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Index

agricultural collectivisation 154, 161, 169, 211
aims of 102
youdai policies in 164
agricultural cooperatives 174, 207
Agricultural Producers’ Cooperatives (APC) 104, 152, 169
agriculture
socialisation of 104
socialist transformation of 146
All-China Federation of Industry and Commerce (ACFIC) 106
All-China Federation of Returned Overseas Chinese (ACFROC) 171, 172, 177, 182, 205, 221
All-Union Communist Party (Bolsheviks) 40
American huaqiao representatives 30, 34
American imperialism 29, 71
Chinese people’s hatred toward 75
haiwai huaqiao opposition to 73
ancestral graves 114
destruction of 218
huaqiao 180, 218
non-huaqiao 181
repudiation of 203
anti-bourgeois struggle 233
anti-CCP propaganda 128–129, 210
anti-Chinese violence 225
‘anti-rash advance’ perspective of 1956 201
Anti-Rightist Rectification (1958) 147, 185, 186, 193, 195, 196, 199, 222, 233–234
‘Great Debate’ sessions 188
renewal of 224
resentment against 215
August First manifesto (1935)
as basis for Second CCP-GMD United Front 27
of Chinese Soviet Republic 26–27
Bandung Conference (1955) 133
Bank of China (BOC) 17, 53
instructions to promote remittances in RMB 70
bourgeois families 154, 229
bourgeois idealism 155
Bo, Yibo 68, 84–85, 197
British Exchange Controls 58
British sovereignty, over Malaya and Singapore 130
‘building the country with diligence and thrift,’ principle of 198–199, 203
capital investment 91, 153, 239
in national construction 74
Central Finance and Economics Commission (CFEC) 44, 53, 69, 92
guidelines on huaqiao remittance 53
Central People’s Government (CPG)
Organic Law of 46, 48
Central-South Land Reform Committee 85
Changshan Farm 207
Chen, Qiyou 182, 183
Chen, Yun 44, 53, 68, 103
introduction of ‘unified sale and purchase’ 108
Chiang, Kai-shek 25–26, 76
China and the Overseas Chinese (1972) 3, 14, 16
Chinese Academy of Social Sciences (CASS) 7n14
Chinese Civil War 23, 25, 162
end of 94
onset of 29
Chinese communism 196
Chinese Communist Party (CCP) 1, 29
agenda for socialist transformation 5
approach to
feminism 229n13
New Democracy 39
qiaowu 4
consolidation of political power 35
democratic coalition government 23, 25
domination post-Civil War 36
‘favoured treatment’ for huaqiao 13
‘first generation’ leaders 7
General Line (1952) for agrarian collectivisation 19
‘high tide’ principles 195
Land Reform Campaign (1952) 11, 36
Land Reform policies 60, 62
May Day slogans (1948) 29–30
New China under 38
nod to huaqiao political role 27
one-Party domination 40
plan to export revolution 14
pre-Cultural Revolution qiaowu policies 2
Preparatory Committee 37
relation with GMD 28
revolutionary agenda of 11
Seventh Party Congress (1945) 27
South China Bureau 83, 90, 97, 116
united front with Guomindang (GMD) 26
victory over the GMD 40
Chinese countryside, categorisation of 62
Chinese diaspora 3, 15
Chinese national bourgeoisie 84
Chinese People’s Political Consultative Conference (CPPCC) 32, 37, 44
Common Program of.Common Program (CPPCC)
Eighth Plenum 219–220
First Plenary Session of 47
foundational documents of the PRC 46
haiwai huaqiao representation in 47
National Committee of 47
New Democracy and 228
Organic Law of 46–47
patriotic credentials 38
Preparatory Committee of 38, 41–42
huaqiao delegation 46
as representatives of CCP 46
Standing Committee of 45
Chinese People’s Volunteers 68
Chinese Soviet Republic
August First manifesto (1935) 26
Civil Affairs Department 72
class struggle 77
in countryside 62
Cold War 12, 13, 68, 228
collective property 218
collectivisation campaign 143, 233
Common Program (CPPCC) 46–47, 228
approval of 47
implementation of 51
mandate for qiaowu 53
New China’s proto-constitutional 234
promise to ‘facilitate remittances’ 237
protection of huaqiao interests 56
Communist Party of the Soviet Union (CPSU) 161–162
Confucian value system, collapse of 229n13
congress of people’s representatives 39
contradictions, idea of 230–234
correct qiaowu
practitioners of 7
reification of 7
counterrevolutionary funds 153
Cultural Revolution 1–2, 21, 35, 67, 99, 224, 230
struggles of a guiqiao family during 231
currency exchanges, of remittances 53, 78
democratic coalition government 23, 25, 32, 36, 39, 41
democratic dictatorship 28
democratic personalities 40–41, 200
Deng, Xiaoping 1, 6, 230
intention to restore qiaowu 2
Deng, Zihui 76–77, 166, 170
departmental selfishness 187
Diaoyu Islands 239
Dikötter, Frank 11, 76n124, 95, 174, 212n87
disposal of land, measures governing 66
dual nationality rights, renunciation of 82–83, 132–133
Dual Nationality Treaty (1955) 14, 170
negotiations for 133
duty of care 228
East China Administrative Committee 91
East China Finance Committee (ECFC) 49, 55, 57
East Guangdong Party Committee 116, 118, 123
economic cold war 69, 69n86, 228
economic development
investment in 69
Mao’s vision of 195
economic migration 66
economic rationalisation 9, 20, 24, 41–42, 49–50, 154, 200, 228, 233
economic realism 7–8, 10–11, 19, 40
economic realpolitik 24
economic recovery, of China 41, 53–55, 102
economic sabotage 126
economic sanctions 69
Eighth Party Congress (1956) 12, 18, 147, 170, 173, 175, 192, 201
endorsement of youdai 233
First Session of 205
General Line 203
Party Group’s February report 205
Second Session of 203
Eighth Plenum 219–220
Eighth Route Army 43
Electoral Law (1953) 96, 130
equal treatment, principle of 188, 190, 204
eradication of huaqiao privileges 230
Expanded Conference on Banking Affairs 58, 73, 131
exploited classes 62
‘facilitating huaqiao remittances, and serving the huaqiao,’ principle of 99
Fang, Fang 86, 121, 147, 151, 163, 193n227, 197–198, 203, 219
proposal for national qiaolian 171
farm labourers 100
feminism, CCP’s approach to 229n13
feng shui 181
feudalism 25, 80, 81, 91, 99
feudal landlords 88
‘first generation’ CCP leaders 7
Fitzgerald, Stephen 14–16, 211n82
China and the Overseas Chinese (1972) 14
Five Antis enemies 85, 94–95
Five Principles of Peaceful Coexistence 132–133
Five Year Plan, of economic construction 96, 101, 106–107
wastefulness of 108
food and goods allocation, directive on 155
foreign currency 56–57, 70
Foreign Exchange Control Circular No. 176 58
huaqiao remittances as source of 54, 202, 227
Indonesian rupiah, devaluation of 213
preservation of 54
recipients in China 55
remittance smuggling and 202
foreign direct investment (FDI) 149, 238n29
foreign economic recessions 115
Foshan County CCP Committee 204
Fourth Expanded Conference 18, 163, 166, 170, 182, 192, 233
Fujian People’s Government (FPG) 91–92
Fujian Province CCP Committee (FPC) 64–66
elimination of landlord class and feudalist oppression 65
Fu, Zuoyi 38
Gang of Four 1, 230–231
gender equality 136
General Line propaganda (1952) 98, 101, 103, 112, 150, 203–205, 220, 225, 233
for agrarian collectivisation 19
economic features of 102
Liu Shaoqi’s re-statement of 203, 207
socialisation of agriculture 104
Gomulka, Wladyslaw 174n137
Government Administration Council (GAC) 66–67, 69
implementation of 1950 decree 83
Great Debate 174–191, 193
Great Leap Forward (GLF) 4–6, 4n9, 12, 20n56, 185, 194, 195, 197, 213, 222, 224–225
criticism of 219
food shortages 212
huaqiao capital for funding 204
huaqiao experience of 212, 222
intensification of 203
labour-as-education in 215
Mao’s idea of 196
mid-course correction for 218
OCAC’s propagandising of 221
precondition for 201
for qiaowu 197–209, 219
socialist revolution and 198
transition to the People’s Communes 212
Great Master 34–35
Great Movement to Resist America and Assist Korea 68, 73
Great Terror 95
great war of Liberation 23
Guangdong Land Reform, for eliminating feudalism 85, 91
Guangdong ‘localism’ 86
Guangdong People’s Committee (GPPC) 157, 180–181, 217
Guangdong Qiaowu 22, 120–121, 138, 143, 181, 188, 200
Guangdong United Front Department 206
Guangzhou huaqiao 207
guiqiao (huaqiao returnees) 4, 72–73
international influence of 199
Japanese 183
mobilisation of 212
patriotic education for 225
problems regarding settlement of 217
self-help through production for 99
struggles during the Cultural Revolution 231
Guomindang (GMD) 26, 33
CCP victory over 40
huaqiao affairs 37
huaqiao suffering under oppression of 47
Nationality Laws 27
relation with CCP 28
guonei huaqiao 83
haiwai huaqiao (Overseas Chinese abroad) 1, 4, 7, 16, 23, 44, 50, 51, 64, 71–72, 87, 94–96, 97, 107, 110, 114, 130, 167, 170, 186, 218, 221
Dual National 199
opposition to American imperialism 73
PRC’s extension of democracy to 130
relation with huaqiao recipients 228
remittances to qiaojuan 52
subscription to PRC bonds 52
voting rights to 132
who retained Chinese nationality 211
Hearts for the Motherland (1979) 231
He, Xiangning 49, 51, 72–74, 96, 101, 130, 168, 186
higher education 92, 165, 171, 183
qiaosheng in 235
homeland–diaspora relationship 170
Hong Kong Dollar (HKD) 49
‘hooligans’ extorting remittances 126
huaqiao (Overseas Chinese) 1–3, 97
allocations of food/consumer goods 148
as ‘appropriate persons’ for the PCC 24
associations across Southeast Asia 32
capital investment in national construction 74
CCP’s favoured treatment for 13, 14n38
‘colonial’ connections 15
communication networks with the government 78
contributors to Chinese economy 53
dedication to national salvation 29
definition of 4
developing qiaowu for 59
diasporic identities of 170
direct investment by 78
dual nationality issue 133
dual nationality rights, renunciation of 82–83
economic utility of 4, 197
experience of
Great Leap Forward (GLF) 212
New China 231
terror and violence 11
funding of national liberation 43
governance of 4
Hong Kong-based 43
inclusion in united front 54
internal unity with qiaojuan 61
investment in industry 99
investments in national investment companies 128
in Jinjiang County (Fujian) 218n117
Land Reform leniency for 96
legitimacy of 8
Nanyang (Southeast Asia) huaqiao 26
North American 30
openness and sincerity of 34–48
patriotic education towards 226
patriotic unity of 61, 82–83, 98, 120, 166
permissions to travel overseas 218
place in China’s political firmament 26
place in the New Democracy 4, 24, 25–30
policies designed to exploit and extract from 197
policies governing 24
political economy 227–230
preferential treatment of 91
property of 218
property rights and private investments 135
proprietary rights to their remittances 113
remittance earnings 97
remittances.remittances, huaqiao
rights and interests, protection of 6, 29, 47–48, 55, 231, 234, 236
rights of 118
significance of 238
in socialist transformation 184
socio-economic relations of 208
special allowances for 66
subordination of 191
support for the communes 218
Taiwanese deception of 183
‘togetherness’ with the peasants 218
transnationality of 4, 51, 71–72, 82–83
views on China’s future 26
youdai policies for 5
huaqiao bourgeoisie 109, 112
huaqiao capitalism 113, 139
huaqiao capitalists 112–113, 139
huaqiao class status problems, legacies of 117
huaqiao community associations (qiaolian) 165, 205
huaqiao deposits, in credit cooperatives 204, 213, 216
huaqiao direct investment 88–91
areas for 89
political education and ideological mobilisation 204
huaqiao economy, development of 65
huaqiao enterprises 78, 151
integration with national economic development 99
huaqiao households 64, 112, 115, 127, 148–149, 152, 155–157, 163–164, 187, 208
huaqiao identity, marginalisation of 24, 54, 190, 193
huaqiao interests 6, 49–50, 53–57, 61, 64–65, 75, 82–84, 92, 95–96, 116, 139, 141, 167, 191, 193, 194, 229–230, 234–237
domestic 72
eradication of 188
favoured treatment for 13, 19
Land Reforms 52
management of 223
marginalisation of 206
and party-state’s economic imperatives 50
in philanthropy 127
protection of 25, 29
qiaowu program to aid 29, 52
related to party-state’s interests 227
revolutionary party representing 30–31
transnationality of 4, 52, 61, 71–73, 134, 232
youdai approach to secure 5, 16
huaqiao investment, in China 49n115, 79, 89–91, 99, 124, 128, 149, 152–153, 164, 171, 187, 204, 216
huaqiao investors 124, 150, 153, 164
huaqiao juanshu welfare 59
huaqiao labour
deficiencies of 218
mobilisation and distribution of 208
non-participation, issue of 207
restructuring of 207
settling of 207
strength of 208
utilisation of 203
voluntary and reasonable 218
huaqiao landlords 65–67, 81, 83–84, 88, 118, 121, 134, 229, 233
huaqiao marriages 119, 123, 136
huaqiao migration 148–149
huaqiao networks 232
huaqiao-owned property, tenants of 116
huaqiao philanthropy 216
huaqiao property, return of 122–123, 135, 138–140, 156, 218
huaqiao refugees, settlement of 78, 87, 99, 226
huaqiao State Farms 217
Hu, Feng 162
bourgeois idealism 155
Hu, Jingyun 77, 79
Hundred Flowers Campaign 176, 184, 185, 222, 233
CCP backlash against 193
criticisms of qiaowu in 182
Hungarian Uprising (1956) 147, 174–175, 192
imperialist-controlled countries 79
imperialist oppression 58, 67
Indonesian huaqiao 221, 226
anti-Chinese violence and 225
Indonesian rupiah, devaluation of 213
industrial and commercial landlords 88
industrial economy 232
information dissemination 22, 79, 215n102
Jiang, Zemin 230
jiaoxin bianlun 206
jiu zuo reforms 218, 221
Mao’s proposals to 224
joint state-private ownership 150
of enterprises 105–106
joint-stock enterprises 106
jus sanguinis 27, 82, 132
Khrushchev, Nikita 161–162
secret speech 174
Korean War 52, 75, 84, 96
China’s intervention in 68–69, 94
cost of the intervention in 103
Kovalev, Ivan V. 40–41
labour-as-education, in GLF 215
labour camps 95
labour deficiencies 155, 157, 163, 190, 218–219
land and houses, owned by Overseas Chinese 63
in huaqiao areas 64
landlord households 66, 118
landlords, huaqiao 81, 83, 229
destruction of 76–77
as feudal landlords 88
industrial and commercial 88
Land Reform leniency for 134
peasants attack on 77
‘political treatment’ of 138
treatment of 67
Land Reform Campaign (1952) 11, 36, 60, 63
Land Reform Law (1950) 63, 66, 121
Article 4 of 67
Article 6 of 67
Article 8 of 67
CCP CC discussion of 64
Land Reform programme 52, 60, 77, 84
acceleration of 107
assessments of 101
CCP cadres in charge of 62
depicting ‘struggle sessions’ 89
deviations in qiaoxiang 90
for economic construction 76
for eliminating feudalism 91
experiences of qiaojuan in 94
huaqiao position in 64
impact on huaqiao remittances 62, 69
imperatives of 64
intensification of 88, 90
legacies of 114
legacies of deviations in 107
leniency for the huaqiao 96
in qiaoxiang 60, 80, 100
radicalisation of 94, 96
rectification of 116
socialist transformation during 233
South China Bureau of deviations in 88
ultra-Left deviations on 62
leadership of state enterprises 107
‘leftist deviationist’ behaviour, rectifications of 219, 233
letter writing campaign 79
Liao, Chengzhi 1, 2n5, 29, 43, 59, 75, 80, 84, 87, 90, 96, 99, 107, 124, 128, 151, 190, 193, 196, 198, 219, 226
April 1954 qiaowu statement 109
discussion of Land Reform deviations 100
editorial for the People’s Daily 130
‘positive management’ of qiaowu 89
promotion of labour productivity 99–100
rectification agenda 114
United Front Conference speech 88
Liao, Luyan 80, 161, 169
Li, Fuchun 108
Li, Hua-yu 10
Lin, Biao 230
Liu, Shaoqi 102, 160, 172, 175, 203
re-statement of the General Line 203, 207
livelihoods of huaqiao 54
Li, Weihan 106, 170, 179
Li, Xiannian 161
Luo, Lishi 188–189, 200
Lushan Conference (1959) 4, 197, 215, 219, 221, 224, 225
Lu, Yu-sun 13
Programs of Communist China for Overseas Chinese (1956) 13
Mainland Chinese historiography 6–9
male-female relations, with qiaojuan 123
Maoist China 3, 9, 18, 227
Mao, Zedong 6, 23, 26, 47, 73, 146, 197, 227
conversations with Mikoyan 39
directive on huaqiao usage of wasteland 168
General Line (1952) 233
‘high tide’ vision 161
ideological and political work 198
intervention in Korean War 75
Land Reform programme 77
New China’s future under 47
‘On the Ten Great Relationships’ speech 162
political ideology of 222
politics in command 5, 195–224, 234
proposals to jiu zuo 224
resurgence in 1957–1958 233
Sixth Supreme State Conference (SSC) 145
‘sixty theses’ on work 198
socialist high tide (1955–1956) 145–146, 195, 233
speeches at the Chengdu Conference 198
supremacy of leadership of 233
vilification of rightist enemies 224
vision of
economic development 195
revolutionary progress 192
socialist transformation 195
marginalisation, of huaqiao interests 237
Marriage Law (1950) 93, 120n112, 136
Marxist-Leninist orthodoxy 67
mass mobilisation 83, 230
mass political mobilisation 195
May Day slogans (1948) 29–31, 36, 37
May Fourth Movement 180
Mei County
Credit Cooperatives 116
huaqiao 208–209
Mikoyan, Anastas 34, 38–39
military administrative committees 63
Ministry of Education (MOE) 92
Ministry of Foreign Affairs (MFA) 21, 71, 237
Model Articles of Association for Advanced Agricultural Producers’ Cooperatives 169–170
Mutual Aid Teams 104, 121, 143
Nan, Hanchen 56, 59, 77, 79
Nanyang Federation of China Relief Funds 32
Nanyang (Southeast Asia) huaqiao 26
national banks 57, 74, 110
national construction program 106
national defence government 27
national economic affairs, management of 41
National Economic Construction Bonds 106, 126
national economic plans 100
national economy, construction of 68
National Finance Conference
First Session of 54
national liberation 24, 42–43
huaqiao funding of 43
national minorities 46
administration of 16n47
National People’s Congress (NPC) 96
Constitution Drafting Committee 96
National Propaganda Work Conference 176, 178
National United Front Conference 87
nation-building 33
New China 53, 222
under CCP 35, 38, 47
‘great construction’ with a ‘new era’ of qiaowu 73
historical political economy 228
huaqiao experience of 231
under leadership of Mao 47
New Democracy of.New Democracy of New China
portrayal of 83
propaganda towards the huaqiao 97
protection of huaqiao rights and interests 224
proto-constitutional Common Program 234
publicity for 79
New Democracy of New China 4, 10, 23, 49, 84, 99, 228 . united front
CCP’s creation of 39, 41
Chinese People’s Political Consultative Conference (CPPCC) 228
economic realism of 8
establishment of 28–29, 41
huaqiao place in 4, 24, 25–30
one-Party domination and 40
organised hypocrisy of 228
PBOC’s approach in the spirit of 56
reforms in 35
Right Deviationist mistakes 102
Soviet influence on 40
truly representative 39
Non-Aligned countries 210
non-huaqiao
households 67
landlords 65
non-labour derived income 67
OCAC-PBOC memorandum 129, 133
‘One Belt, One Road’ initiative 239
‘overall consideration, appropriate arrangement,’ principle of 198–199
Overseas Chinese Affairs Bureau 147–160
Overseas Chinese Affairs Commission (OCAC) 1, 26, 59, 61, 69, 74, 82–83, 92, 95–96, 214
failures of 199
Fourth Expanded Conference 18, 73, 99, 163, 166, 192, 233
jiu zuo reforms proposed by 218, 221
memorandum regarding qiaojuan and guiqiao investment 203–204
new initiative for analysis of qiaowu 200–201
Party Group 153, 163, 198, 216–218
post-Lushan direction 224
propagandising of GLF 221
reforms regarding qiaowu in People’s Communes 220
report on
People’s Communes 218
qiaowu 90
remittance inflow 216
Overseas Chinese Affairs Office 1
Overseas Chinese in the People’s Republic of China (2012) 17–18
Overseas Chinese Investment Corporations 151, 153, 164, 216
Overseas Chinese Investment Guidance Committee 88
Overseas orphans 226
overseas propaganda 88
Party Committee of Zhongshan County (Guangxi Province) 83
party-state
leadership 6, 19–20, 96, 103, 142, 224
policies 98, 217
patriotic education
to Chinese students abroad 239
for new guiqiao 225
towards huaqiao 226
Patriotic United Front 87
Peasant Associations 79
pecuniary pluralism, notion of 235n21, 236–237
Peng Dehuai Affair 219–220
People’s Bank of China (PBOC) 17, 21, 59, 61, 69, 79–80, 82–83
Guangdong Branch 201
instructions on huaqiao remittances 53, 55
official report on
qiaowu 90
remittance 77
People’s Commune campaign 208, 212–213, 215, 225
allocation of food 218
criticism of 220
discontent over 214
‘freedom and security’ to huaqiao 218
huaqiao support for 218
labour deficiencies in 219
OCAC Party Group report on 218
OCAC’s reforms regarding qiaowu in 220
reforms of 219
People’s Daily 126, 129–130, 160–162, 176, 185, 195–196, 222
People’s Democratic United Front 42, 46–47, 172
haiwai huaqiao members 47
People’s Liberation Army (PLA) 38, 46, 62–63
advance on Tianjin and Beijing 23
in Chinese Civil War 25
regularization of 23
victory of 35
Winter Offensive 25
People’s Republic of China (PRC) 1
claims to the Diaoyu Islands 239
Communist control of 75
democratic coalition government 23, 25
establishment of 47
exports to the ‘capitalist countries’ 78
foundation of 4, 10
documents of 46
history of communism in 11
history of qiaowu in 3
huaqiao identities 24
intervention in Korean War 68–69, 94
Nanjing regime and 28
National Assembly (1912) 26
national strength 239
one-party CCP rule 10
overseas Chinese remittances to 241–242
policies towards the huaqiao 227
radicalisation of 13
socialist identity of 235
trade deficit 237
United States’ economic Cold War against 69–70
People’s Scholarship funds 110
Perry, Elizabeth 9
Peterson, Glen 17–18, 79, 93
Polish October 147, 174–175, 192
Political Consultative Conference (PCC) 25, 32, 47
political economy 238
plan-ideological 231
plan-rational 231
of PRC’s policies towards the huaqiao 227–230
of qiaowu (Overseas Chinese affairs) policies 3–6, 7, 10, 16, 83–84, 88, 92, 229–230
collapse of 237
politics in command 12, 195–224, 227, 230, 234
promulgation of 209
qiaowu’s submission to 212
preferential treatment, policy of 5, 91–92, 134
private industry and commerce 19, 101, 105–107
private ownership of land, abolition of 35, 104
private property, legislative protections of 229
private urban industry and commerce 106
Programs of Communist China for Overseas Chinese (1956) 13
public display of patriotism 106
Puning’s qiaowu anthem 209
qiaojuan (huaqiao dependents and relatives) 4, 23, 43, 60, 72–74, 166
extramarital activity 93
internal unity with huaqiao 61
landholdings and labour 101
letter writing campaign 79
livelihoods of 51
semi-landlord with rich peasant status 67
travel documents 78
work groups of 165
qiaojuan escapes, causes of 158–159
qiaopi agencies 58–60
qiaopi couriers 61, 78, 119, 125, 138
qiaosheng 72, 99, 165, 215, 229
in higher education 235
returning to China for higher education 183
‘tuition schools’ for 165
in Xiamen University 183
qiaowu (Overseas Chinese affairs) policies 1–2
in 1949–1959 5
application of 119
Deng’s intention to restore 2
endorsement of 82
eradication of youdai in 207
exported revolution 14
‘favourable treatment’ (youdai) era 52
‘five fears’ and ‘five attitudes’ 200
GLF-centric 197–209
historiography of
Mainland China 6–9
socialist transformation 9–13
Western 13–16
history of 3
implementation of 97–98
key performance indicators of 147
mobilisation of 212
neglect of 10
in New China 3
origins of 24, 228
party-state’s approach to 6, 22
political economy of 3–6, 7, 10, 16, 83–84, 88, 92, 147, 229–230
collapse of 237
politics in command, impact of 12
professionalising of 78
Rectification for 201
South China Bureau’s Conference on 90
status of 29
submission to politics in command 212
vicissitudes of 1956–1957 for 191
youdai approach for 5, 7
qiaoxiang (Overseas Chinese hometowns) 60, 64
Land Reform in 60, 80, 100
quotas for huaqiao 216
racial discrimination 225
radicalised mobilisation 77
Rectification Campaign 175, 176, 178–181, 183, 199
Red qiaojuan 205
remittance-funded projects 149
remittances, huaqiao 51, 80, 93
cap on family remittances 58
Centre’s policies on protecting 216
CFEC’s guidelines on 53
clampdown on smuggling of 201
collapse of 94, 212–213, 216
commission on 61
Common Program’s promise to facilitate 237
considered as private property in perpetuity 216
currency exchanges of 53
delineation of 54
deposits without permission 216
development of 98
ECFC’s decision to allow to receive 55
efficiency of banks administering 61
exchange rates on real values of 201
facilitation of 49
Common Program for 56
different methods for 58
factors effecting flow of 94
in foreign currency.foreign currency
foreign restrictions on 94
‘four fears’ about 78–79, 90
‘hooligans’ extorting 126
impact of Land Reform policies on 62, 69
infringements of 117
land paid for by 65
‘methods of mobilisation’ to coerce deposits of 216
official channels for 59
as part of huaqiao identities 54
party-state’s strategic interest in securing 52, 54, 57–58
correlation with huaqiao 55
PBOC’s declaration on 53, 55, 77
to People’s Republic of China (1950–1960) 241–242
as pillar of relationships 95
policymaking 95
and political economy of qiaowu 223
pre-war 58
problems affecting 59
as profits of exploitation 110
proprietary rights of 129
protection of 122
to qiaojuan 90
qiaowu protections for 98
real value against RMB 59
received through Hong Kong 58
recipients’ rights to use 127
restrictions on 58
imperialists’ 59
revitalisation of 49
rights and interests regarding 219
significance of 113
as source of foreign exchange 54
state banks’ policies on 58
strive for 74
transnationality of interests 95
utilitarian views of 228
utility of 4, 6, 15, 24, 43–44, 48, 53
values of foreign-denominated 61
willingness of remitters to send money 55
Renminbi (RMB) 49, 55, 61
BOC instructions to promote remittances in 70
rent and property disputes 235
revolutionary socialism 222
revolutionary struggle 87–88, 102, 108, 116, 142, 192, 233–234
rightist enemies, vilification of 219, 224
‘rush purchases’ of import materials 69
semi-landlord, with rich peasant status 67
Shandong Normal University 155
Shanghai CCP Committee (SPC) 92
Shanghai Conference (1959) 216
Shanghai Federation of Industry and Commerce 150
Shanghai Leading Group for Rectification 202
Shanghai People’s Government (SPG) 72
Shanghai United Front Department 92
Sino-Japanese War 26
Sixth Supreme State Conference (SSC) 145
Draft Agricultural Program for 1956–1967 146
smuggling of remittance 212
anti-smuggling campaign 201
clampdown on 201
due to appetite for foreign exchange 202
eradication of 208
social inequality 180
socialisation of agriculture 104, 126
socialist bloc countries 237
socialist collective ownership 145
socialist construction and production 99, 232
socialist education 37, 138, 187, 203, 204, 221, 229
socialist high tide (1955–1956) 160, 166, 191, 195, 233
collectivisation of private enterprises under 175
criticisms of 161, 233
renunciation of 174
socialist industrialisation 98, 120
accumulation of funds for 119, 144
aims of 102
socialist ownership 106, 145, 150–151
socialist revolution 28, 36, 43, 145, 154, 190, 198, 232
socialist transformation 5–6, 116, 161, 166, 206, 215, 222, 230, 235
of agriculture 146
of all private industry and commerce 101–102
CCP’s Land Reform programme for 62–75
demands of 227
disruption to huaqiao relationships 237
of domestic huaqiao investment 153
historiography of 9–13
huaqiao investment for 75–94
during Land Reform 233
legacies of an earlier attempt at 107
like another province overseas 53–62
Mao’s vision of 195
prerequisites of 51
results for qiaowu’s policy goals 108
as ‘unified sale and purchase’ 105
Song, Qingling 38–39
South China Investment Company 117
Southeast Asian huaqiao 34, 128, 198–199
‘special market’ system 184
Sputnik satellite launches (1957) 196
Stalinist cult of personality 161–162
Stalin, Joseph 10, 35–40, 42, 63, 161–162
state capitalism (guojia ziben zhuyi) 105–107, 109
state-private ownership 105, 139, 150
Strauss, Julia 11
Sun, Yat-sen 26, 38, 42
Tongmenghui 26
surveillance of the masses 95
Taishan County 207
Tan, Kah Kee 25, 30–32, 34, 46, 48, 96, 172
as Chief Representative of huaqiao in CPPCC 46
events of September–October 1949 47
huaqiao associations 32
return to China 33
sending-off event 33
Tao, Zhu 86, 91, 121, 147, 180–181
tax revenues 103
tenants, of huaqiao-owned property 116
teshu ideas 148
eradication of 203, 205, 207
rectification of 204
‘Three Antis’ campaign 83–84, 85, 94–95
‘three good(s)’ policy 210
Tiananmen Square 47
trade deficit 203, 237
transnationality of interests 19, 95, 228n12
Trevelyan, Humphrey 130, 132
unified sale and purchase system 103–105, 107–108, 117n99, 122–123, 126–127, 138, 140, 148, 155–156, 163, 177, 184, 187, 189, 235
united front 29
anti-Japanese 26
between the CCP and Guomindang (GMD) 26
economic rationalisations 50
huaqiao inclusion in 54
Patriotic United Front 87
Shanghai United Front Department 92
United Front Work Department (UFWD) 21, 26n10, 37, 102, 106, 151, 154, 182, 198
vicissitudes of 1956–1957, for qiaowu 191
voluntarism, principle of 106, 151
voting rights, to haiwai huaqiao 132
Wang, Jingwei 32
Wang, Ming 162
war criminal 38
Westad, Odd Arne 238
Western views of qiaowu 13–16
women’s rights, suppression of 229
World War II (WWII) 27
Wu, Feng 200
Xi, Jinping 239
Chinese Dream 3
Xinhai Revolution (1911) 42
Xinhua News Agency 29, 93–94, 122, 182, 214, 221
Xi, Zhongxun 230
Xu, Wenyong 6–7, 7n12
Yalu River 68
youdai policies, for Overseas Chinese 5, 11, 16, 92, 98, 140, 148, 163, 181, 218–219, 222, 227
abandonment of 5, 197, 207, 227
in agrarian collectivisation 164
approach for coercion and exploitation 7
collapse of 12
Congress’ approval of 174
economic rationality of 160
Eighth Party Congress (1956) preference for 12
governing principle of 236
party-state’s practice of 230
practice of 234
provisions for huaqiao 189
qiaowu’s practice of 112
special circumstances of 160–174
towards huaqiao foreign investors 164
Yunnan People’s Government (YPG) 113
Zhang, Shu Guang 10
zhenfan campaign 76, 84, 94–95
Zhigong Party 10n22, 30, 30n35, 31, 34, 182
Zhongshan Committee 85
Zhou, Enlai 38–39, 48, 53, 56, 73–74, 80, 84, 102, 132, 146, 160, 171, 179, 197
Zhuang, Guotu 8–9, 266
Zhuang, Mingli 138
Zhu, Dandan 175

The Price and Promise of Specialness

The Political Economy of Overseas Chinese Policy in the People’s Republic of China, 1949–1959

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