, 257
Israeli control of historic Palestine and 11, 19, 58, 126, 164, 165, 170–176
New Historians and xxi
Palestinian story from 145
situation leading to 161, 162, 165
as war of choice 174
slap heard ‘round the world 246
slavery 5, 77, 99, 101, 106, 107, 274
Slovak Republic 84
slow genocide 241
Smith, Adam 315
Smith, Charles D. 179
Sneh, Ephraim 235, 299n52
socialism 102, 103, 118, 134, 147
social media, positive effects of 293
sociocide, as term xvi, 254, 258, 259, 262, 310 ethnic cleansing/sociocide
Somoza, Anastasio 239
Soros, George 108
South Africa, apartheid system in 15, 58, 200, 245–252, 263, 274, 306
Soviet Union.Russia
Cold War and 152, 153, 155, 199
collapse of 80, 188, 199
invasion of Hungary 156, 164
Jews from 123
Occupation and resistance and 176
Yom Kippur War and 181
spaciocide 259
Spain 84, 85, 208, 316
sperm smuggling 312
Spielberg, Steven 105
Spinoza, Baruch 98, 284
starvation 243, 256
state-sponsored violence 293
State Stamp Law (1949) 173
Stephens, Bret 21
Straights of Tiran 162, 183
Straw, Jack 128
Streisand, Barbara 105
The Structure of Scientific Revolutions (Kuhn) 173
Sudan 201
Suez Canal 127, 156, 162, 183, 236
Suez Crisis, xvi 149, 156
suicide bombings 72, 204, 205, 250
summer circus camp 54
sumud, 51
Sunni states 311
superpatriots, blacks as 81
superpowers
in ancient Israel/Palestine 15, 16
as collective actor in conflict 13, 15, 16
in decolonization era 152–156, 165
Occupation and resistance and 176–78, 189
peace process and 200, 201, 219
in pre-state period 124–129, 139
recent domination in Palestine 16, 20
two-state solution and 198
suppression 44
Sykes, Mark 126
Sykes-Picot agreement 119, 126–128, 130, 139
Syria.ISIS (Islamic State in Iraq and Syria)
agricultural sector damage 131
Arab Jews in 149
army invasion of Israel 137
civil war in 237
current 185
in decolonization era 154–156
desertification and 292
destruction in xx
Egypt’s rivalry with 161
Fatah support by 161, 163
Madrid Conference and 208, 209
Palestine imagined as province of 130
peace deal offered to Israel 270n120
refugee camps in 10, 11, 157, 159
refugees from 237
Six Day War and 162–164
support of Palestinian factions by 179
United Arab Republic and 156
unrest in 201
Yom Kippur War and 181, 183
Tabar, Linda 270n117
Taba Talks (2001) 67, 211, 212, 221
Tacitus 195
Tahrir Square 293
Tamimi, Ahed 50, 249, 256
Tamimi, Bassem 273, 288
Tamimi, Bilal and Manal 49
Tamimi, Mostafa 49
Tanzimat land reforms 125, 126, 139
Taybeh Beer Brewery 53
Teach for America 79
tear gas canisters 311
Tel Aviv, Israel 55, 148, 314
Ten Point Program 192n76
terrorism 252, 286
Tessler, Mark 26
Thant, U 163
Thrall, Nathan 270n120
three-family story 253
Three No’s of Khartoum 23, 177
Thucydides 169
TIAA-CREF 316
torture 243, 244
Transjordan option 25, 33n85, 137
tribalism 282, 285
Truman, Harry 153, 154
Truman Doctrine 153
Trump, Donald
anti-Semites and 108
dismantling of affirmative action programs 99
disregard of international law by xviii, xx, 221
Israeli over-reaching and xix
race relations and 78
trade war with China and 292
U.S. Embassy to Jerusalem by 221, 286, 311
white supremacist demonstrators and 22
Tulkarem, West Bank 209, 312
Tunisia
Arab Spring in 201
Madrid Conference and 209
Palestinian Diaspora in 86, 138
PLO and 181, 185, 187–189, 202, 203
Turkey
Arab Jews in 149
Gaza flotillas 124, 184, 218, 219, 227n98
“iron wall” and 184
Israeli alliance with 155, 184
population transfers and 85
regional power struggles and xx, 201, 234
revised Hamas charter and 23
Turks.Ottoman Empire
Tutu, Desmond 3, 12, 245, 247
24 (TV show) 81
two-state solution
alternatives to 93n98
apartheid and 247
failure of 57, 58
first Intifada and 187, 188
great powers and 198
Green Line and 11, 24
human rights standards and 12
Israeli settlements and 175, 176
Khartoum Declaration and 220
land division and 56
national liberation struggle and 214, 217
origins and resurfacing of 86
Rabat Declaration and 207, 208
Resolution 181 and 308
unpopularity of 317
UAR (United Arab Republic) 156, 162
UDHR (Universal Declaration of Human Rights) 67–68
Uganda 118
Ukraine 85, 124
Ulpan plan 123
Ulrich’s story 240, 241
ultra-Orthodox Jews 103, 108, 134
Um al Fahm, Israel 253
Um Kammal 50
U.N. Conciliation Commission on Palestine (UNCCP) 160, 161
UNESCO 218, 236
U.N. General Assembly
on Fourth Geneva Convention, Article 49 71
recognition of Palestine as observer state 24, 69, 218, 236, 287
recognition of PLO as observer entity 182
Resolution 181 9, 70, 86, 135, 153, 177, 308
Resolution 194 70
U.N. High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) 160, 161
U.N. Human Rights Commission/Council 80, 236
United Arab Emirates 86
United Arab Republic (UAR) 156, 162
United Kingdom 84, 85. Great Britain
United Nations.International Court of Justice
boycott movement and 236
Committee on the Elimination of Racial Discrimination (CERD) 69
at Madrid Conference 208
Occupation and 176–178
Palestinian Authority and 238, 259
partitioning of historic Palestine 9, 10, 135, 160, 184
protocols for protecting refugees 160
Six Day War and 163
Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR) 67
upgrading of Palestine’s status 69, 215, 216, 218, 236
Zionism and 283
United States
American Indians in 76, 77
anti-Arab, anti-Muslim prejudice in 78–81
anti-Semites and 108
Arab world and 275, 276
Arafat and PLO rejected by 188
Bill of Rights 68, 295
climate change and 291, 292
Cold War and 152
colonization and decolonization of 262, 288
democracy vs. Jewishness and 57
Egypt rejected by 156
end of slavery in 274
expulsion of Palestinians and 275
funding of enemies of enemies 238, 239
GI Bill of Rights 77, 99
importance in conflict 317, 318
invasion of Iraq 206, 212
Israel as liability to 237
Israeli-American alliance 154, 181, 182, 184, 198, 199, 206, 286
Israeli police instructors in 295
Israelis living in 104
Israel’s special relationship with 130, 131
Jewish community in 57, 58
multiculturalism and 261
Occupation and resistance and 176, 178
occupation of Germany 173
oil interests 78, 153, 154
Operation Protective Edge and 314
operations in Israel/Palestine 16, 20
Pakistani immigrants to 77
Palestinian Authority and 210, 218
Palestinian elections and 216
peace process and 188, 198, 200, 205–209, 211, 212, 305
race relations in 76, 77, 78, 197
revised Hamas charter and 23
Russian Jews and 199, 209
Six Day War and 163, 164
Yom Kippur War and 181
Zionists in 280, 283
Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR) 67
universalism/universal humanism xxi, 59, 281, 282, 284, 285
university campuses, prejudice on 79
U.N. Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (OCHA) 55, 107
U.N. Relief and Works Agency (UNRWA) xxiii n14, 28n25, 160, 161
U.N. Security Council
on Fourth Geneva Convention, Article 49 71
Resolution 242 70, 176–178, 183, 211
Resolution 338 211
Uris, Leon 275
U.S. Department of the Interior 154
Use of Hebrew Date Law (1998) 173
U.S. Presbyterian Church 270n117
U.S. State Department 45, 164, 175
Venezuela 78
Veolia 316
Verwoerd, Hendrik 245
Vietnam, French in 288
Vietnamese Liberation Front 163
Vietnam War 164, 176
vigilantism 41, 45, 311
village leagues 185
violence
ahistorical presentation of 5
settler 41, 43, 48, 239
state-sponsored 293
used to control Palestinians 37, 39, 40, 239
voter suppression 101, 102, 110n18
Wadi al Na’am, Israel 54
Wadi Rasha (village) 205
Wailing (Western) Wall in Old City 134, 149, 174
The Waiting Room (Said-Foqahaa) 169, 170
Al Walejeh 174
Wall Street Journal, 238
Waltz with Bashir (film) 288
Wannsee Conference 243
The Wanted 18 (film) 187
waqf, Islamic 9, 22
War of Independence 10, 110n15, 137–139, 154, 236. Nakba (the Catastrophe)
Watergate scandal 181
water shortages 209, 210, 213, 220
Waxmann, Rivka and Haim 145
Weber, Max 65, 110n11
Weissglass, Dov 207, 243
Weizman, Eyal 291
Weizmann, Chaim 119, 255, 256
“We Killed Jesus, We’re Proud of it” (YouTube video) 21
welfare 172, 197
West Bank
annexation possibility 245, 260, 317
containment in 46
division into areas 12, 209, 210, 213, 220
efforts to achieve Palestinian state in 182, 187, 188
efforts to pacify 185
first Intifada and 201, 202
flying checkpoints in 244
“Freedom Rides” in 53
Israeli bureaucratic domination in 40, 43, 44
Israeli control of 11, 181–183, 185, 196, 207, 210
Israeli military courts in 159
Israeli raid on 155
Jewish settlements in 29n28, 41, 50, 175, 198, 217, 257, 260
Jordanian control of 10, 137, 138, 155, 156, 177
Palestinian Authority and 216
Palestinian population in 11
Rabat Declaration and 207
refugee camps in 10, 11, 157
Samaritans in 14, 30n43, 59, 63n75
separation barrier appropriation of land in 46, 204
two-state solution and 188
violence against Israelis in 238
West Beirut, Lebanon 180
Western Sahara 201
White Paper (1921) 132
White Paper (1939) 133, 134, 147
white supremacist groups xx, 22
Who Profits? 37, 55, 314
Wilson, Woodrow 119
witchcraft accusations of Pilgrims 104
Wolfe, Alan 282
Wolfe, Patrick 252
women’s rights 61n49, 73, 107, 146, 147
World Trade Organization (WTO) 78, 233, 234, 293
World War I 119, 126, 127
World War II
Great Britain and 134, 139
human rights framework and 67
reduced to Holocaust 81
refugees from 147
Zionism and 9, 135
World Zionist Organization (WZO) 118, 139, 307
wrestling team held hostage 179
WTO (World Trade Organization) 78, 233, 234, 293
Wye River memorandum 211, 221
WZO (World Zionist Organization) 118, 139, 307
Yad La’achim, 320n22
Yakoub’s story 51
Yasmine’s story 95
Yehoshua, A.B. 283
Yemen 78, 149, 150, 201, 292
Yesha (Settlement) Council 41
Yishuv, 123, 134, 135, 257
Yitzachi, Aryeh 145
Yom Kippur War (1973) 91n63, 181–183, 189, 236, 304
Young, Cynthia 81
Yuri’s story 74
Yuval’s story 303
Zangwill, Israel 255, 274, 295n4
Zeidan, Mohammad 171
Ziadeh, Rafif 54
Zionism 95–112, 273–301. pre-state period in history of ZionismZionists
anti-Semitism and 9, 97, 98, 108, 255, 261, 277
back-to-Africa movement compared to 107–109
claim to ownership of Israel/Palestine 17, 86, 87, 133, 196
as colonization 232, 276–280
cultural vs. political 278
ethnic cleansing/sociocide and 134, 137, 138, 143n79, 255–262, 274, 276–280
European liberalism and 89n30
fear of assimilation and 117, 140n6, 279, 283
genocide framework and 240, 242
global empires and 84
globalization and 289–295
history of 9, 135, 307, 308
Holocaust and 9, 97, 134, 135, 148, 275, 278, 290
human rights violations and 8
inversion of 104
“iron wall” strategy and 184
Israeli-Palestinian conflict and 13–17, 97, 98
Jewish critics of 108, 274
Jewish homeland vs. Jewish state and 8, 55
Jewish-Muslim relations prior to 13, 14, 30n42
as Jewish nationalism 308
moral untenability of 274–276
nationalist movement of 84, 86
and new anti-Semitism xix
“new Jews” and 148, 149
origins of 117, 273, 285
Palestinian nationalism and 129, 279
parallels to back-to-Africa movement 107–109
pioneering mentality 7, 27n21
psychology of 134, 135
racism and 261, 274
rejection of 280, 281
safety and 284–289
as self-ghettoization 280–284
settler colonialism and 254
shared ancestry with Palestinians and 18
universal vs. particular and 282, 285
Zionist Commission for Palestine 123
Zionist Congress, eighth (1907) 256
Zionist Congress, fifth (1901) 120
Zionist Congress, first (1897) 118, 255
Zionist Organization 107, 118, 120, 123, 130
Zionists.Zionism
Christian xx, 15, 108, 109, 274, 295n7
expulsion of Palestinians byexpulsion of Palestinians
one-state solution and 56
Partition Plan and 135, 139
Peel Commission Report and 132
in pre-state period 117–124, 132, 139
“soft,” 278
in United States 280, 283
use of force and 19, 31n61
Zochrot (Remembrance) 37, 55, 312
Zonszein, Mairav 320n22

Understanding Israel/Palestine

Race, Nation, and Human Rights in the Conflict (Second Edition)

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