Note on Transliteration

In: A Philosopher of Scripture
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This study includes significant portions of transliterated material from Arabic and Hebrew. When transliterating Arabic, I have generally followed the norms of The Encyclopaedia of the Qur’ān (Brill: 2001); Hebrew transliterations are loosely based on the Society for Biblical Literature general-purpose style. In both cases I have made minor exceptions, but have tried to remain consistent throughout. For example, I depart from The Encyclopaedia of the Qur’ān in my preference to indicate an elided ālif where this reflects classical Arabic orthography (e.g., wa-’l-shams rather than wa-l-shams); I depart from the SBL style by distinguishing the fricative fe and khaf from the plosive pe and kaf respectively, while not making such distinctions in the case of bet, gimel, dalet, or tav. The basic system that I follow in transliterating the two languages is as follows:

1 Arabic

ا = ’ (when marking an eliding ālif); ب = b; ت = t; ث = th; ج = j; ح = ḥ; خ = kh; د = d; ذ = dh; ر = r; ز = z; س = s; ش = sh; ص = ṣ; ض = ḍ; ط = ṭ; ظ = ẓ; ع = ʿ; غ = gh; ف = f; ق = q; ك = k; ل = l; م = m; ن = n; ه = h; و = w; ي = y; ء = ʾ (not marked at the beginning of a word). Case endings are not reflected in my transliterations from Arabic; vowel length is indicated.

2 Hebrew

א = ʾ (where consonantal – not marked when quiescent or at the beginning of a word); ב = b; ג = g; ד = d; ה = h; ו = v; ז = z; ח = ḥ; ט = ṭ; י = y; כּ/כ = k/kh; ל = l; מ = m; נ = n; ס = s; ע = ʿ; פּ/פ = p/f; צ = ṣ; ק = q; ר = r; שׁ = sh; שֹ = s; ת = t. Among the consonants with a dual plosive/fricative pronunciation (known by the acronym begad kepat) I have distinguished only between k/kh and p/f. I have deviated from my usual transliteration of ṣade in the case of Israeli proper nouns and names (including publishers), preferring to render it as ts to reflect common pronunciation, unless the individual, organization, or publisher commonly uses another form (e.g., Yitzhak rather than Yitsḥaq). In Hebrew I have adopted a five vowel (“Sephardic”) system, consistently marking a mobile sheva as an e. Vowel length is not indicated in Hebrew. Gemination is indicated, except following prefixes (such as the definite article). I have adopted further distinctions in Hebrew transliteration only when absolutely required to do so by the subject matter (e.g., in the case of Tanḥum’s detailed analysis of the pronunciation of the lexeme shtayim, where I have indicated fricative tav as th, and differentiated between sheva and ṣere as ě and ē respectively).