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Subject Index

Acquiescence98 , 147 , 155 , 315 , 341 , 357 , 436 , 484 , 509510 , 599611 , 615618 , 632 , 865
Antarctica107110 , 458460
Annexation141 , 155157 , 174175 , 188
Arbitration817 , 827 , 829 , 839860 , 863 , 868 , 869
As distinguished from judicial settlement844869
Applicable law854861
Compromissory clause898
Invalidity of the arbitral award861869
Revision of the arbitral award159 , 862 , 867
Bons offices821824
Boundaries150153 , 189 , 210 , 296 , 394 , 541 , 926
Cession155156
Codification129 , 299 , 347 , 369382
Conciliation817 827837 , 857
Condominium140
Conquest147 , 150
Debellatio147 , 150
Counter-measures551 , 740747 , 769 , 785787 , 793794
And State responsibility793795
And the Law of Treaties ( inexecution of a treaty as a ground of its termination/suspension ) 761765
Armed reprisals in time of peace746
As distinguished from reprisals740
Definition740
Conditions741 , 744747
Custom299304 , 314 , 318
Article 38 (1) b) of the icj Statute305
Ascertainment340344
Burden of proof344346
Codification125 , 129 , 299391 , 829
Custom as a source of pil306318
Customary process98 , 297 , 299 , 303304 , 314316 , 332337 , 341 , 366 , 378 , 382 , 411 , 459 , 560 , 565569 , 705
Opinio iuris334339
Persistent Objector (doctrine of)356365
Regional and Local Customs326 , 331333 , 359 , 459
States practice323334
States Acts323326
Dispute806836
Definition806809
Political and legal disputes819836
Obligation to settle by peaceful means809811
Doctrine
As law-determining agency (Article 38 (1) c) of the icj Statute268
Enforcement of pil ( Counter-Measures, State Responsibility ) 1619
Equity292294
Infra legem294 , 469
Praeter legem295 , 855
Contra legem295 , 855
General Principles of Law559577 , 603 , 622 , 623 , 630
High seas104 , 105 , 111
Immunities
Absolute immunity125128
Functional immunities of State organs131133
Personal immunities of State organs131133
Relative immunity125128
State Immunities122
Innocent Passage ( Territorial waters ) 93
Insurrectional Movement65 , 71 , 201 , 215220 , 232 , 640 , 644 , 654 , 691693 , 724
Internal (or Municipal) Law7 , 1517 , 30 , 87 , 98 , 120 , 152 , 180 , 185 , 192 , 201 , 228229 , 259 , 267 , 274285 , 306 , 347 , 371374 , 409 , 443445 , 450 , 512 , 560 , 569570 , 577 , 655 , 660 , 664 , 670 , 681 , 816 , 850 , 854 , 858 , 945
And pil ( Legal Pluralism ) 276295
International relevant and irrelevant118122
And inobservance of international obligations8587 , 283 , 513
International Law Commission (ilc)657 , 763
International Court of Justice (icj)14 , 869897
Article 38 of the icj Statute244
Advisory Opinions871882
Jurisdiction869 , 937
Jurisdiction as to jurisdiction889895
Optional Clause437 , 606609 , 912 , 930934
Permanent Court of International Justice (pcij)45 , 87 , 500 , 814 , 841845 , 853 , 888
International legal order (also international legal system)1 , 13 , 244 , 417 , 842
Definition5
Legal pluralism22 , 27 , 28 , 30
Ius cogens60 , 182 , 185 , 202 , 264 , 265 , 331 , 359 , 441 , 443 , 446 , 489 , 494 , 510 , 521 , 555 , 591 , 704 , 706 , 720 , 746 , 759 , 779 , 780 , 784 , 789 , 898
And Erga omnes obligations251256 , 259 , 261
Peremptory norms of pil521 , 523 , 543545 , 552
Ius Gentium23 , 3132 , 38 , 303 , 568
Iura novit Curia ( Custom ) 344 , 576 , 895 , 923 , 927
Legal personality20 , 51 , 52 , 53 , 5566 , 6869 , 72 , 89 , 132 , 155157 , 167 , 200 , 216 , 217 , 219221 , 224227 , 229232 , 284 , 395 , 452 , 457 , 648 , 692 , 883
Attributes of international legal personality52 , 66
Ius Contrahendi (Treaty-Making Power ) 63 , 66 , 68 , 856
Ius Legationis6568 , 224
Ius Standi6466 , 68 , 82
Erga Omnes feaure of5960
Independence as the ultimate requirement of5759
Maritime Spaces9496 , 101 , 103 , 104 , 363 , 926
Area (The)104105
Bays93 , 361 , 926
Continental Shelf96103 , 111 , 325 , 326 , 376 , 378 , 379 , 541 , 926
Economic Exclusive Zone (eez)95 , 102 , 103 , 104 , 111
High seas9496 , 101 , 104 , 105 , 111 , 338 , 363 , 742 , 756
Internal waters93 , 95 , 101 , 361
Territorial sea9396 , 100 , 101 , 111 , 361 , 394 , 599 , 926
Mediation205 , 583 , 603 , 815 , 817 , 822 , 823 , 825 , 826828 , 846
Modus vivendi396 , 599 , 618620
Non-Intervention (principle of)122 , 519 , 577
Non Self-Governing Territories ( Self-Determination ) 142 , 207
Occupation, as a means of acquisition of sovereignty76 , 96 , 105 , 108 , 118 , 145147 , 150 , 153 , 181184 , 195 , 198 , 211 , 223 , 224 , 355 , 671 , 672 , 681 , 670 , 706 , 707 , 922
Outer Space105 , 106 , 107 , 111
Palestine71 , 188 , 221223 , 232 , 809 , 880
Public international law15 , 1213 , 45 , 51 , 58 , 95 , 143 , 220 , 228229 , 303 , 489 , 567 , 570 , 601 , 610 , 628 , 630 , 638 , 727 , 733 , 840867
Anarchy and Organisation20
International legal order ( International Legal Order ) 1 , 5 , 717 , 1927 , 39 , 45 , 5186 , 104 , 115120 , 132140 , 178181 , 185 , 220 , 228231 , 237 , 240245 , 251 , 259 , 271277 , 282 , 285 , 307 , 310318 , 371375 , 407 , 410 , 417 , 443 , 510 , 517 , 522 , 523 , 535 , 539 , 554 , 565 , 568581 , 626 , 670 , 740 , 743 , 770 , 800 , 844851 , 856 , 857 , 863 , 890
Jusnaturalism2 , 44 , 45 , 623
Legal system2230 , 37 , 51 , 55 , 56 , 6169 , 71 , 110 , 125130 , 135 , 199 , 211 , 214 , 228229 , 237256 , 276285 , 290294 , 300302 , 344 , 374 , 393395 , 398 , 407 , 479 , 487495 , 503505 , 535 , 560 , 564578 , 599 , 637638 , 666 , 699 , 703 , 780 , 799 , 849850 , 856 , 857 , 859 , 869 , 882883
Legal pluralism22 , 2730
Positivism3132 , 39 , 44 , 178 , 238 , 306 , 358 , 364365 , 597 , 632
Primacy of pil10 , 19 , 276 , 285 , 444
Quisling Government ( Government, Effectiveness ) 117
As distinguished from Puppet State81 , 173 , 184 , 660 , 725
Recognition25 , 62 , 68 , 109 , 117 , 150151 , 157 , 165172 , 200204 , 209 , 221223 , 256 , 259 , 315 , 340343 , 356 , 366 , 394 , 396 , 522 , 562 , 587588 , 607611 , 614 , 783784 , 829 , 864 , 883 , 925
De iure and de facto171172 , 176
Conditional171
Belligerency, of215219 , 222
Government, of116118
Non-recognition109 , 115 , 172177 , 787
State, of38 , 166 , 926
And Effectiveness164 , 169 , 178180
Obligation of non-recognition (Stimson Doctrine)172177 , 779
Res iudicata (or ‘chose jugée’)576 , 609 , 840 , 880 , 885
Secession29 , 154155 , 157159 , 202206 , 208209 , 214 , 675 , 693
Self-Determination185 , 190202 , 205214 , 223 , 256 , 701 , 743 , 782
Indigenous Populations210212
Peoples76 , 149 , 187202 , 208214 , 256 , 386 , 495 , 693 , 701
Right of peoples to self-determination76 , 149 , 150 , 156 , 161 , 182 , 185189
Secession, as opposed to202209
Self-Help185 , 641 , 737 , 741 , 810
Soft Law72 , 295296
Sources of pil ( Treaties, Unilateral Acts, Custom, Doctrine, Jurisprudence, General Principles of Law, Equity, Ius cogens, Erga omnes obligations ) 31 , 306 , 319 , 573
Article 38 of the icj Statute245297 , 854
Hierarchy29 , 33 , 218 , 247248 , 260264 , 267268 , 277 , 285286 , 473 , 475 , 700 , 778779
Validity and Effectiveness240242
Article 103 of the United Nations Charter (unc)262265 , 447
Sovereignty ( State Sovereignty, Territory ) 10 , 44 , 58 , 6162 , 67 , 74 , 7881 , 8384 , 8790 , 9296 , 99101 , 103110 , 112 , 115 , 122 , 125 , 132141 , 143151 , 155 , 161 , 164 , 169 , 179 , 181 , 185 , 190 , 194195 , 205206 , 214 , 217 , 223 , 224 , 226 , 276 , 280 , 303 , 334 , 362 , 386 , 394 , 453 , 473 , 663 , 685 , 692 , 694 , 852
Definition77
Theories on territorial sovereignty79
State and Statehood89
Annexation155158 , 1745 , 536 , 737
Government114118
Principle of State continuity117 , 443 , 692
Recognition, of169
Effectiveness179
And insurrectional movement215220 , 691695
In exile117118
Independence5758 , 6164 , 7290 , 120125 , 131133 , 141 , 168 , 192 , 196 , 203 , 207 , 210 , 242
Population111114
Puppet States81 , 184 , 657658
Secession89 , 154155 , 157159 , 202206 , 208209 , 214 , 693
Annexation155157 , 174175 , 188
Separation of States162164
State boundaries150154
Statehood and principle of effectiveness7689
State territory81 , 9093 , 9596 , 101 , 111113 , 133 , 148 , 213218 , 223 , 419 , 918
Sovereignty58 , 6162 , 67 , 7781 , 8399 , 103112 , 122 , 125 , 133141 , 144150 , 155 , 161164 , 179185 , 194195 , 205207 , 214217 , 276 , 303 , 334 , 362 , 386 , 394 , 473
Sovereign State10 , 34 , 37 , 62 , 74232 , 849 , 926
Sovereign Rights88 , 90 , 94 , 9599 , 101 , 124 , 136 , 146 , 362 , 518 , 860
Subjects of pil5469 , 219 , 226 , 245 , 276 , 374 , 620 , 816
State Responsibility635800
Attribution (or Imputation)480 , 639 , 649696 , 728 , 760 , 766 , 794
Circumstances precluding wrongfulness639 , 653 , 683 , 727729 , 759
Content (Consequences) of International Responsibility726 , 765791
Reparation505 , 537538 , 695701 , 713715 , 721 , 743744 , 761 , 765778 , 786788 , 792802
Restitutio in integrum765 , 767 , 771 , 773
Compensation544 , 749750 , 760761 , 772777 , 781
Satisfaction765 , 772 , 775778 , 835
Counter-measures505 , 551 , 740748 , 766769 , 785789 , 793794 , 886
Culpa (fault)637639 , 649 , 749
Due diligence111 , 686 , 691 , 693699 , 722
State organs123 , 131 , 162 , 323 , 409 , 590 , 592 , 618 , 654667 , 678680 , 708 , 714 , 755 , 829
Ultra vires acts of State organs664669
Wrongfulness (or violation)184 , 260 , 367 , 517518 , 648653 , 683 , 688 , 695 , 708709 , 727732 , 754764
Tacit Agreement ( Treaties, definition ) 304 , 306 , 320 , 332334 , 596 , 611 , 614615 , 618620
As distinguished from oral agreement454
Territory
Insula in flumine nata148
Mode of acquisition of a territorial title146148
Special territorial situations138146
Territory-object134136
Territorial sovereignty79 , 9399 , 107110 , 133140 , 146149 , 195 , 205206
Territorial title146149 , 459 , 611
Territory-subject136
Kompetenztheorie136137
Transnational Corporation227231
Treaties393556
Absolute invalidity516523
Accession108 , 130 , 309 , 355 , 412417 , 423 , 429431 , 437 , 588 , 912
Application, of
Personal452453
Temporal445449
Territorial449452
Classification of treaties according to their making423426
Clausula rebus sic stantibus (Fundamental change of circumstances)538540 , 546 , 627
Coercion114 , 510 , 516518 , 554 , 591 , 724725 , 731732
Corruption515 , 516 , 554 , 591 , 731 , 867
Denunciation44 , 505 , 507 , 527531 , 539542 , 546549 , 553 , 588 , 620 , 624625 , 762763 , 929
Error513515 , 524 , 591 , 729 , 758 , 865
Fraud188 , 514515 , 524 , 554 , 575 , 591 , 649 , 731
Inexecution of a Treaty as a ground of termination/suspension531536
Interpretation189 , 193 , 249 , 262263 , 270274 , 287 , 339 , 341343 , 374 , 385388 , 405 , 411 , 422 , 429 , 452 , 461473 , 480 , 501 , 574 , 586 , 593 , 611614 , 621 , 629 , 647 , 734736 , 786 , 806809 , 816 , 837 , 846 , 872 , 908910 , 923
Methods of interpretation439 , 477 , 482 , 491 , 838
Pacta sunt servanda40 , 43 , 228 , 256 , 398 , 420 , 441442 , 527 , 539 , 546 , 595597 , 764 , 858
Pathology of international treaties503504 , 507
Procedure regarding suspension, termination and invalidity509510 , 524536 , 549556
Under the 1969 Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties (vclt)506508 , 525 , 549554
Under customary international law549554
Violation, of553554
Ratification88 , 119 , 130 , 162164 , 167 , 353 , 355 , 379 , 397 , 403 , 412417 , 421 , 423 , 425429 , 431 , 436437 , 452453 , 460 , 465 , 477 , 509 , 513 , 529 , 588 , 864 , 912 , 920921
Relative invalidity508 , 512516 , 524
Registration397 , 422 , 423424 , 929
Reservations to treaties426440
Signature397 , 408 , 410429 , 436437 , 516 , 588 , 826 , 900
Source of international law41 , 299 , 560563 , 573 , 621622 , 794
Succession with regard to treaties446449
Suspension37 , 254 , 407 , 443 , 447 , 503504 , 506510 , 524527 , 530534 , 536543 , 545550 , 552555 , 588 , 607 , 728 , 742 , 745 , 762764 , 900
Termination38 , 110 , 254 , 399 , 407 , 443 , 447 , 452 , 456 , 481482 , 503510 , 524534 , 536542 , 545550 , 552556 , 588 , 593 , 595 , 607 , 611 , 727 , 728 , 730 , 763764 , 900 , 929931 , 933
Travaux préparatoires119 , 268 , 305 , 318319 , 376 , 423 , 445 , 450 , 456 , 468 , 472476 , 481 , 501 , 517519 , 560 , 566 , 663 , 734 , 736 , 879 , 907 , 909 , 916
Treaties over Time421 , 445446 , 527
Treaty-Making Power ( Ius Contrahendi ) 61 , 64 , 82 , 407 , 410 , 413417 , 480 , 512 , 618 , 660 , 858
Unlawful object521523
Withdrawal89 , 125 , 177 , 210 , 250 , 254 , 416 , 420421 , 456 , 465 , 477 , 505 , 507 , 524 , 529 , 546548 , 594 , 625 , 730 , 742 , 783 , 915 , 919 , 927 , 929933
Unilateral Acts15 , 246 , 295 , 346 , 394 , 579580 , 583 , 587594 , 596 , 598 , 914
Declaration102 , 143 , 147 , 161 , 167186 , 206207 , 341 , 351 , 401 , 580596 , 911935
Legal nature37 , 116 , 133 , 141 , 220 , 229230 , 383 , 396 , 405 , 428429 , 529 , 595 , 647 , 672 , 776 , 848 , 911
Notification161162 , 339 , 394 , 412 , 420 , 452 , 551552 , 583 , 588589 , 606 , 744 , 931
Promise1 , 538 , 589
Protest39 , 147 , 250 , 308 , 331 , 341 , 394 , 588589 , 602 , 605 , 619 , 720 , 769 , 808
Recognition165177
Renunciation109 , 130 , 155 , 341 , 509510 , 589 , 732
United Nations Charter14 , 127 , 174 , 182 , 239 , 258 , 563 , 782
Vereinbarung (Theory of)4042 , 4445