Bibliography

Note: Published primary and secondary sources are listed in alphabetical order by the author or editor’s last name, or when more appropriate, by the name of the first major word of the title. Belgian names, such as Sophie De Schaepdrijver and Herman Van Goethem, are alphabetised under “D” and “V” respectively. In the footnotes, sources are identified in most cases by the names of the authors or editors, followed by the year of publication in parenthesis. Where relevant, document, volume, and page numbers are indicated. On occasion, short titles are used to identify a source. In the case of published documentary collections, the appropriate abbreviation is employed. There are many essays from collections cited in this work. To save space, publication information is only included in the main entry in the Bibliography under either the names(s) of the editor(s) or under the title.

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AbbenhuisMaartje. “‘Too Good to Be True?’ European Hopes for Neutrality before 1914,” pp. 2755. Chapter Two in Small Powers in the Age of Total War 1900–1940. Edited by Herman Amersfoort and Wim Klinkert. 2011.

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AbbenhuisMaartje. An Age of Neutrals: Great Power Politics 1815–1914. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press2014.

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Acta: Colloquium over de Geschiedenis van de belgisch-nederlandse Betrekkingen tussen 1815 en 1945/Colloque historique sur les relations belgo-néerlandaises entre 1815 et 1945. Brussels 10–12 December 1980. Ghent: D.V. Drukkerij Erasmus1982.

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Actes du Colloque d’Histoire militaire belge (1830–1980)/Akten van het Colloquium over de Belgische Krijgsgeschiedenis (1830–1980). Brussels 26–28 March 1980. Edited by Hervé Gérard. Brussels: Musée Royal de l’Armée/Koninklijk Legermuseum1981.

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Actes du Colloque international sur l’oeuvre d’Henri de Man. Colloquium held at Université de Genève Faculté de Droit 18–20 June 1973. Edited by Ivo Rens. 3 vols. Geneva: Université de Genève, Faculté de droit1974.

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Actes du Colloque Roi Albert/Handelingen van het Colloquium Koning Albert. Colloquium held in Brussels 26–29 May 1975. Edited by Carlos Wyffels. Brussels: Archives Générales du Royaume—Algemeen Rijksarchief1976.

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AfflerbachHolger and David Stevenson eds. An Improbable War? The Outbreak of World War I and European Political Culture before 1914. Foreword by Jimmy Carter. New York and Oxford: Berghahn Books2007; paperback edition 2012.

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AgiusChristine. The Social Construction of Swedish Neutrality: Challenges to Swedish Identity and Sovereignty. Manchester: Manchester University Press2006.

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AhlundClaes ed. Scandinavia in the First World War: Studies in the War Experience of the Northern Neutrals. Lund: Nordic Academic Press2012.

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AlexanderMartin S. “Repercussions: The Battle of France in History and Historiography: The French View,” pp. 181205. In The Battle of France and Flanders 1940: Sixty Years On. Edited by Brian Bond and Michael D. Taylor. 2001.

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AllisonGraham. “The Thucydides Trap,” pp. 7379 (notes p. 234). Chapter 6 in The Next Great War? The Roots of World War I and the Risk of U.S.-China Conflict. Edited by Richard N. Rosecrance and Steven E. Miller. 2015.

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BailesAlyson J. K. Jean-Marc Rickli and Baldur Thorhallsson. “Small states, survival and strategy,” pp. 2645. Chapter 2 in Small States and International Security: Europe and Beyond. Edited by Clive ArcherAlyson J. K. Bailes and Anders Wivel. 2014.

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BaillieSasha. “The seat of the European Institutions: An example of small-state influence in the EU,” pp. 465479. In Le rôle et la place des petits pays en Europe au XXe siècle/Small Countries in Europe: Their Role and Place in the XXth Century. Edited by Gilbert Trausch. 2005.

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BakichSpencer. Review of Abbenhuis Maartje. An Age of Neutrals: Great Power Politics 1815–1914. H-Diplo H-Net Reviews (January 2015): http://www.h-net.org/reviews/showrev.php?id=42388.

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BalaceFrancis. La Guerre de Sécession et la Belgique: documents d’archives américaines 1861–1865. Leuven: Éditions Nauwelaerts1969. (a)

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BalaceFrancis. En marge de la Guerre de Sécession: recrutements en Belgique pour les troupes fédérales. Brussels: Musée Royal de l’Armée et d’Histoire Militaire1969. (b)

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BalaceFrancis. L’armurerie liégeoise et la Guerre de Sécession 1861–1865. Liège: Éditions de la Commission Communale de l’Histoire de l’Ancien Pays de Liège1978.

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BalaceFrancis. La Belgique et la Guerre de Sécession 1861–1865 étude diplomatique. 2 vols. Paris: Les Belles Lettres1979.

BalaceFrancis. “Pierre Nothomb et les autres nationalistes belges,” pp. 6278. In Pierre Nothomb et le nationalisme belge de 1914 à 1930. 1980.

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BalaceFrancis. “La Droite belge à l’aide de Franco.” In La Belgique et la guerre civile d’Espagne/België en de Spaanse Burgeroorlog. Edited by José Gotovitch and Els Witte. Special issue of RBHC/BTNG 18 nos. 3–4 (1987) 505689.

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BalaceFrancis. “Justice in Post-War Belgium: Popular Pressures and Political Realities,” pp. 133156. In The Politics of Retribution in Europe: World War II and Its Aftermath. Edited by István DeákJan T. Gross and Tony Judt. 2000.

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BalaceFrancis. “‘Plus royalistes que le roi?’ Les mouvement léopoldistes,” pp. 253301. In Léopold III. Edited by Michel DumoulinMark Van den Wijngaert and Vincent Dujardin. 2001.

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BalaceFrancis. “Paul-Henri Spaak face à l’annexionnisme français (1944–1945),” pp. 103128. In Paul-Henri Spaak et la France: Actes du Colloque organisé à l’occasion de la remise par la Fondation Paul-Henri Spaak à l’Université Catholique de Louvain des CD-roms reproduisant les Archives de Paul-Henri Spaak Louvain-la-Neuve 15–16 mai 2006. Edited by Geneviève DuchenneVincent Dujardin and Michel Dumoulin. 2007.

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BalaceFrancis ed. Jours de sursis. Vol. 1 of Jours de guerre. Brussels: Crédit Communal de Belgique1990.1

1The Jours de guerre in 24 volumes recounting the Second World War as experienced by the Belgians were based on a television series broadcast between 1989 and 1995 on the Radio Télévision Belge Francophone (rtbf)-Charleroi. The reader should check under the name of the editor for the contents of each volume.Contents: “Foreword” by François Narmon and “Preface” by Jean-Philippe Art p. 5; “Introduction” by Francis Balace p. 7; “De Pierlot I à Pierlot IV” by Jean-Michel De Waele pp. 9–19; “Sauver le paix” by Sabine Peeters pp. 21–27; “Économie d’abord” by Jean-Michel De Waele pp. 29–40; “Il faut bien vivre pourtant…” by Frans Selleslagh pp. 43–49; “Des colis ... et des jeux” by Alain Colignon pp. 51–58; “Quelle Belgique neutre?” by Jacques Willequet pp. 61–71; “‘Tout homme a deux patries…’: Les Wallons antineutralistes” by Alain Colignon pp. 73–80; “Censure vous avez dit censure?” by Francis Balace pp. 83–92; “Une défense très passive” by Yves Bastin pp. 95–101; “Les étrangers suspects” by Maxime Steinberg pp. 103–108; “Haro sur les communistes” by José Gotovitch pp. 111–119; “Les ‘honorables correspondants’” by Étienne Verhoeyen pp. 121–125; “‘Cinquième colonne’: mythe et réalité” by Dirk Martin pp. 127–131; “Nos services discrets” by Francis Balace pp. 133–141.

BalaceFrancis ed. Les dix-huit jours. Vol. 2 of Jours de guerre. Brussels: Crédit Communal de Belgique1990.

Contents: “Introduction” by Francis Balace p. 5; “31 août 1939: le premier sang” by Alain Colignon pp. 7–9; “Sur la mer pas de sursis…” by Francis Balace pp. 11–20; “Neutralité = défense tous azimuts?” by Jean Vanwelkenhuyzen pp. 23–29; “Police du ciel” by Francis Balace pp. 31–41; “Quelle armée pour la Belgique?” by Francis Balace pp. 43–61; “D’alerte en alerte” by Jean Vanwelkenhuyzen pp. 63–69; “Les ponts du canal Albert” by Luc De Vos pp. 71–81; “Parachutite espionite… et pagaille” by Francis Balace pp. 83–93; “Seul entre Meuse et Ourthe Boncelles tient…” by Michel Viatour pp. 95–103; “Ostkantone” by Alain Colignon pp. 105–113; “La reddition de Gand: légende et vérité” by Peter Taghon pp. 115–123; “Hitler et les Flamands” by Jean Stengers pp. 125–133.

BalaceFrancis ed. Jours de défaite I. Vol. 3 of Jours de guerre. Brussels: Crédit Communal de Belgique1991.

Contents: “Introduction” by Francis Balace p. 5; “Mai 40: où étaient donc nos cocardes?” by Michel Terlinden pp. 7–25; “Une guerre de malentendus perdue en six jours…” by Francis Balace pp. 27–67; “Abbeville 20 mai 1940: la bavure” by Dirk Martin pp. 69–79; “La rupture de Wijnendale: un récit inédit” by Jean Stengers pp. 81–91; “Knesselaere dernière victoire” by Colonel bem André Minguet pp. 93–101.

BalaceFrancis ed. Jours de défaite II. Vol. 4 of Jours de guerre. Brussels: Crédit Communal de Belgique1991.

Contents: “Introduction” by Francis Balace p. 5; “Fors l’honneur. Ombres et clartés de la capitulation belge” by Francis Balace pp. 7–50; “Le pèlerin de Bethléem” by Alain Colignon pp. 53–63; “Limoges 31 mai 1940: la déchirure” by Christine Denuit-Somerhausen Jean-Jacques Jespers and Francis Balace pp. 65–100; “Ordre de rejoindre: les ‘16–35 ans’” by Alain Colignon pp. 103–113; “Une armée oubliée: les troupes belges en France” by Francis Balace pp. 115–129; “La liberté aux échecs” by Jean-Paul Harroy pp. 131–132.

BalaceFrancis ed. Jours de chagrin I. Vol. 5 of Jours de guerre. Brussels: Crédit Communal de Belgique1991.

Contents: “Introduction” by Francis Balace p. 5; “Le grand exode” by Jean Vanwelkenhuyzen pp. 7–16; “Vinkt Meigem et Deinze: quand les légendes deviennent ‘verités’” by Peter Taghon; “Des ruines de sang ...” by Alain Colignon pp. 37–52; “Le cardinal Van Roey de la neutralité à la présence” by Alain Dantoing pp. 55–67; “La politique du Comité des Secrétaires généraux en 1940” by Mark Van den Wijngaert pp. 69–79; “Militärverwaltung” by José Gotovitch and Francis Balace pp. 81–101; “Police allemande! La mise en place” by Éric Paquot pp. 103–117.

BalaceFrancis ed. Jours de chagrin II. Vol. 6 of Jours de guerre. Brussels: Crédit Communal de Belgique1992.

Contents: “Introduction” by Francis Balace p. 5; “Missions britanniques et réseau Martiny-Daumerie” by Étienne Verhoeyen pp. 7–18; “Le chemin malaisé de Londres” by Jean Vanwelkenhuyzen pp. 21–32; “Chronologie des tribulations gouvernementales” by Francis Balace pp. 34–37; “La tête sur le billot: la question juive en 1940” by Maxime Steinberg pp. 39–62; “Secours d’hiver Secours d’Hitler” by Alain Colignon pp. 65–88; “Un bourgmestre entre accommodation et refus” by Dirk Martin pp. 91–101.

BalaceFrancis ed. Jours de lutte. Vol. 7 of Jours de guerre. Brussels: Crédit Communal de Belgique1992.

Contents: “Introduction” by Francis Balace p. 5; “Les ailes belges de la Bataille d’Angleterre” by Colonel e.r. Gustave Rens pp. 7–13; “Abyssinie 41: Du mirage à la victoire” by Christine Denuit-Somerhausen and Francis Balace pp. 15–48; “La Légion Belge” by Colonel e.r. Victor Marquet pp. 51–71; “L’heure des saboteurs” by Étienne Verhoeyen pp. 73–89; “La ‘grève des 100.000’” by José Gotovitch pp. 91–100.

BalaceFrancis ed. Jours noirs. Vol. 8 of Jours de guerre. Brussels: Crédit Communal de Belgique1992.

Contents: “Introduction” by Francis Balace p. 5; “Première page cinquième colonne” by Alain Colignon pp. 7–31; “Robert Poulet ou la Grande Illusion” by Alain Dantoing pp. 33–55; “Rex 40–41: l’engrenage de la trahison” by Francis Balace pp. 57–109; “La difficile naissance d’une légion perdue” by Eddy De Bruyne pp. 111–127; “Les Wallons dirigeables” by Alain Colignon pp. 129–149.

BalaceFrancis ed. Jours gris. Vol. 9 of Jours de guerre. Brussels: Crédit Communal de Belgique1993.

Contents: “Introduction” by Francis Balace p. 5; “Le verre brisé des Pâques anversoises” by Maxime Steinberg pp. 7–15; “Moindre mal et bonne réputation” by Étienne Verhoeyen pp. 17–33; “Du désarroi à l’engagement: Les socialistes et la clandestinité” by Chantal Kesteloot pp. 35–47; “C.N.A.A. L’agriculture en rangs d’oignon” by Alain Colignon pp. 49–83; “La route de Londres” by Étienne Verhoeyen pp. 85–101; “La mission Hireling-Rhomboid” by Colonel e.r. Victor Marquet pp. 103–114.

BalaceFrancis ed. Jours de doute. Vol. 10 of Jours de guerre. Brussels: Crédit Communal de Belgique1994.

Contents: “Introduction” by Francis Balace p. 5; “Quelle Belgique dans l’Europe allemande?” by Francis Balace and Alain Colignon pp. 7–41; “L’aventure des Volontaires du Travail” by Francis Balace pp. 43–71; “Le pas de l’étoile” by Maxime Steinberg pp. 73–81; “‘Abwehr appelle Londres’: L’Englandspiel en Belgique” by Étienne Verhoeyen pp. 83–99; “Tessenerio 29 avril 1942: une erreur humaine?” by Bernard Balteau pp. 101–109; “Jours de terreur jours de doute...” by Étienne Verhoeyen pp. 113–124.

BalaceFrancis ed. Jours mêlés. Vols. 11-13 of Jours de guerre. Brussels: Crédit Communal de Belgique1997.

Contents: “Introduction” by Francis Balace p. 5; “Un essai d’embridgement: La Jeunesse Légionnaire” by Michel Simon pp. 7–33; “Le nouvel ordre communal” by Alain Colignon pp. 35–91; “Lieutenant de Winde-Kring ou le cercle des officiers disparus” by Rudi Van Doorslaer pp. 93–111; “1er février 1944 mort de François Bovesse: un assassinat-test?” by Francis Balace pp. 113–138; “L’Orchestre Rouge en Belgique 1939–1942?” by Étienne Verhoeyen pp. 141–159; “La ligne d’évasion Comète (août 1941-février 1943)” by Étienne Verhoeyen pp. 161–179; “Au service de la France?” by Étienne Verhoeyen pp. 181–197; “Les réseaux polonais libres en Belgique” by Alain Colignon pp. 199–211; “Colditz” by Jacques Van Der Heyden pp. 213–229.

BalaceFrancis ed. Jours barbelés. Vols. 14-15 of Jours de guerre. Brussels: Crédit Communal de Belgique1999.

Contents: “Foreword” by François Narmon p. 5; “Introduction” by Francis Balace pp. 7–9; “Les Territoires de la Mémoire” by Philippe Raxhon pp. 11–195; “Dans la nuit et le brouillard: Le décret Nacht und Nebel en Belgique” by Christine Denuit-Somerhausen pp. 197–217; “Logique et déraison: Rouages du système concentrationnaire” by Francis Balace pp. 219–253.

BalaceFrancis ed. Jours de Londres. Vols. 16-18 of Jours de guerre. Brussels: Dexia Banque2000.

Contents: “Introduction” by José Gotovitch pp. 5–7; “L’attitude des Belges à l’égard de La Grande-Bretagne avant la guerre” by Jean Stengers pp. 9–35; “La Résistance ‘de droite’: une anglophilie par défaut?” by Alain Colignon pp. 37–53; “Le gouvernement belge de Londres et de Gaulle” by Anne-Laure Boudaut pp. 55–77; “Tenby ou la genèse des Forces de Terre belges en Grande-Bretagne” by Luis Angel Bernardoy y Garcia pp. 79–107; “Les militaires belges en Grande-Bretagne” by Francis Balace pp. 109–125; “La Résistance belge vue de Londres: les cas du soe” by Étienne Verhoeyen pp. 127–169; “‘Adolphe doit rester’: L’extraordinaire histoire de Pat O’Leary” by Étienne Verhoeyen pp. 171–189; “La société belge de l’exil: un essai de synthèse” by Luis Angel Bernardoy y Garcia and Matthew Buck pp. 191–213; “Exils de femmes. Les réfugiées belges de Londres” by Françoise Raes pp. 215–233; “Les milieux d’affaires et le gouvernement de Londres” by Jean-François Crombois pp. 235–265; “Le personnel du hcse: un profil socioprofessionnel” by Eric Laureys pp. 267–283; “Les officiers de liaison belges et les missions de rapatriement” by Patrick Nefors pp. 285–313; “Les plans militaires de l’après-guerre” by Pascal Deloge pp. 315–335; “La Commission pour l’Étude des Problèmes d’Après Guerre” by Diane de Bellefroid pp. 337–349; “Les gouvernements en exil à Londres” by Martin Conway pp. 351–377; “Les hommes de Londres” by José Gotovitch and Cécile Vanderpelen pp. 379–403.

BalaceFrancis ed Jours libérés I. Vol. 19 of Jours de guerre. Brussels: Crédit Communal de Belgique1995.

Contents: “Introduction” by Francis Balace p. 5; “Quand un maquis d’Ardenne mettait ‘ses gros sabots’” by Colonel e.r. Victor Marquet pp. 7–21; “La surpenante libération d’Anvers” by Marc Van de Velde pp. 23–53; “La nuit la plus courte… La libération de Bruxelles” by Francis Balace pp. 55–79; “La ‘Poche de Mons’” by Colonel bem e.r. Henri Huet pp. 81–101; “La tuerie de Forêt-Trooz” by Colonel e.r. Victor Marquet pp. 103–125.

BalaceFrancis ed. Jours libérés II. Vol. 20 of Jours de guerre. Brussels: Crédit Communal de Belgique1995.

Contents: “Introduction” by Francis Balace p. 5; “La libération de Verviers” by Jacques Wynants pp. 7–17; “Charleroi-Namur la bataille des ponts” by Francis Balace pp. 19–39; “‘Pour votre liberté et la nôtre’” by Colonel bem e.r. Guy Van Poucke pp. 41–73; “Les hoquets de la liberté” by Francis Balace pp. 75–133.

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BauwensWernerArmand Clesse and Olav F. Knudsen eds. Small States and the Security Challenge in the New Europe. London: Brassey’s1996.

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BeaufaysJean. “Aspects du nationalisme belge au lendemain de la Grande Guerre.” AFDL 16 nos. 1–2 (1971) 105171.

BeaufaysJean. Les partis catholiques en Belgique et aux Pays-Bas: 1918–1958. Brussels: Émile Bruylant1973.

BeaufreGeneral André. Le drame de 1940. Paris: Plon1965.

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BêchetChristophe. Alfred von Schlieffen: l’homme qui devait gagner la Grande Guerre. Paris: Argos2013.

BêchetChristophe. “Les perceurs de Sedan: Violation de frontière et réactions belges pendant la guerre de 1870–1871.” JBH/RBHC/BTNG 46 no. 2 (2016) 7299.

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België een maatschappij in crisis en oorlog: 1940/Belgique une société en crise un pays en guerre: 1940. Transactions of the Colloquium held in Brussels from 22 to 26 October 1990. Edited by Dirk Martin and Alain Colignon. Brussels: Centre de Recherches et d’Études Historiques de la Deuxième Guerre Mondiale/Navorsings-en Studiecentrum voor de Geschiedenis van de Tweede Wereldoorlog 1993.

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België in de Tweede Wereldoorlog. 9 vols. Antwerp, Amsterdam, Kapellen, and Utrecht: Uitgeverij De Nederlandsche Boekhandel/Pelckmans1973–1990.2 2The volumes in this series were based on the television series that was broadcast in the 1970s and 80s on the brt (Belgische Radio en Televisie) which in January 1991 became the brtn (Belgische Radio en Televisie Nederlands) which in turn in January 1998 became the vrt (Vlaamse Radio-en Televisieomroeporganisatie). The most important and controversial broadcasts were those in 1982 by Maurice De Wilde on the “New Order” the “Collaboration” and the “Resistance.” The 7th volume never appeared in print. Individual volumes are listed by author.

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La Belgique et la Guerre. 4 vols. Brussels: Henri Bertels1920–23. Vol. 1: La vie matérielle de la Belgique durant la guerre mondiale (1920) by Georges Rency and Albert Stassart. Vol. 2: L’Invasion allemande (1921) by Joseph Cuvelier. Vol. 3: Les opérations militaires (1923) by Lt.-Col. M. Tasnier and Major Raoul van Overstraeten. Vol. 4: Histoire diplomatique 1914–1918 (1922) by Alfred De Ridder.

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Belgium. Académie Royale de Belgique/Koninklijke Academie van België. Documents diplomatiques belges 1941–1960: de l’indépendance à l’interdépendance/Belgische diplomatieke stukken 1941–1960: van onafhankelijkheid tot onderlinge afhankelijkheid. Edited by José GotovitchLuc De VosThierry Grosbois et al. 8 vols. Brussels: Académie Royale de Belgique/Koninklijke Academie van België1998–2009.

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Vol. 1: Le gouvernement de Londres/De Belgische regering te Londen 1941–1944. Edited by José Gotovitch with the collaboration of Caroline Sägesser and Markus Wunderle.

Vol. 2: Défense/Defensie 1941–1960. Edited by Luc De Vos Pascal Deloge Étienne Rooms and Jean-Michel Sterkendries.

Vol. 3: Benelux/Benelux. Edited by Frans De Pauw Thierry Grosbois and Tom Saelmaekers.

Vol. 4: Europe: aspects économiques/ Europa: economische aspecten. Edited by Ginette Kurgan-Van Hentenryk and Isabelle Sircjacobs with the collaboration of Michel Guinand Rosa Terrizzi and Hélène Van Praag.

Vol. 5: L’Europe: l’intégration politique/Europa: Politieke Integratie. Edited by Françoise Peemans with the collaboration of Thierry Grosbois and Paul-Éric Hanquet.

Vol. 6: Le statut de l’Allemagne/Het statuut van Duitsland. Edited by Paul De Visscher and Yves Lejeune with the collaboration of Thierry Grosbois and Jean-Luc Vandenbrouck.

Vol. 7: Conflits & crises/Conflicten en crisissen. Edited by Paul De Visscher and Yves Lejeune with the collaboration of Louis Dehin Baudouin Dupret Paul-Éric Hanquet Didier Nagant de Deuxchaisnes and Thierry Grosbois. Vol. 8: Territoires d’outre-mer/Overseese gebieden. Edited by Jacques Verlinden.

Belgium. Government Cabinet Minutes, 1919–1979. National Archives of Belgium at www.arch.be/conseildesministres.

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CohrsPatrick O. The Unfinished Peace After World War I: America Britain and the Stabilisation of Europe 1919–1932. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press2008.

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ConwayMartin. Collaboration in Belgium: Léon Degrelle and the Rexist Movement 1940–1944. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press1993.

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ConwayMartin. “Justice in Post-War Belgium: Popular Pressures and Political Realities,” pp. 133156. In The Politics of Retribution in Europe: World War II and Its Aftermath. Edited by István DeákJan T. Gross and Tony Judt. 2000.

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ConwayMartin. “Legacies of Exile: The Exile Governments in London during the Second World War and the Politics of Post-war Europe,” pp. 255274. Chapter 15 in Europe in Exile: European Exile Communities in Britain 1940–45. Edited by Martin Conway and José Gotovitch. 2001.

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ConwayMartin. “Belgium’s Mid-Twentieth Century Crisis: Crisis of a Nation-State?” RBHC/BTNG 35 no. 4 (2005) 573596. Special Issue edited by Patrick Pasture and entitled: Views from Abroad. Foreign Historians on Belgium.

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ConwayMartin. “The End(s) of Memory: Memories of the Second World War in Belgium.” JBH/RBHC/BTNG 42 nos. 2–3 (2012) 170187. (a)

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ConwayMartin and José Gotovitch eds. Europe in Exile: European Exile Communities in Britain 1940–45. New York: Berghahn2001.

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CookTheodore F. Jr. “The Chinese Discovery of the New World, 15th Century: What the expeditions of a eunuch admiral might have led to,” pp. 85104. In What If 2? The World’s Foremost Military Historians Imagine What Might Have Been. Edited by Robert Cowley. 2001; paperback 2002.

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CoolsaetRik. België en zijn buitenlandse politiek 1830–1990. Leuven: Uitgeverij Van Halewyck1998. Updated and augmented editions with the titles België en zijn buitenlandse politiek 1830–2000 and België en zijn buitenlandse politiek 1830–2015 were published in 2001 and 2014 respectively.

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CooperAndrew Fenton. “Controlling Vulnerability through Resilient Diplomacy: Antigua and the WTO Internet Gambling Dispute with the United States,” pp. 207218. Chapter 12 in The Diplomacies of Small States: Between Vulnerability and Resilience. Edited by Andrew Fenton Cooper and Timothy M. Shaw. 2009.

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CooperAndrew Fenton and Timothy M. Shaw. “The Diplomacies of Small States at the Start of the Twenty-first Century: How Vulnerable? How Resilient?” pp. 118. Chapter 1 in The Diplomacies of Small States: Between Vulnerability and Resilience. Edited by Andrew Fenton Cooper and Timothy M. Shaw. 2009.

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CooperAndrew Fenton and Timothy M. Shaw eds. The Diplomacies of Small States: Between Vulnerability and Resilience. New York: Palgrave Macmillan2009.

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CornelisHenri A. A. “Belgisch-Congo en Ruanda-Urundi tijdens de Tweede Wereldoorlog: De economische en financiële situatie,” pp. 5187. In Le Congo Belge durant la Seconde Guerre Mondiale: Recueil d’études/Bijdragen over Belgisch-Congo tijdens de Tweede Wereldoorlog. 1983.

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CorthalsMichèle. “Welke toekomst voor een bevrijd België? Hoe de Vlaamse verzetspers zich voorbereidde op het einde van de Tweede Wereldoorlog.” JBH/RBHC/BTNG 48 no. 3 (2018) 3663.

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CorumJames S. Olaf Mertelsmann and Kaarel Piirimäe eds. The Second World War and the Baltic States. Frankfurt am Main, New York, etc.: Peter Lang GmbH, Internationaler Verlag der Wissenschaften2014.

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CowleyRobert. “The What Ifs of 1914: The World War That Should Never Have Been,” pp. 261294. In What If? The World’s Foremost Military Historians Imagine What Might Have Been. Edited by Robert Cowley. 1999; paperback 2000. Among the possible decisions looked at here is London’s deciding to remain neutral.

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CowleyRobert ed. What If? The World’s Foremost Military Historians Imagine What Might Have Been. New York: G. P. Putnam’s Sons1999; The Berkley Publishing Group a division of Penguin Putnam Inc. (paperback) 2000.

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CowleyRobert ed. What If 2? The World’s Foremost Military Historians Imagine What Might Have Been. New York: G. P. Putnam’s Sons2001; The Berkley Publishing Group a division of Penguin Putnam Inc. (paperback) 2002.

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CoxMichael and Roger MacGinty. “Farewell to a Beautiful Idea: The End of Neutrality in the Post-Cold War World,” pp. 122134. Chapter 7 in Small States and the Security Challenge in the New Europe. Edited by Werner BauwensArmand Clesse and Olav F. Knudsen. 1996.

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CrahayLieutentant-Général E. R. Albert E. and Jo Gérard. Preface by Jean Vanwelkenhuyzen. Le général Van Overstraeten “Vice-Roi” en 1940. Braine-l’Alleud: Éditions J. M. Collet1990.

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CriekemansDavid and Manuel Duran. “Small State Diplomacy Compared to Sub-State Diplomacy: More of the Same or Different?” pp. 3145. Chapter 3 in Small States in Europe: Challenges and Opportunities. Edited by Robert Steinmetz and Anders Wivel. 2010.

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CromboisJean-François. Camille Gutt. Les finances et la guerre 1940–1945. Preface by Jean Godeaux et Michel Vanden Abeele. Brussels-Gerpinnes: ceges/Quorum1999 2000.

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CromboisJean-François. Camille Gutt and Postwar International Finance. London: Pickering & Chatto2011.

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CrookD. P. Diplomacy During the American Civil War. New York: Wiley1975.

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DebeufJasper. “Een werk van te weinig handen. Aanloop, redactie en inhoud van het ‘Politiek Testament’ (januari-juni 1944).” JBH/RBHC/BTNG 45 nos. 2–3 (2015) 154191.

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De BockWalter. Les plus belles années d’une génération: L’Ordre Nouveau en Belgique avant pendant et après la Seconde Guerre mondiale. Preface by Maurice De Wilde. Berchem: epo1983.

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De BruyneEddy. Les Wallons meurent à l’Est: la Légion Wallonie et Léon Degrelle sur le Front russe 1941–1945. Preface by Francis Balace. Brussels: Didier Hatier1991.

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