Subject Index

In: A Philosopher of Scripture
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Subject Index

For terms, titles, and names beginning with al-, please search the first letter following the definite article. For example, al-Ghazālī will be found under G.

Abraham b. Moses Maimonides11, 59n118, 84, 124, 126–127, 129n260, 224, 232–233, 235, 260, 307, 333–334, 342n371, 367, 369n497foretaste of afterlife while embodied257–258, 260hermeneutical dualism59n118, 84, 64n145Abraham b. Nathan of Lunel109n162Abraham He-Ḥasid11, 145, 262n480, 287–288, 292, 295, 323n292Abramson, Shraga33n147Abū al-Faraj Hārūn108n158, 33n149Abulafia, Abraham9n23, 290, 293Active Intellect112, 122, 123n231, 124–125, 141, 165n108, 176, 177, 287, 292, 295, 304–305, 312n231, 325, 326, 334, 338–339, 342, 344, 346, 347, 362, 363–364nn473–474, 367n487, 391n57Holy Spirit (ruaḥ ha-qodesh/rūḥ al-quds), associated with163n83, 362n466identified as an angel112n179, 124–125afterlife128–129, 174–175, 177n145, 252, 253, 256–260, 307, 369n497Rabbi Akiva147–148, 269, 270, 271n33, 272Alexander, Philip S.269, 272Alfarabi.al-Fārābī, under FAlgiani, Jacob169–170n126ʿAlī Ibn Abī Ṭālib140–141n309allegoresis.taʾwīlAlobaidi, Joseph293–294, 362n465, 363n473, 366n481–2Andalusia.Spain/Andalusia/Iberian PeninsulaAnfang, Keren40anger versus revelry221–224anthropomorphism/anthropopathy9n23, 61, 64, 67, 73, 100–103Aristotle.Peripatetic philosophical tradition122, 123n230, 130n265, 131, 166n112, 178n150, 180, 185, 207n268, 229n350, 237, 240n400, 246n428, 338n350, 367n487, 377arithmetic, geometry, music, and astronomy (propaedeutic sciences)182, 188, 189, 198n229, 203–204, 345, 348, 395, 397asceticism41n18, 152–154, 156n51, 157–158, 165, 169, 170, 174–175, 179, 231–235, 327–328, 331, 333, 390, 402aṣl al-gharaḍ (root/fundamental purpose)57, 60, 61, 65, 69, 323, 376Asmodeus (demon)149astronomy, music, geometry, and arithmetic (propaedeutic sciences)182, 188, 189, 198n229, 203–2024, 345, 348, 395, 397atomistic accounts of time237–238, 241–245, 247autognosis308n221Averroes.Ibn RushdAvicenna.Ibn SīnāAvishur, Yitzhak94–95n94al-Aykī, Shams al-Dīn263n487Bacher, Wilhelm14, 19al-Baghdādī, Abū al-Barakāt39n5, 80n28, 161, 244Barton, John147n5bāṭin (esoteric meaning)41n23, 58, 59, 62n134, 63, 68, 118, 145, 381, 394opposed to ẓāhir41n23, 58–59, 62–65, 68, 83–84, 118, 140, 145, 275Berman, Lawrence V.372Bible.Index Locorum, for specific citationsanthropomorphism/anthropopathy in61, 64, 67, 73, 100–103non-extant extra-biblical works mentioned in80, 383–384bird allegory (in commentary on Song of Songs)306–322birkat betulim272–273n41Birnbaum, Philip94n94al-Bisṭāmī, Bayezid (Abū Yazīd)125n244, 142n317Blumenthal, David2Boethius189n197Boyarin, Daniel268–269, 270, 271n34Brethren of Purity (Rasāʾil Ikhwān al-Ṣafāʾ)135n289, 139, 142n316, 161n76, 186n185, 198, 209nn275–276, 210, 243, 314n238, 338n350, 351, 354n419Brock, Sebastian313–314Chariot (merkabah)197–198, 271, 273–274, 290, 293, 346–347, 365, 368Chronicles, Tanḥum’s commentary to30n130classification of philosophical sciences (in commentary to Qohelet)180–217.ethics; household governance; metaphysics/divine science; physics; political wisdom; propaedeutic science; prophetic governance; individual governancecompared to earlier classifications188–191creative eclecticism of198–211ethics and189, 191, 193, 201, 218full text395–400human perfection and realizing imago Dei214–217, 399–401order of sciences191–198practical and theoretical wisdom, broad division into185–187, 199–200, 250, 396sanctity, attaining rank of211–214, 398–399classification of philosophical sciences (in commentary to Song of Songs)345–349Cohen, Gerson D.20n75Cohen, Mordechai Z.57n108, 115Cohn, Martin Samuel269comparative Semitics47–55conjunction (ittiṣāl)128, 134, 141, 173, 259, 284, 287, 292, 298n167, 305n209, 306, 312, 313n234, 316, 323n292, 326, 334n334, 338–339, 345–346, 378, 391, 392, 393Cordovero, Moses319n272cosmic-anthropological homologies351–352.Sanctuary and human body, homology of, in Song of Songs commentaryCrates of Mallus367n489Crescas, Ḥasdai b. Abraham166crow308, 309, 312–313, 315–316, 410–411crusader states6, 8–9Damascius244n417Daniel, Tanḥum’s commentary to40, 49n63, 52n80, 65n152, 86n52David b. Abraham Maimonides11n29, 16–17David b. Joshua Maimonides287n118David ben Boaz Ha-Nasi35Day of Atonement (Yom Kippur), recitation of Jonah on83–84, 393–394dead metaphors101Democritus of Abdera351n406dhawq (direct experience of the Divine)257–262, 307dibberah torah ki-leshon bene adam (rabbinic dictum)64, 100, 103–104divine science.metaphysics/divine scienceDotan, Aharon107n153dove116–118, 121, 138–139, 306–322, 341n362, 386, 410–411dualism.hermeneutical dualism; psychologyDunash ben Labrat35Dunash ben Tamim35Egypt and the Levantas historical and cultural context for Tanḥum’s life1, 2, 5–12, 21Jewish migration to8–9Jewish pietism in9n23, 10, 11, 144, 145, 287–288, 291, 295, 332n326, 334Maimonidean dynasty and5n1origins/residence of Tanḥum in Palestine and Egypt14–18political turbulence in5–6, 12n31emanationist theory of soul/cosmos/intellect119, 123, 138, 229, 230n354, 280n81, 287, 314, 316, 367, 368, 377, 391, 394n69, 398n11epistemology131–132eschatology6, 177n145, 256, 283n98esoteric meaning.taʾwīlbāṭin in Jonah commentary58, 59, 62n134, 63, 68, 118, 145commentary on Song of Songs and264, 268–270, 275n50, 284, 289, 290–291, 293, 301hermeneutical dualism57–70Esther, Tanḥum’s commentary to35, 41n19, 41n23, 41n24, 46n49, 48–49n63, 52n80, 55n97, 56eternity of cosmos, Tanḥum on211n284, 399n13ethics130, 217–218, 217–236classification of philosophical sciences and189, 191, 193, 201, 218, 250in commentary on Song of Songs345, 348moderation in the context of218–220, 228–230, 232, 236, 377Proverbs viewed as Solomonic treatment of ethics173, 217exegetical methodology3, 38–74.esoteric meaning; peshaṭ traditionbackground38–40basic philological approach to40–44comparative Semitics and47–55hermeneutical dualism of exoteric and esoteric senses57–70majāz/istiʿāra terminology, use of70–74originality of42–43rabbinic tradition and55–56, 66n157taqdīr44–47taʾwīl42, 59, 61–67, 68n162, 69(taʾwīl)exoteric meaning.peshaṭ tradition; ẓāhirEzekiel, Tanḥum’s commentary to41n22, 48n63, 52n80al-Fārābī78, 113n183, 114n185, 119n209, 122n222, 123, 125, 126, 129, 131, 133n278, 163n83, 177, 241n403, 243, 321, 345n380, 367n487, 462n466classification of sciences180, 181nn161–162, 186n185, 189, 190n198, 191, 195n217, 197nn223–224, 198, 206n261, 208nn270–272, 210n278, 212cosmic-anthropological homologies351, 352, 369, 376epistemology131, 177psychology121, 122n223, 177terminology in logic72–73, 376theory of language49, 50n68, 51Farīḍ al-Dīn ʿAṭṭār143, 317n257al-Fāsī, David b. Abraham48n59, 86n55, 92n80, 100n115, 242n404, 274al-Fāsī, Isaac35fasting84, 235, 327, 333faylasūf (philosopher)168, 169n124, 264, 401n26fear of God as purpose of wisdom in Qohelet174, 401–402Fenton, Paul293n141, 308n221, 361n459Fernandes, Leonor10n26fiqh (jurisprudence)197Fishbane, Michael267n6Friedman, Shamma147n5Galenon climatic theory of linguistic development49–50, 130, 132–133, 176n142, 225, 227n340, 230, 243n409, 303n192, 368on tripartite soul225, 227n340, 230, 377geometry, arithmetic, music, and astronomy (propaedeutic sciences)182, 188, 189, 198n229, 203–204, 345, 348, 395, 397Geonim23nn90–91, 26, 39.specific GeonimGersonides (Levi b. Gershom)287, 375al-Ghazālī, Abū Ḥāmid27, 28, 62n134, 102n123, 118n202, 126–127, 142n316, 143, 144n324, 184–185, 186, 189, 190–192, 195n217, 198, 199, 200, 201, 202n245, 205, 206, 210n278, 212–213, 244, 260–261, 262n480, 311n225, 333, 338n352al-Ghujdawani, ʿAbd al-Khaliq144n322Gnosticism143–144Gog and Magog, Tanḥum’s interpretation of6n8Golden Mean, concept of220, 231, 236, 377Graetz, Heinrich14Gutas, Dimitri311ḥads (intuition)260, 262Hai Gaon35, 114–115n188al-Harawī, ʿAbd Allāh al-Anṣārī, Manāzil al-sāʾirīn (The Stations of the Wayfarers)330al-Ḥarīzī, Judah9n20, 17, 34n154, 38n3, 314n239Harkavy, Abraham E.24Ḥayyūj, Judah2, 33, 35, 37, 39, 69n169Ḥefeṣ ben Yaṣliaḥ35hekhalot tradition290, 293hermeneutical dualism41n23, 57–70, 83–84, 118, 140, 145, 275hermeneutical terminology44–47, 70–74Holy Spirit (rūḥ al-quds/ruaḥ ha-qodesh)163n83, 362Homerin, Emil10n26human language, Torah speaks in (rabbinic dictum)64, 100, 103–104human perfection.perfection, humanhuman soul.soulʿibāda (worship)328, 331–332, 333n329, 389, 401n29Iberian Peninsula.Spain/Andalusia/Iberian PeninsulaIbn ʿAqnīn, Joseph b. Judah31n133, 35, 117n198, 145, 175–178, 236n375, 285–287, 292, 295, 297, 298, 301, 303n193, 335n339, 337, 338, 339, 341, 346, 347n389, 348n393, 349–350, 369n497Ibn al-ʿArabī, Muḥyī al-Dīn102n123, 124n238, 141n309, 143, 262–264, 315–316n250, 329, 330, 378Ibn Bājja129, 181n163, 195n217, 334n336, 377Ibn Balʿam, Judah2, 35, 38, 39n8, 43, 46n52, 88n61, 93, 94n91, 95, 97n103, 98, 99, 114n188Ibn Barūn, Isaac35Ibn Chiquitilla, Moses2, 35, 39Ibn Daud, Abraham19–20n75, 72n177Ibn Ezra, Abraham2, 23n90, 28, 35, 47n55, 58n110, 64n147, 77–78, 81n31, 88n62, 90, 92n83, 93, 96n99, 97, 100–102, 104, 108, 109, 110n165, 114, 116n196, 144, 159–161, 162–163n82, 163n85, 165n103, 168, 169, 174n138, 182, 216, 219, 224–126, 236, 239–242, 254–255, 276–277, 278–281, 285, 286, 292, 296n159, 297, 302n188, 305n209, 335n339, 337, 338, 341, 347n389, 348n393, 357, 377, 381n2, 382n5, 383n10, 383n12, 390n51, 390n53, 401n29homology between Tabernacle, cosmos, and human body355–357, 358n449, 361n462, 366n480, 367n485, 370–371Ibn Ezra, Moses34n154, 35, 38, 58n110, 64n147, 70–71, 73n184, 116n196, 144, 277n63Ibn Gabirol, Solomon31n133, 35, 144, 166n114, 277, 347n389, 352, 367Ibn Ghiyāth, Isaac, of Lucena26n110, 39n6, 155n49, 157–159, 162, 165, 168, 169, 171nn128–129, 175, 182–183, 185, 223n332, 242, 253–254, 402n32Ibn Ḥazm, Abū Muḥammad ʿAlī Ibn Aḥmad Ibn Saʿīd277Ibn Iṣḥāq, Ḥunayn130n266Ibn Jābir, Joseph b. Abī al-Khayr32n145Ibn Janāḥ, Jonah (Abū al-Walīd)2, 12n3, 33n149, 35, 37, 38, 41n21, 43–44, 45n46, 46n52, 48, 53, 54–55, 56, 69, 70, 71, 72n176, 85n45, 86, 89, 90, 91, 93, 94n91, 95, 98, 99, 108n158, 110n165, 113, 390n51, 390n53, 224n332, 232n363, 242n404, 400n24, 401n25, 337, 338, 340n360, 360n456, 363nn469–470, 367n485Ibn al-Jawzī, Abū al-Faraj340n357Ibn Kammūna, Saʿd Ibn Manṣūr310n225Ibn Kaspi, Joseph287, 297n160, 305n207, 375Ibn Laṭīf, Isaac166–168Ibn Naghrela, Samuel (Samuel Ha-Nagid)31n133, 35Ibn Nūḥ, Abū Yaʿqūb Yūsuf153n34, 274Ibn Paquda, Baḥya28, 219, 229n351, 235, 278, 352n411Ibn Quraysh, Judah48, 103n128Ibn Rushd (Averroes)27–28, 166, 177n148, 210n278, 213Ibn Ṣaddiq, Joseph352, 368n490Ibn Sahula, Isaac288n123Ibn Sarjada, Aaron (Khalaf) ben Joseph35Ibn Sīnā (Avicenna)3, 12, 36, 118, 123–124, 125n240, 126, 128–129, 130n26, 131–132, 143, 144n324, 163n83, 166, 173n134, 176n143, 283, 303n193, 307–308, 310–312, 312–313n233, 315–316, 317, 321–322, 323n291, 325, 326, 328, 333, 334, 374, 377–378classification of sciences in Tanḥum’s commentary on Song of Songs and168–169n124, 181n163, 184, 186–187, 189, 190–192, 195–196n217, 198, 199, 200, 202, 203, 205–212dhawq260bird allegory in Tanḥum’s commentary on Song of Songs and307–308, 310–312, 312–313n233, 315–316, 317, 321–322, 410n18emanationist theory of soul’s origin123, 377epistemology131–132, 177, 312–313n233ethics226–227, 236as a source for Tanḥum3, 12, 36, 377–378intuition (ḥads)260on metaphysics404–405n5psychology123–124, 126–127, 130n266, 177, 226–227, 236soteriology129theory of time243, 246–247worksDāneshnāme-ye ʿAlāʾī (Book of Knowledge for ʿAlāʾ al-Dawla)192Ḥayy Ibn Yaqẓān226–227, 236, 280, 315–316, 377Al-ishārāt wa-’l-tanbīhāt (Remarks and Exhortations)283, 328Kitāb al-shifāʾ (The Book of Healing)184, 186–187, 191, 199, 202, 205n260Al-qānūn fī al-ṭibb (The Canon of Medicine)303n193Al-risāla fī al-ʿishq (The Epistle on Love)283Risāla fī aqsām al-ʿulūm al-ʿaqliyya (Epistle on the Parts of the Intellectual Sciences)184, 199, 203, 205n260, 212Risālat al-ṭayr (Epistle of the Bird)36n167, 143, 307–308, 311, 315, 316, 406n11Ibn Tibbon, Moses b. Samuel188n193, 287Ibn Tibbon, Samuel,47n55, 64n145, 164–166, 172n133, 225n334, 375, 467n488Ibn Waqār, Joseph b. Abraham7n14Ikhwān al-Ṣafāʾ.Brethren of Purity (Rasāʾil Ikhwān al-Ṣafāʾ)Illuminationist (Ishrāqī) tradition143, 144, 310imago Dei214–217, 319n272, 348, 399–401imitatio Dei136, 216n308, 318–321, 372impurity of the hands146–148al-insān al-kāmil (perfect human)231, 232, 256, 262, 263n483, 263n485, 264n488, 265, 378intellectual worship (al-ʿibāda al-ʿaqliyya)331–332, 333n329, 401n29intoxication (sukr), spiritual state141–142, 258–259Isaac b. Sheshet Perfet (Rivash)19–20n75Isaac of Acre9n23, 138n299Isaac of Dampierre169n124Isaiah, Tanḥum’s commentary to41n22, 48n63, 52n80ʿishq (love [for the Divine])283, 285n107Ishrāqī tradition.Illuminationist (Ishrāqī) traditionishtiqāq (etymological derivation)117–118ism mushtarik/ishtirāk al-ism (equivocal term/equivocality)72–73Ismailis and Ismaili hermeneutics5, 10, 12, 58n110, 62–63, 379ʿiṣma (prophetic infallibility)79istiʿāra/majāz (metaphor)64, 70–74, 98, 101n118, 116, 376istiʿdād (aptitude or propensity)261n479, 262ittiḥād (union)122n223, 172, 258, 259, 300, 323, 324, 326, 336, 338–39, 373n508ittiṣāl.conjunction (ittiṣāl).Ivry, Alfred188n192iʿtibār (contemplation)28–30, 213, 401n26Jacob b. Asher, Arbaʿah ṭurim109n162Jacob b. Eleazar of Toledo, Kitāb al-kāmil35Jacob b. Eliezer35al-Jawziyya, Ibn Qayyim, Madārij al-sālikīn (The Paths of the Travelers)329–330Jehiel of Paris9n19Jeremiah, Tanḥum’s commentary to41n22, 48n63, 52n80Job, Tanḥum’s commentary to3, 27, 29, 68n162Jonah, Tanḥum’s commentary to3–4, 75–145Amittai, Jonah’s descent from76n9, 79–80, 117, 119, 121, 381, 383, 386–387Day of Atonement (Yom Kippur), recitation of Jonah on83–84, 393–394discomfort with Jonah narrative75, 78–79flight of Jonah76–79, 85–90, 387–388hermeneutical dualism82–84historical context of book of Jonah according to Tanḥum79–80, 382–383introduction to75–76, 381–94al-malakūt (angelic realm), origins of human soul in125–27non-Peripatetic elements137–145perfection of individual soul and guidance of imperfect souls133–136, 393Peripatetic elements in112, 120–136, 138, 141, 144n324, 145peshaṭ analysis85–114repentance as central theme82–84scholarly studies of75soul, Jonah as metaphor for116–117, 118–119, 137–139, 386–394Sufi elements in140–144textual transmission of Minor Prophets80–82taʾwīl in75, 83, 88, 114–120, 128, 145, 381, 385–94three-day walk across Nineveh and tripartite division of faculties120n216, 129–133, 392Zohar and137–139Joseph b. Tanḥum (son)11n29, 13, 16–18Joshua, Tanḥum’s commentary to14n45Josippon, Kitāb yosef ben guryon35Judah b. Barzilai of Barcelona20n75Judah Ha-Levi, Kuzari35, 47n55, 53–54, 219, 260n467, 261n476, 277, 325n296, 334n336, 352, 355, 357–358, 361–362, 372, 383n12Kabbalah7n14, 8, 9n23, 137n296, 289, 290, 291n139, 293parallel between Tanḥum and the Zohar137–139kalām23n91, 61–62, 102n122, 115n188, 152, 180–181n161, 237–247Karaites and Karaite tradition.specific authors by nameexegetical methodology of39, 40, 225n333Jonah, commentaries on77Qohelet in Karaite tradition149, 152–154Saadia Gaon and155Song of Songs in Karaite tradition274–275Tanḥum influenced by26, 35, 95n95Torah speaks in human language103n128translation methodology43n35, 44n47Al-Kindī181n162, 186n185, 198n227, 206n260, 245–246, 2472 Kings, Tanḥum’s commentary to41n22, 48n63, 52n80Kitāb al-fikr fī al-makhlūqāt wa-ʿtibār ḥikmat al-ṣāniʿ fī al-mawjūdāt (The Book of Reflection upon the Created Beings and Contemplation of the Wisdom of the Artisan in Existent Things).Tanḥum b. Joseph ha-Yerushalmi – worksKitāb al-ījāz wa-’l-bayān (The Book of Simplification and Elucidation; commentary to Prophets and Hagiographa).Tanḥum b. Joseph ha-Yerushalmi – works.specific commentaries, e.g. Jonah, Tanḥum’s commentary toKitāb hidāyat al-qāriʾ (Reader’s Guide)108, 110Kitāb kifāyat al-ʿābidīn (Sufficient Guide for the Servants [of God]).Abraham b. Moses MaimonidesKitāb maʿānī al-nafs (Book of Concepts of the Soul)229–230, 236, 277, 314Kokovtsov, P.75Kristeller, Paul Oskar42n30Al-kulliyyāt (introduction to commentary to Prophets and Hagiographa), Tanḥum Ha-Yerushalmi12n33, 16, 19, 22, 23, 24–26, 27, 39n4, 41–42, 45, 66, 68n162, 69, 87, 90, 384, 225n333Langermann, Yitzhak Tzvi293n141, 308n221Lazarus-Yafeh, Hava361n459Levant.Egypt and the LevantLevi b. Gershom (Gersonides)287, 375Lieberman, Saul268–271Lim, Timothy H.147n5maʿaseh bereshit (Work of the Creation)129n260, 197–198, 368maʿaseh merkabah (Work of the Chariot)197–198, 271, 273–274, 290, 293, 346–347, 365, 368Maimonides (Moses ben Maimon).Index Locorum, for specific citations to works2, 3, 12, 22, 24, 29–30, 32, 35, 69, 78–79, 101, 102n124, 109, 111–112, 114n185, 115–116, 118, 120n213, 121, 122n223, 122n225, 123n230, 124, 125n239, 126–129, 130–131n266, 132, 133n278, 134–136, 141, 143, 161–164, 177n145, 179, 238–241, 246nn428–429, 247, 282–285, 286–287, 292, 295, 303n193, 305, 306n211, 318–321, 331–332, 334, 342, 347, 368, 369n497, 374, 375, 377, 378asceticism of134n284, 233–234birkat betulim, opposition to273n41classification of philosophical sciences in Qohelet commentary and181nn161–163, 187, 188–190, 192–198, 199, 203, 213–214, 216–217, 395n2, 402n29on Hebrew linguistics47n55, 49–53corporeal existence in Qohelet commentary and254nn445–46, 256n453, 257, 260n469, 263cosmic-anthropological homologies used by352dove allegory in Song of Songs commentary and318–321“Eastern Maimonidean tradition”2ethics219–20, 223–24, 231, 233–34Guide of the Perplexed58, 59, 63n140, 63n143, 68, 72n177, 102n124, 118, 162–163, 164, 192–198, 203, 368hermeneutical dualism of58–60, 63–64, 67, 68, 69Ibn ʿAqnīn and286–287Ibn Rushd and28on imago Dei216–217ism mushtarik/ishtirāk al-ism (equivocal term/equivocality)72majāz/istiʿāra terminology and73Mishneh Torah163, 196n219, 220, 375Peraqim ba-haṣlaḥah (Chapters on Felicity) attributed to361physics and metaphysics identified with maʿaseh bereshit and maʿaseh merkabah197–198, 368prophetology of78–79, 162–163, 385n31Sefer ha-miṣvot (Book of Commandments)29Sufism and10n27Tanḥum’s Al-murshid al-kāfī as Arabic lexicon to Mishneh torah of22, 31–32, 34Tanḥum’s works and22, 24, 375taʾwīl, theoretical underpinnings of376time, theory of238–241, 246nn428–429, 247Treatise on Logic (attrib.)185, 188–190, 195n217, 198, 199, 200, 201, 202n242, 202n245, 203, 205, 206n262, 207, 209, 210, 214n299, 320n279, 348, 349Maimonides, Abraham.Abraham b. Moses MaimonidesMaimonides, David b. Abraham11n29, 16–17Maimonides, David b. Joshua287n118Maimonides, Obadiah b. Abraham17n62, 361n459majāz/istiʿāra (metaphor)64, 70–74, 98, 101n118, 116, 376al-malakūt (angelic realm), origins of human soul in125–127Marciano, Joseph287masoretic tradition86–87, 92n83, 96n99, 106–110, 130n262The Merciful One desires one’s heart (Aramaic expression)296merkabah (Chariot)197–198, 271, 273–274, 290, 293, 346–347, 365, 368metaphor (majāz/istiʿāra)64, 70–74, 98, 101n118, 116, 376metaphysics/divine science163, 167, 184n177, 189, 191n203, 192, 193, 195, 197–198, 204, 208–211, 345, 348, 398, 404–405n5Micah, Tanḥum’s commentary to46n48, 46n52mishbarekha (breakers)96, 98, 99moderation218–220, 228–230, 377Moses b. Naḥman (Nahmanides)9n23, 15n48, 20n75Moses ben Maimon.Maimonidesmufakkira (cogitation)131–132al-Muqammiṣ, Dāwūd Ibn Marwān151–152Al-murshid al-kāfī (The Sufficient Guide; Tanḥum Ha-Yerushalmi’s dictionary of rabbinic Hebrew)15, 16, 22, 25, 26, 31–34, 53, 54, 91, 125n242, 196, 256music, geometry, arithmetic, and astronomy (propaedeutic sciences)182, 188, 189, 198n229, 203–204, 345, 348, 395, 397mutakallimūn.kalāmal-Nahāwandī, Benjamin b. Moses35, 153–154, 274Nahmanides (Moses b. Naḥman)9n23, 15n48, 20n75Nathan b. Jehiel of Rome, ʿArukh32–34, 35, 36, 169n124, 375Neoplatonism28n124, 122–123, 144, 166, 208, 243n414, 244n417, 351, 367, 377Norzi, Jedidiah106n151, 108n158, 108n160Obadiah, Tanḥum’s commentary to81, 382Obadiah b. Abraham Maimonides17n62, 361n459Obadiah di Bertinoro162n81Origen173, 268–270PalestineJews living in8–9Tanḥum’s possible origins in14–18peacock308, 309, 312–313, 315, 317–318, 321, 410–411Peraqim ba-haṣlaḥah (Chapters on Felicity)360–361Peripatetic philosophical tradition.specific Peripatetic philosophers and works4, 12, 63, 67, 73, 112, 120–136, 138, 141, 144n324, 145, 175, 176–177, 200, 208, 230n355, 237, 238, 241, 246, 247, 263, 265, 300, 331, 334, 373soteriology in138, 141, 145, 151n26, 238, 350, 377Sufi discourse, synthesis with378peshaṭ tradition1–2, 30, 38–39, 47–48, 70–74, 103, 146, 165n103, 166, 168, 289, 335–336, 375, 376, 377petiḥta (proem)165, 182Philo of Alexandria351philological methodexegesis, basic philological approach to40–44ishtiqāq (etymological derivation)117–118Al-murshid al-kāfī (The Sufficient Guide; Tanḥum Ha-Yerushalmi’s dictionary of rabbinic Hebrew)15, 16, 22, 25, 26, 31–34, 53, 54, 91, 125n242, 196, 256peshaṭ tradition and377Song of Songs, Tanḥum’s lexical/philological analysis of298–299, 335, 336–338, 339systematic application42, 65, 90, 96, 99, 375–376philosophical sciences.specific entries at classification of philosophical sciencesphysics, as theoretical science160, 163, 173, 181, 183, 184n177, 188, 189, 190n201, 191n203, 192nn206–207, 193, 195, 197–198, 204–208, 345, 348, 397–398Pico della Mirandola, Giovanni42n30pietists and pietismEgyptian pietist movement9n23, 10, 11, 144, 145, 258, 262n480, 263n485, 287–288, 291, 295, 332n326, 334German/Ashkenazic pietists9n23, 290, 291n137, 291nn139–1 40in scholarly community of Acre291n139Pines, Shlomo161Plato130n265, 135n290, 166n115, 227n341, 237, 351Plotinus122–123, 144, 198n230, 280, 177n150, 279–280Porphyry, Isagoge113Poznanski, Samuel30, 39, 75, 114–115n188Priestly Blessing326, 342n367, 346, 350propaedeutic sciences (arithmetic, geometry, music, and astronomy)182, 188, 189, 198n229, 203–204, 345, 348, 395, 397prophetic and poetic aptitudes, Tanḥum on261–262prophetic governance201, 203, 345, 348–349, 397prophetology of Tanḥum and Maimonides78–79, 162–163, 384–395Proverbs, Tanḥum’s commentary on3Pseudo-Jāḥiẓ28Pseudo-Saadia (Song of Songs commentary)275–276, 337n343, 337n348, 340n357, 341n366, 347n389, 350n404, 367n485, 369n495psychology.epistemology; soteriology; soulemanationism119, 123, 138, 229, 230n354, 280n81, 287, 314, 316, 367, 368, 377, 391, 394n69, 398n11origin and nature of the soul120–124tripartite division of the soul129–133, 130–133, 179n154, 224–230, 368, 377, 392Ptolemy240n298, 241Pythagoras237n379Qafiḥ, Yosef14–15, 40, 51al-qaṣd al-awwal (initial intentions)57–60, 61, 65, 68–69, 376, 382, 413Qimḥi, David35, 41n21, 71n176, 96n99, 97n105, 98n111, 108–109n160, 109, 111–112, 340n360, 375Qimḥi, Moses183–184, 185al-Qirqisānī, Jacob103n128, 279n80Qoheletassociated with asceticism (zuhd)152–155, 157–158, 165, 168, 169–171, 174–175, 179, 231–233, 235canonicity146–148Jewish interpretation in Western Christendom164–168in Judeo-Arabic tradition151–164in Karaite tradition149, 152–154in rabbinic tradition146–151as a scientific text148, 159, 160–161, 167–169, 171, 173, 180–217Solomon, attribution of Qohelet to149, 159n61, 162, 165, 169n124, 225Solomonic corpus (Qohelet, Song, and Proverbs), place of Qohelet within170–174Qohelet, Tanḥum’s commentary to4, 146–265.classification of philosophical sciences in introduction to Qohelet commentaryclassification of the philosophical sciences180–217ethics in217–236fear of God as purpose of wisdom in174, 401–402main themes in168–180philosophical text, Qohelet viewed as168–169, 179–180taʾwīl (allegoresis) in135n288, 175–179, 248time, theory of237–247quinque voces113–14al-Qūmisī, Daniel35, 76–77, 91, 94–95, 154n41al-Qūnawī, Ṣadr al-Dīn263n487al-Qushayri257, 259n466, 288n121, 312n232, 327–328, 329n12, 331n319rabbinic traditionexegetical methodology and55–56Qohelet, reception of146–151Song of Songs, reception of146–151, 266–274, 275–288Tanḥum’s view of himself as part of151Rambam.MaimonidesRasāʾil Ikhwān al-Ṣafāʾ.Brethren of Purity (Rasāʾil Ikhwān al-Ṣafāʾ).Rashbam (Samuel b. Meir)225n333, 289, 292, 400n23Rashi89, 92n83, 94, 95, 98–99n111, 111–112, 162n81, 169n124, 254n444, 278, 289, 292, 337, 341n364, 400n23al-Rāzī, Abū Bakr51n76, 130n266, 243al-Rāzī, Fakhr al-Dīn244Rivash (Isaac b. Sheshet Perfet)19–20n75Robinson, James T.152Rosenberg, Shalom280Rothstein, Gidon20n75rūḥ al-quds/ruaḥ ha-qodesh (Holy Spirit)163n83, 362n466Rumi, Jalāl al-Dīn, Mathnāwī316Ruth, Tanḥum’s commentary to41n19, 48n63, 52n80, 55n97Saadia Gaon6n8, 26, 33n149, 35, 39, 40, 43n35, 48, 52–53n81, 54–55, 56, 57n108, 61, 65, 77, 82–83n34, 88n62, 102n120, 103n128, 114–115n188, 134, 381n2, 155–157, 185n182, 216n308, 225n334, 226n337, 228–229, 230, 235, 244–245, 247, 275–276, 286, 292, 338n351, 340n360, 342n371, 354–357, 358n449, 361, 370–371al-Ṣadiq, Jaʿfar62n135Sahl ben Maṣliaḥ35Ṣaliḥ, Yaḥya, Ḥeleq ha-diqduq108n160Salmon b. Yeroḥam103n128, 153–154, 175, 213n293, 224n332, 242n404, 274–275, 292, 403n32Samson of Sens9n19Samuel b. Ḥofni Gaon35, 40, 56n100, 57n108, 61, 369n497Samuel b. Meir (Rashbam)225n333, 289, 292, 400n23Samuel Ha-Nagid (Ibn Naghrela)31n133, 35Sanctuary and human body, homology of, in Song of Songs commentary351–373Schäfer, Peter269–270Schlossberg, Eliezer94–95n94Scholem, Gershom268, 270Schwarzfuchs, Simon19–20n75sciences.specific entries at classification of philosophical sciencessefirot, Song of Songs viewed as representing the dynamic between290, 293, 406n13shekhinah (Divine Presence)341n364, 342–344, 354, 356, 362Sherira Gaon35, 158n60Shiʿur qomah (Dimensions of [the Divine] Body) tradition268, 269, 270–271, 290n134, 291Shussman, Aviva59, 75, 79n22, 82, 123n230, 128n255Shy, Hadassa13n41, 16, 17n61, 19, 22, 24, 25, 31, 40, 85n47, 92n83al-Sijistānī, Abū Sulaymān198n230, 244, 351ṣiyām (fasting)84, 235, 327, 333Sod ha-egoz texts290Solomon b. Elʿazar b. Obadiah Ha-Rofe92–93Solomonic corpus (Qohelet, Song, and Proverbs)170–174, 294–295, 349, 404n5Song of Songs74n185, 87–88n61, 88n63, 92n83, 93n85, 117, 128n256, 141–142, 308n219, 315n245, 333n330, 334n334, 386, 178n151, 179, 349, 365, 404n5alchemical text, Song interpreted as277astronomical interpretations of Song277, 280canonicity of Song146–148diversity in medieval Jewish interpretation292–293esoteric approaches to Song and264, 268–270, 275n50, 284, 289, 290–291, 293, 301historical allegoresis267–268, 269, 271–276, 278–279, 285–286, 289–293, 295, 287–299, 302, 304, 305–306, 335–336, 339–344, 350lexical/philological analysis298–299, 335, 336–338, 339literalist approaches to Song and266, 272, 275, 276, 278, 279, 285, 288, 289, 292reception among Egyptian pietists287–288reception among Jews of Western Christendom288–291reception in Judeo-Arabic tradition274–288reception in Karaite tradition274–275reception in rabbinic tradition266–274Shiʿur qomah (Dimensions of [the Divine] Body) tradition and268, 269, 270–271, 290n134, 291in Solomonic corpus (Qohelet, Song, and Proverbs)170–174, 294–295, 349, 404n5Tanḥum’s commentary to266–374actualizing allegoresis274, 275, 292Christian approaches to267–268Maimonides on282–85, 287, 306n211psychological allegoresis277, 279–288, 292, 298–99, 300, 302, 305–6, 311, 312, 335, 338–339, 344–350, 351–374sefirot, Song representing interaction of290, 293, 406n13soul’s intense love of God/Active Intellect, representation of282–287, 292, 306n211Sufi-oriented interpretation of287–288Tanḥum’s allegorical interpretation295–297Tanḥum’s belief that entire book requires allegorical treatment266, 297Song of Songs, Tanḥum’s commentary to266–374bird (dove) allegory in introduction to commentary306–322comparison between peshaṭ, historicizing, and psychologizing tendencies in Tanḥum’s commentary335–350editions of293–294identification of central figures301–305overarching themes294–306spiritual journeying322–334structure and composition293, 297–298Tanḥum’s allegorical interpretation295–297Tanḥum’s belief that entire book requires allegorical treatment266, 297wisdom, identification of female beloved with295, 406–407Tanḥum on the theme of microcosm, mesocosm, and macrocosm351–373on three spiritual stations (maqāmāt) of the soul322–334soteriology69, 122, 127–129, 138, 141, 144, 145, 151n26, 238, 256, 266, 281, 285, 287, 298n167, 299, 300, 301, 302, 311, 312, 315, 322, 326, 328, 334, 339, 350, 373, 377, 373soul.perfection, humandove allegory in Song of Songs commentary as allegory for306–308emanationist theory of soul/cosmos/intellect119, 123, 138, 229, 230n354, 280n81, 287, 314, 316, 367, 368, 377, 391, 394n69, 398n11intense love of soul for God/Active Intellect, Song representing282–287, 292, 306n211Jonah as metaphor for116–117, 118–119, 137–139, 386–394origin and nature of120–124three spiritual stations (maqāmāt) of, Song commentary on322–334tripartite division129–133, 179n154, 224–230, 368, 377, 392Spain/Andalusia/Iberian Peninsula.specific scholars from Spaincontinuing influence of Judeo-Arabic tradition from7–8migration of Jews from7–8peshaṭ tradition, Tanḥum’s drawing on1–3, 30, 38–39, 70–74, 103, 166, 375–376Stoicism176n143, 216, 351Sufi discourse and practice2, 9n23, 10–12, 36, 37, 62, 140–144, 256–265, 283, 288, 291n139, 300, 310, 311, 318, 328, 331, 333, 334, 373–374 , 378–379al-Suhrawardī, Shihāb al-Dīn143, 144, 244, 310, 311, 317, 351sukr (intoxication)141–142, 258–259Al-Ṭabarī, Abū Jaʿfar Muḥammad Ibn Jarīr77Tal, Avi13–14n42, 41n21Tanenbaum, Adena314Tanḥum b. Joseph Ha-Yerushalmibiographical information13–21bird allegory306–322classification of the philosophical sciences180–217, 345–349cosmology124–127, 351–373direct spiritual experience141–142, 256–262(dhawq; intoxication (sukr))ethics in170, 173–174, 187, 200–202, 217–236exegetical methodology of38–74(exegetical methodology)hermeneutical dualism57–70hermeneutical terminology44–47, 70–74historical and cultural context1–3, 5–12microcosm, mesocosm, macrocosm351–373overarching exegetical project22–23, 375–376psychology120–124, 221–227soteriology120–123, 127–129, 141, 145, 334, 350, 373spiritual journeying and waystations (safar, maqāmāt)322–334taʾwīl, theoretical underpinnings of use of57–74, 376–377(taʾwīl [allegoresis])theory of time237–247works22–34(Kitāb al-ījāz wa-’l-bayān; Al-kulliyyāt; specific commentaries by book of the Bible)Kitāb al-fikr fī al-makhlūqāt wa-ʿtibār ḥikmat al-ṣāniʿ fī al-mawjūdāt (The Book of Reflection upon the Created Beings and Contemplation of the Wisdom of the Artisan in Existent Things [non-extant])27–28, 174n136Kitāb al-ījāz wa-’l-bayān (The Book of Simplification and Elucidation; commentary to Prophets and Hagiographa), Tanḥum Ha-Yerushalmi22, 23–31.exegetical methodology; specific prophets and writings, e.g. Jonah, Tanḥum’s commentary toAl-kulliyyāt (introduction to Kitāb al-ījāz wa-’l-bayān)16, 19, 22, 23, 24–26, 27, 41–42, 45, 66–67, 69, 87Al-murshid al-kāfī (The Sufficient Guide; Arabic lexicon to Maimonides’ Mishneh torah)15, 16, 22, 25, 26, 31–34, 53, 54, 91, 125n242, 196, 256Pentateuch, possible composition of commentary on23sources35–37taqdīr44–47Targum Onqelos66–68tarshish (sea/city of Tarshish)85, 86, 88–89, 387–388taṣawwur (conceptualization)131–132taṣdīq (assent)131tashabbuh (imitatio [Dei])321Ta-Shma, Israel272–273n41taʾwīl (allegoresis)42, 59, 61–67, 68n162, 69, 75, 83, 88, 114–120, 128, 135n288, 145, 175–179, 248, 249, 376–377, 381, 385–394textual transmission, Tanḥum’s understanding of46n51, 80–82, 383–384Themistius177–178n150theology.metaphysics/divine scienceTheology of Aristotle (misattributed)122, 130n266, 350n402time, Tanḥum’s theory of237–247Tobias b. Eliezer, Leqaḥ ṭob369Toledano, Barukh14n42, 15–16, 30Torah speaks in human language (rabbinic dictum)64, 100, 103–104tripartite division of soul129–133, 130–133, 179n154, 224–230, 368, 377, 392Twersky, Isadore65n152walī140–41n309Wansbrough, John46n52, 57n108Wechsler, Michael18n67, 23, 24, 26, 30, 35, 40, 41–42n25, 58, 75Wertheimer, Solomon Aaron114–115n188Western Christendomcrusader states6, 8Jews of2, 7–9, 20–21n75, 24n92, 34, 36, 114, 164–168, 288–293Wieder, Naphtali361n459Wilensky, Sara O. Heller166, 167n119wisdombroad classification of philosophical sciences into practical and theoretical wisdom185–187, 199–200, 250, 396fear of God as purpose of, in Qohelet174, 401–402identification of female beloved with, in Song of Songs295, 406–407wuṣūl (arrival, attainment, union)259, 294, 327, 328, 333–334, 338, 405n6Yefet b. Eli35, 40, 44n37, 77, 79n22, 86, 88n62, 89, 90, 92n80, 94–95, 97, 99n111, 100, 102n120, 111, 113n180, 154, 155n46, 172–173n133, 224n332, 225n333, 274–275, 292, 337n343, 337n348, 339, 340n357, 347n389, 352, 381n2, 383n10Yom Kippur (Day of Atonement), recitation of Jonah on83–84, 393–394Yonah Gerondi,20n75ẓāhir (exoteric meaning)41n23, 57–65, 67, 68, 80–81, 83–84, 117n200, 118, 140, 145, 153, 275, 276n60, 376, 385, 390, 394opposed to bāṭin41n23, 58–59, 62–65, 68, 83–84, 118, 140, 145, 275peshaṭ and57, 65, 376Zechariah, Tanḥum’s commentary to47n54Zekharyah ha-Rofe308n221Zohar8n16, 137–139, 291, 313Zoref, Arye42, 128n257, 293–294, 308n221, 310n224, 324n293, 328–329, 330, 343n375, 363n473, 365n479Zucker, Moshe77, 115n188zuhd.asceticism