Free access
Indexagricultural collectivisation154, 161, 169, 211aims of102youdai policies in164agricultural cooperatives174, 207Agricultural Producers’ Cooperatives (APC)104, 152, 169agriculturesocialisation of104socialist transformation of146All-China Federation of Industry and Commerce (ACFIC)106All-China Federation of Returned Overseas Chinese (ACFROC)171, 172, 177, 182, 205, 221All-Union Communist Party (Bolsheviks)40American huaqiao representatives30, 34American imperialism29, 71Chinese people’s hatred toward75haiwai huaqiao opposition to73ancestral graves114destruction of218huaqiao180, 218non-huaqiao181repudiation of203anti-bourgeois struggle233anti-CCP propaganda128–129, 210anti-Chinese violence225‘anti-rash advance’ perspective of1956 201Anti-Rightist Rectification (1958)147, 185, 186, 193, 195, 196, 199, 222, 233–234‘Great Debate’ sessions188renewal of224resentment against215August First manifesto (1935)as basis for Second CCP-GMD United Front27of Chinese Soviet Republic26–27Bandung Conference (1955)133Bank of China (BOC)17, 53instructions to promote remittances in RMB70bourgeois families154, 229bourgeois idealism155Bo, Yibo68, 84–85, 197British Exchange Controls58British sovereignty, over Malaya and Singapore130‘building the country with diligence and thrift,’ principle of198–199, 203capital investment91, 153, 239in national construction74Central Finance and Economics Commission (CFEC)44, 53, 69, 92guidelines on huaqiao remittance53Central People’s Government (CPG)Organic Law of46, 48Central-South Land Reform Committee85Changshan Farm207Chen, Qiyou182, 183Chen, Yun44, 53, 68, 103introduction of ‘unified sale and purchase’108Chiang, Kai-shek25–26, 76China and the Overseas Chinese (1972)3, 14, 16Chinese Academy of Social Sciences (CASS)7n14Chinese Civil War23, 25, 162end of94onset of29Chinese communism196Chinese Communist Party (CCP)1, 29agenda for socialist transformation5approach tofeminism229n13New Democracy39qiaowu4consolidation of political power35democratic coalition government23, 25domination post-Civil War36‘favoured treatment’ for huaqiao13‘first generation’ leaders7General Line (1952) for agrarian collectivisation19‘high tide’ principles195Land Reform Campaign (1952)11, 36Land Reform policies60, 62May Day slogans (1948)29–30New China under38nod to huaqiao political role27one-Party domination40plan to export revolution14pre-Cultural Revolution qiaowu policies2Preparatory Committee37relation with GMD28revolutionary agenda of11Seventh Party Congress (1945)27South China Bureau83, 90, 97, 116united front with Guomindang (GMD)26victory over the GMD40Chinese countryside, categorisation of62Chinese diaspora3, 15Chinese national bourgeoisie84Chinese People’s Political Consultative Conference (CPPCC)32, 37, 44Common Program of.Common Program (CPPCC)Eighth Plenum219–220First Plenary Session of47foundational documents of the PRC46haiwai huaqiao representation in47National Committee of47New Democracy and228Organic Law of46–47patriotic credentials38Preparatory Committee of38, 41–42huaqiao delegation46as representatives of CCP46Standing Committee of45Chinese People’s Volunteers68Chinese Soviet RepublicAugust First manifesto (1935)26Civil Affairs Department72class struggle77in countryside62Cold War12, 13, 68, 228collective property218collectivisation campaign143, 233Common Program (CPPCC)46–47, 228approval of47implementation of51mandate for qiaowu53New China’s proto-constitutional234promise to ‘facilitate remittances’237protection of huaqiao interests56Communist Party of the Soviet Union (CPSU)161–162Confucian value system, collapse of229n13congress of people’s representatives39contradictions, idea of230–234correct qiaowupractitioners of7reification of7counterrevolutionary funds153Cultural Revolution1–2, 21, 35, 67, 99, 224, 230struggles of a guiqiao family during231currency exchanges, of remittances53, 78democratic coalition government23, 25, 32, 36, 39, 41democratic dictatorship28democratic personalities40–41, 200Deng, Xiaoping1, 6, 230intention to restore qiaowu2Deng, Zihui76–77, 166, 170departmental selfishness187Diaoyu Islands239Dikötter, Frank11, 76n124, 95, 174, 212n87disposal of land, measures governing66dual nationality rights, renunciation of82–83, 132–133Dual Nationality Treaty (1955)14, 170negotiations for133duty of care228East China Administrative Committee91East China Finance Committee (ECFC)49, 55, 57East Guangdong Party Committee116, 118, 123economic cold war69, 69n86, 228economic developmentinvestment in69Mao’s vision of195economic migration66economic rationalisation9, 20, 24, 41–42, 49–50, 154, 200, 228, 233economic realism7–8, 10–11, 19, 40economic realpolitik24economic recovery, of China41, 53–55, 102economic sabotage126economic sanctions69Eighth Party Congress (1956)12, 18, 147, 170, 173, 175, 192, 201endorsement of youdai233First Session of205General Line203Party Group’s February report205Second Session of203Eighth Plenum219–220Eighth Route Army43Electoral Law (1953)96, 130equal treatment, principle of188, 190, 204eradication of huaqiao privileges230Expanded Conference on Banking Affairs58, 73, 131exploited classes62‘facilitating huaqiao remittances, and serving the huaqiao,’ principle of99Fang, Fang86, 121, 147, 151, 163, 193n227, 197–198, 203, 219proposal for national qiaolian171farm labourers100feminism, CCP’s approach to229n13feng shui181feudalism25, 80, 81, 91, 99feudal landlords88‘first generation’ CCP leaders7Fitzgerald, Stephen14–16, 211n82China and the Overseas Chinese (1972)14Five Antis enemies85, 94–95Five Principles of Peaceful Coexistence132–133Five Year Plan, of economic construction96, 101, 106–107wastefulness of108food and goods allocation, directive on155foreign currency56–57, 70Foreign Exchange Control Circular No. 17658huaqiao remittances as source of54, 202, 227Indonesian rupiah, devaluation of213preservation of54recipients in China55remittance smuggling and202foreign direct investment (FDI)149, 238n29foreign economic recessions115Foshan County CCP Committee204Fourth Expanded Conference18, 163, 166, 170, 182, 192, 233Fujian People’s Government (FPG)91–92Fujian Province CCP Committee (FPC)64–66elimination of landlord class and feudalist oppression65Fu, Zuoyi38Gang of Four1, 230–231gender equality136General Line propaganda (1952)98, 101, 103, 112, 150, 203–205, 220, 225, 233for agrarian collectivisation19economic features of102Liu Shaoqi’s re-statement of203, 207socialisation of agriculture104Gomulka, Wladyslaw174n137Government Administration Council (GAC)66–67, 69implementation of 1950 decree83Great Debate174–191, 193Great Leap Forward (GLF)4–6, 4n9, 12, 20n56, 185, 194, 195, 197, 213, 222, 224–225criticism of219food shortages212huaqiao capital for funding204huaqiao experience of212, 222intensification of203labour-as-education in215Mao’s idea of196mid-course correction for218OCAC’s propagandising of221precondition for201for qiaowu197–209, 219socialist revolution and198transition to the People’s Communes212Great Master34–35Great Movement to Resist America and Assist Korea68, 73Great Terror95great war of Liberation23Guangdong Land Reform, for eliminating feudalism85, 91Guangdong ‘localism’86Guangdong People’s Committee (GPPC)157, 180–181, 217Guangdong Qiaowu22, 120–121, 138, 143, 181, 188, 200Guangdong United Front Department206Guangzhou huaqiao207guiqiao (huaqiao returnees)4, 72–73international influence of199Japanese183mobilisation of212patriotic education for225problems regarding settlement of217self-help through production for99struggles during the Cultural Revolution231Guomindang (GMD)26, 33CCP victory over40huaqiao affairs37huaqiao suffering under oppression of47Nationality Laws27relation with CCP28guonei huaqiao83haiwai huaqiao (Overseas Chinese abroad)1, 4, 7, 16, 23, 44, 50, 51, 64, 71–72, 87, 94–96, 97, 107, 110, 114, 130, 167, 170, 186, 218, 221Dual National199opposition to American imperialism73PRC’s extension of democracy to130relation with huaqiao recipients228remittances to qiaojuan52subscription to PRC bonds52voting rights to132who retained Chinese nationality211Hearts for the Motherland (1979)231He, Xiangning49, 51, 72–74, 96, 101, 130, 168, 186higher education92, 165, 171, 183qiaosheng in235homeland–diaspora relationship170Hong Kong Dollar (HKD)49‘hooligans’ extorting remittances126huaqiao (Overseas Chinese)1–3, 97allocations of food/consumer goods148as ‘appropriate persons’ for the PCC24associations across Southeast Asia32capital investment in national construction74CCP’s favoured treatment for13, 14n38‘colonial’ connections15communication networks with the government78contributors to Chinese economy53dedication to national salvation29definition of4developing qiaowu for59diasporic identities of170direct investment by78dual nationality issue133dual nationality rights, renunciation of82–83economic utility of4, 197experience ofGreat Leap Forward (GLF)212New China231terror and violence11funding of national liberation43governance of4Hong Kong-based43inclusion in united front54internal unity with qiaojuan61investment in industry99investments in national investment companies128in Jinjiang County (Fujian)218n117Land Reform leniency for96legitimacy of8Nanyang (Southeast Asia) huaqiao26North American30openness and sincerity of34–48patriotic education towards226patriotic unity of61, 82–83, 98, 120, 166permissions to travel overseas218place in China’s political firmament26place in the New Democracy4, 24, 25–30policies designed to exploit and extract from197policies governing24political economy227–230preferential treatment of91property of218property rights and private investments135proprietary rights to their remittances113remittance earnings97remittances.remittances, huaqiaorights and interests, protection of6, 29, 47–48, 55, 231, 234, 236rights of118significance of238in socialist transformation184socio-economic relations of208special allowances for66subordination of191support for the communes218Taiwanese deception of183‘togetherness’ with the peasants218transnationality of4, 51, 71–72, 82–83views on China’s future26youdai policies for5huaqiao bourgeoisie109, 112huaqiao capitalism113, 139huaqiao capitalists112–113, 139huaqiao class status problems, legacies of117huaqiao community associations (qiaolian)165, 205huaqiao deposits, in credit cooperatives204, 213, 216huaqiao direct investment88–91areas for89political education and ideological mobilisation204huaqiao economy, development of65huaqiao enterprises78, 151integration with national economic development99huaqiao households64, 112, 115, 127, 148–149, 152, 155–157, 163–164, 187, 208huaqiao identity, marginalisation of24, 54, 190, 193huaqiao interests6, 49–50, 53–57, 61, 64–65, 75, 82–84, 92, 95–96, 116, 139, 141, 167, 191, 193, 194, 229–230, 234–237domestic72eradication of188favoured treatment for13, 19Land Reforms52management of223marginalisation of206and party-state’s economic imperatives50in philanthropy127protection of25, 29qiaowu program to aid29, 52related to party-state’s interests227revolutionary party representing30–31transnationality of4, 52, 61, 71–73, 134, 232youdai approach to secure5, 16huaqiao investment, in China49n115, 79, 89–91, 99, 124, 128, 149, 152–153, 164, 171, 187, 204, 216huaqiao investors124, 150, 153, 164huaqiao juanshu welfare59huaqiao labourdeficiencies of218mobilisation and distribution of208non-participation, issue of207restructuring of207settling of207strength of208utilisation of203voluntary and reasonable218huaqiao landlords65–67, 81, 83–84, 88, 118, 121, 134, 229, 233huaqiao marriages119, 123, 136huaqiao migration148–149huaqiao networks232huaqiao-owned property, tenants of116huaqiao philanthropy216huaqiao property, return of122–123, 135, 138–140, 156, 218huaqiao refugees, settlement of78, 87, 99, 226huaqiao State Farms217Hu, Feng162bourgeois idealism155Hu, Jingyun77, 79Hundred Flowers Campaign176, 184, 185, 222, 233CCP backlash against193criticisms of qiaowu in182Hungarian Uprising (1956)147, 174–175, 192imperialist-controlled countries79imperialist oppression58, 67Indonesian huaqiao221, 226anti-Chinese violence and225Indonesian rupiah, devaluation of213industrial and commercial landlords88industrial economy232information dissemination22, 79, 215n102Jiang, Zemin230jiaoxin bianlun206jiu zuo reforms218, 221Mao’s proposals to224joint state-private ownership150of enterprises105–106joint-stock enterprises106jus sanguinis27, 82, 132Khrushchev, Nikita161–162secret speech174Korean War52, 75, 84, 96China’s intervention in68–69, 94cost of the intervention in103Kovalev, Ivan V.40–41labour-as-education, in GLF215labour camps95labour deficiencies155, 157, 163, 190, 218–219land and houses, owned by Overseas Chinese63in huaqiao areas64landlord households66, 118landlords, huaqiao81, 83, 229destruction of76–77as feudal landlords88industrial and commercial88Land Reform leniency for134peasants attack on77‘political treatment’ of138treatment of67Land Reform Campaign (1952)11, 36, 60, 63Land Reform Law (1950)63, 66, 121Article 4 of67Article 6 of67Article 8 of67CCP CC discussion of64Land Reform programme52, 60, 77, 84acceleration of107assessments of101CCP cadres in charge of62depicting ‘struggle sessions’89deviations in qiaoxiang90for economic construction76for eliminating feudalism91experiences of qiaojuan in94huaqiao position in64impact on huaqiao remittances62, 69imperatives of64intensification of88, 90legacies of114legacies of deviations in107leniency for the huaqiao96in qiaoxiang60, 80, 100radicalisation of94, 96rectification of116socialist transformation during233South China Bureau of deviations in88ultra-Left deviations on62leadership of state enterprises107‘leftist deviationist’ behaviour, rectifications of219, 233letter writing campaign79Liao, Chengzhi1, 2n5, 29, 43, 59, 75, 80, 84, 87, 90, 96, 99, 107, 124, 128, 151, 190, 193, 196, 198, 219, 226April 1954 qiaowu statement109discussion of Land Reform deviations100editorial for the People’s Daily130‘positive management’ of qiaowu89promotion of labour productivity99–100rectification agenda114United Front Conference speech88Liao, Luyan80, 161, 169Li, Fuchun108Li, Hua-yu10Lin, Biao230Liu, Shaoqi102, 160, 172, 175, 203re-statement of the General Line203, 207livelihoods of huaqiao54Li, Weihan106, 170, 179Li, Xiannian161Luo, Lishi188–189, 200Lushan Conference (1959)4, 197, 215, 219, 221, 224, 225Lu, Yu-sun13Programs of Communist China for Overseas Chinese (1956)13Mainland Chinese historiography6–9male-female relations, with qiaojuan123Maoist China3, 9, 18, 227Mao, Zedong6, 23, 26, 47, 73, 146, 197, 227conversations with Mikoyan39directive on huaqiao usage of wasteland168General Line (1952)233‘high tide’ vision161ideological and political work198intervention in Korean War75Land Reform programme77New China’s future under47‘On the Ten Great Relationships’ speech162political ideology of222politics in command5, 195–224, 234proposals to jiu zuo224resurgence in1957–1958 233Sixth Supreme State Conference (SSC)145‘sixty theses’ on work198socialist high tide (1955–1956)145–146, 195, 233speeches at the Chengdu Conference198supremacy of leadership of233vilification of rightist enemies224vision ofeconomic development195revolutionary progress192socialist transformation195marginalisation, of huaqiao interests237Marriage Law (1950)93, 120n112, 136Marxist-Leninist orthodoxy67mass mobilisation83, 230mass political mobilisation195May Day slogans (1948)29–31, 36, 37May Fourth Movement180Mei CountyCredit Cooperatives116huaqiao208–209Mikoyan, Anastas34, 38–39military administrative committees63Ministry of Education (MOE)92Ministry of Foreign Affairs (MFA)21, 71, 237Model Articles of Association for Advanced Agricultural Producers’ Cooperatives169–170Mutual Aid Teams104, 121, 143Nan, Hanchen56, 59, 77, 79Nanyang Federation of China Relief Funds32Nanyang (Southeast Asia) huaqiao26national banks57, 74, 110national construction program106national defence government27national economic affairs, management of41National Economic Construction Bonds106, 126national economic plans100national economy, construction of68National Finance ConferenceFirst Session of54national liberation24, 42–43huaqiao funding of43national minorities46administration of16n47National People’s Congress (NPC)96Constitution Drafting Committee96National Propaganda Work Conference176, 178National United Front Conference87nation-building33New China53, 222under CCP35, 38, 47‘great construction’ with a ‘new era’ of qiaowu73historical political economy228huaqiao experience of231under leadership of Mao47New Democracy of.New Democracy of New Chinaportrayal of83propaganda towards the huaqiao97protection of huaqiao rights and interests224proto-constitutional Common Program234publicity for79New Democracy of New China4, 10, 23, 49, 84, 99, 228.united frontCCP’s creation of39, 41Chinese People’s Political Consultative Conference (CPPCC)228economic realism of8establishment of28–29, 41huaqiao place in4, 24, 25–30one-Party domination and40organised hypocrisy of228PBOC’s approach in the spirit of56reforms in35Right Deviationist mistakes102Soviet influence on40truly representative39Non-Aligned countries210non-huaqiaohouseholds67landlords65non-labour derived income67OCAC-PBOC memorandum129, 133‘One Belt, One Road’ initiative239‘overall consideration, appropriate arrangement,’ principle of198–199Overseas Chinese Affairs Bureau147–160Overseas Chinese Affairs Commission (OCAC)1, 26, 59, 61, 69, 74, 82–83, 92, 95–96, 214failures of199Fourth Expanded Conference18, 73, 99, 163, 166, 192, 233jiu zuo reforms proposed by218, 221memorandum regarding qiaojuan and guiqiao investment203–204new initiative for analysis of qiaowu200–201Party Group153, 163, 198, 216–218post-Lushan direction224propagandising of GLF221reforms regarding qiaowu in People’s Communes220report onPeople’s Communes218qiaowu90remittance inflow216Overseas Chinese Affairs Office1Overseas Chinese in the People’s Republic of China (2012)17–18Overseas Chinese Investment Corporations151, 153, 164, 216Overseas Chinese Investment Guidance Committee88Overseas orphans226overseas propaganda88Party Committee of Zhongshan County (Guangxi Province)83party-stateleadership6, 19–20, 96, 103, 142, 224policies98, 217patriotic educationto Chinese students abroad239for new guiqiao225towards huaqiao226Patriotic United Front87Peasant Associations79pecuniary pluralism, notion of235n21, 236–237Peng Dehuai Affair219–220People’s Bank of China (PBOC)17, 21, 59, 61, 69, 79–80, 82–83Guangdong Branch201instructions on huaqiao remittances53, 55official report onqiaowu90remittance77People’s Commune campaign208, 212–213, 215, 225allocation of food218criticism of220discontent over214‘freedom and security’ to huaqiao218huaqiao support for218labour deficiencies in219OCAC Party Group report on218OCAC’s reforms regarding qiaowu in220reforms of219People’s Daily126, 129–130, 160–162, 176, 185, 195–196, 222People’s Democratic United Front42, 46–47, 172haiwai huaqiao members47People’s Liberation Army (PLA)38, 46, 62–63advance on Tianjin and Beijing23in Chinese Civil War25regularization of23victory of35Winter Offensive25People’s Republic of China (PRC)1claims to the Diaoyu Islands239Communist control of75democratic coalition government23, 25establishment of47exports to the ‘capitalist countries’78foundation of4, 10documents of46history of communism in11history of qiaowu in3huaqiao identities24intervention in Korean War68–69, 94Nanjing regime and28National Assembly (1912)26national strength239one-party CCP rule10overseas Chinese remittances to241–242policies towards the huaqiao227radicalisation of13socialist identity of235trade deficit237United States’ economic Cold War against69–70People’s Scholarship funds110Perry, Elizabeth9Peterson, Glen17–18, 79, 93Polish October147, 174–175, 192Political Consultative Conference (PCC)25, 32, 47political economy238plan-ideological231plan-rational231of PRC’s policies towards the huaqiao227–230of qiaowu (Overseas Chinese affairs) policies3–6, 7, 10, 16, 83–84, 88, 92, 229–230collapse of237politics in command12, 195–224, 227, 230, 234promulgation of209qiaowu’s submission to212preferential treatment, policy of5, 91–92, 134private industry and commerce19, 101, 105–107private ownership of land, abolition of35, 104private property, legislative protections of229private urban industry and commerce106Programs of Communist China for Overseas Chinese (1956)13public display of patriotism106Puning’s qiaowu anthem209qiaojuan (huaqiao dependents and relatives)4, 23, 43, 60, 72–74, 166extramarital activity93internal unity with huaqiao61landholdings and labour101letter writing campaign79livelihoods of51semi-landlord with rich peasant status67travel documents78work groups of165qiaojuan escapes, causes of158–159qiaopi agencies58–60qiaopi couriers61, 78, 119, 125, 138qiaosheng72, 99, 165, 215, 229in higher education235returning to China for higher education183‘tuition schools’ for165in Xiamen University183qiaowu (Overseas Chinese affairs) policies1–2in1949–1959 5application of119Deng’s intention to restore2endorsement of82eradication of youdai in207exported revolution14‘favourable treatment’ (youdai) era52‘five fears’ and ‘five attitudes’200GLF-centric197–209historiography ofMainland China6–9socialist transformation9–13Western13–16history of3implementation of97–98key performance indicators of147mobilisation of212neglect of10in New China3origins of24, 228party-state’s approach to6, 22political economy of3–6, 7, 10, 16, 83–84, 88, 92, 147, 229–230collapse of237politics in command, impact of12professionalising of78Rectification for201South China Bureau’s Conference on90status of29submission to politics in command212vicissitudes of 1956–1957 for191youdai approach for5, 7qiaoxiang (Overseas Chinese hometowns)60, 64Land Reform in60, 80, 100quotas for huaqiao216racial discrimination225radicalised mobilisation77Rectification Campaign175, 176, 178–181, 183, 199Red qiaojuan205remittance-funded projects149remittances, huaqiao51, 80, 93cap on family remittances58Centre’s policies on protecting216CFEC’s guidelines on53clampdown on smuggling of201collapse of94, 212–213, 216commission on61Common Program’s promise to facilitate237considered as private property in perpetuity216currency exchanges of53delineation of54deposits without permission216development of98ECFC’s decision to allow to receive55efficiency of banks administering61exchange rates on real values of201facilitation of49Common Program for56different methods for58factors effecting flow of94in foreign currency.foreign currencyforeign restrictions on94‘four fears’ about78–79, 90‘hooligans’ extorting126impact of Land Reform policies on62, 69infringements of117land paid for by65‘methods of mobilisation’ to coerce deposits of216official channels for59as part of huaqiao identities54party-state’s strategic interest in securing52, 54, 57–58correlation with huaqiao55PBOC’s declaration on53, 55, 77to People’s Republic of China (1950–1960)241–242as pillar of relationships95policymaking95and political economy of qiaowu223pre-war58problems affecting59as profits of exploitation110proprietary rights of129protection of122to qiaojuan90qiaowu protections for98real value against RMB59received through Hong Kong58recipients’ rights to use127restrictions on58imperialists’59revitalisation of49rights and interests regarding219significance of113as source of foreign exchange54state banks’ policies on58strive for74transnationality of interests95utilitarian views of228utility of4, 6, 15, 24, 43–44, 48, 53values of foreign-denominated61willingness of remitters to send money55Renminbi (RMB)49, 55, 61BOC instructions to promote remittances in70rent and property disputes235revolutionary socialism222revolutionary struggle87–88, 102, 108, 116, 142, 192, 233–234rightist enemies, vilification of219, 224‘rush purchases’ of import materials69semi-landlord, with rich peasant status67Shandong Normal University155Shanghai CCP Committee (SPC)92Shanghai Conference (1959)216Shanghai Federation of Industry and Commerce150Shanghai Leading Group for Rectification202Shanghai People’s Government (SPG)72Shanghai United Front Department92Sino-Japanese War26Sixth Supreme State Conference (SSC)145Draft Agricultural Program for 1956–1967146smuggling of remittance212anti-smuggling campaign201clampdown on201due to appetite for foreign exchange202eradication of208social inequality180socialisation of agriculture104, 126socialist bloc countries237socialist collective ownership145socialist construction and production99, 232socialist education37, 138, 187, 203, 204, 221, 229socialist high tide (1955–1956)160, 166, 191, 195, 233collectivisation of private enterprises under175criticisms of161, 233renunciation of174socialist industrialisation98, 120accumulation of funds for119, 144aims of102socialist ownership106, 145, 150–151socialist revolution28, 36, 43, 145, 154, 190, 198, 232socialist transformation5–6, 116, 161, 166, 206, 215, 222, 230, 235of agriculture146of all private industry and commerce101–102CCP’s Land Reform programme for62–75demands of227disruption to huaqiao relationships237of domestic huaqiao investment153historiography of9–13huaqiao investment for75–94during Land Reform233legacies of an earlier attempt at107like another province overseas53–62Mao’s vision of195prerequisites of51results for qiaowu’s policy goals108as ‘unified sale and purchase’105Song, Qingling38–39South China Investment Company117Southeast Asian huaqiao34, 128, 198–199‘special market’ system184Sputnik satellite launches (1957)196Stalinist cult of personality161–162Stalin, Joseph10, 35–40, 42, 63, 161–162state capitalism (guojia ziben zhuyi)105–107, 109state-private ownership105, 139, 150Strauss, Julia11Sun, Yat-sen26, 38, 42Tongmenghui26surveillance of the masses95Taishan County207Tan, Kah Kee25, 30–32, 34, 46, 48, 96, 172as Chief Representative of huaqiao in CPPCC46events of September–October1949 47huaqiao associations32return to China33sending-off event33Tao, Zhu86, 91, 121, 147, 180–181tax revenues103tenants, of huaqiao-owned property116teshu ideas148eradication of203, 205, 207rectification of204‘Three Antis’ campaign83–84, 85, 94–95‘three good(s)’ policy210Tiananmen Square47trade deficit203, 237transnationality of interests19, 95, 228n12Trevelyan, Humphrey130, 132unified sale and purchase system103–105, 107–108, 117n99, 122–123, 126–127, 138, 140, 148, 155–156, 163, 177, 184, 187, 189, 235united front29anti-Japanese26between the CCP and Guomindang (GMD)26economic rationalisations50huaqiao inclusion in54Patriotic United Front87Shanghai United Front Department92United Front Work Department (UFWD)21, 26n10, 37, 102, 106, 151, 154, 182, 198vicissitudes of 1956–1957, for qiaowu191voluntarism, principle of106, 151voting rights, to haiwai huaqiao132Wang, Jingwei32Wang, Ming162war criminal38Westad, Odd Arne238Western views of qiaowu13–16women’s rights, suppression of229World War II (WWII)27Wu, Feng200Xi, Jinping239Chinese Dream3Xinhai Revolution (1911)42Xinhua News Agency29, 93–94, 122, 182, 214, 221Xi, Zhongxun230Xu, Wenyong6–7, 7n12Yalu River68youdai policies, for Overseas Chinese5, 11, 16, 92, 98, 140, 148, 163, 181, 218–219, 222, 227abandonment of5, 197, 207, 227in agrarian collectivisation164approach for coercion and exploitation7collapse of12Congress’ approval of174economic rationality of160Eighth Party Congress (1956) preference for12governing principle of236party-state’s practice of230practice of234provisions for huaqiao189qiaowu’s practice of112special circumstances of160–174towards huaqiao foreign investors164Yunnan People’s Government (YPG)113Zhang, Shu Guang10zhenfan campaign76, 84, 94–95Zhigong Party10n22, 30, 30n35, 31, 34, 182Zhongshan Committee85Zhou, Enlai38–39, 48, 53, 56, 73–74, 80, 84, 102, 132, 146, 160, 171, 179, 197Zhuang, Guotu8–9, 266Zhuang, Mingli138Zhu, Dandan175

The Price and Promise of Specialness

The Political Economy of Overseas Chinese Policy in the People’s Republic of China, 1949–1959