IndexAba GadaAba Gada Tulema Council70–71Aba Gadas2, 103, 113–114, 124, 128–130, 145Aba Gadas and Aba Malkas28–34, 37, 104Revitalisation of Waqqeffana74Bayyana Sanbato; Tulema Gada Council; Gada institutionAddis Ababa2, 3, 7n, 15, 33, 36, 40n, 41, 50, 53–4, 65, 75, 101, 109–10, 119, 124n, 152, 162–4, 172Addis Ababa University117Master PlanAddis Standard21n, 60, 140n, 178–9Advertisement117, 131, 134, 137–8Aesthetic Deformation74Archive15, 18, 20, 54n, 94, 143Asad, Talal4, 116, 157, 186Asafa Jaleta47, 58n, 63, 66Association8nEthiopian Oromo Gada Waqqeeffana Ayyana Protection and Care Development Association81, 100–4Freedom of association98Oromia Association of Development138Oromo Studies Association61MTA, WFAAyyanadifferent names32guardian spirit20, 34, 86–7, 101–2possessed22Ayyantu52, 82, 101–4Bakhtin, Mikhail20, 147, 171, 173, 183, 186Battleground181, 183, 184Guss, DavidBayyana Sanbato2, 103nAba GadaBell, Catherine13, 179RitualsBenjamin, Walter22, 47, 138, 146, 164Bishoftu1, 6n, 7n, 14–5, 23, 27–8, 34, 36–7, 40–3, 53, 65, 70–79, 89, 104, 109–12, 117–26, 132–4, 144, 155, 178–9Borana30, 39–40, 68, 86–7, 97, 166Bourdieu, Pierre13, 84, 108, 115, 143Christianity4–5, 19, 34, 51, 75, 78–86, 101–2, 185Ethiopian Orthodox Christianity39, 55, 81, 116nChristiansChristianityCivil society5n, 8n, 161Compartmentalisation36–7space, placeComplicity12–14Catherine BellConstitution1995 constitution4, 49, 121–24, 182Constitutional framework4Constitutional provision15, 98, 101, 116, 146, 188freedomConviviality9–14, 139Corrupt practices74Counter Public102, 157Frazer, NancyDärg41, 72, 77, 92, 109, 120–22, 129, 188, 153, 165nDelega71, 79–80TranceDhibayu73LibationDiribi Demissie38–9, 50, 51n, 53–7, 65n, 74, 122–3, 143, 151nMTA; WFADissidence19, 114, 123, 148, 157–8, 168–9, 171, 175n, 176–9, 182–4Michel FoucaultDissimulation13–4, 172, 184Lisa WeddenDKT-Ethiopia138Doctrinal85Egypt10n, 31n, 55–9, 63, 133, 146, 185Samuli SchielkeEthiopiastate; EPRDF; post-1991, Ethnic federalismEthiopiawinet45, 47, 67Orommumma, IntellectualsEthnic federalism4–8, 14, 44–5, 54, 68, 115, 121–4, 158, 60, 188Ethnography15, 75nEPRDF1–8, 11, 62, 108, 110, 112–3, 117, 120–6, 139, 142, 158–61, 165, 168, 172–4, 188ethnic federalism; TPLF, OPDOEvangelical6, 57–8, 70, 75–7, 82, 83n, 98, 155Ezekiel Gebissa60, 62, 64Fairfield palace108–9, 116, 118Fanon, Franz45, 67–8, 106, 168, 175National cultureFDRE139Fieldwork15–6Finffinee30, 163, 164nFreedom52, 59, 66, 77, 94, 96, 98, 120n, 121, 126, 147, 171, 184cultural freedom126media freedom131n, 176religious freedom4, 15, 72, 82, 98–104, 111, 121–2Folksongs11n, 16, 19, 41, 148, 150, 159–60, 174–7, 184Foucault, Michel36, 145n, 164, 170HeterotopiaFraser, Nancy102, 157Gadaflag of143gada institution2n, 65gada officials25n, 37, 101, 103gada system59, 64, 97Tulema Gada Council2, 2n, 25n, 28n, 37, 64–5, 71, 73, 101–4, 112n, 113Union of the Abbaa Gadaa Councils65Gender14–5, 17, 41, 49, 68, 70, 96–8, 129, 157n, 187, 189gendered6, 19, 72, 87–8, 91, 94, 148, 187Guss, David20, 33, 183battlegroundHaile SelassieEmperor49, 77, 108, 117–9, 129Heterotopia36Holy water89–90, 109Hora ArsadiHora ArsadiAtrocity169communication25Irreecha at Hora Arsadi20, 145, 155spirit mediums32–3, 70–3, 80, 84–6, 92, 99–105Stories23–4Waaqa’s lake21, 26compartmentalisation; sacred space, tourist, investment, venue, self-presentation, OLF, MTA, OPDO/EPRDFIdentity5–10, 47, 160Abyssinian identity68cultural identity63ethnic identity17, 110, 121–3, 153, 160, 185, 188ethno-religious identity139gendered identity91identity politics52, 63national Ethiopian identity46national identity26, 33, 36, 60Oromo national identity18, 20, 44–7, 56, 60–2, 73, 139, 155political identity/politics188, 189religious identity51, 63, 66, 188Imagistic85Harvey WhitehouseIntellectuals45–8, 56–8, 60, 64–7, 70, 164n, 182Investment108, 110, 114–6, 145Iran9–10, 170Islam4–5, 19, 39, 50–1, 55, 80–2, 84, 86, 101, 185Journalists29, 48, 57–8, 93, 149, 161, 170, 177Kertzer, David2–3, 5, 179, 180Killability147Lemma Guya89, 149Libation26, 73–74Master plan3, 8, 162–5, 172Mbembe, Achille11–4, 138, 147Media8n, 9, 19, 25n, 28n, 37–8, 117, 131–2, 176Digital media177Internet based (online) media176–7Media attention113Media outlets93, 100n, 148, 161, 177–8Media reportage on Irreecha89Media representation108, 131, 133, 179Mediatisation131n, 176nPrint media55n, 100nSocial media164, 169, 176–7State (government) owned media131, 133–4, 176–7Mediumship6, 34, 69–80, 85–6, 88, 93–4, 98–9, 101–4, 186Mekuria Bulcha40, 45–7, 60–2, 66–7, 88n, 182Modes of religiosity85–86Harvey WhitehouseMTAa civil society association37Appropriated Irreecha56Historic MTA49, 50, 51nMagazine55, 58, 156MTA and OLF144–56newly reinstated48, 50n, 51, 74patronage53, 58, 92, 97, 156Popularising Irreecha123Multiple Irreechas33Maximalist33–6Mediumstic33–6Minimalstic33–6Muslims70, 75, 78, 80–1, 84, 87National culture6, 8, 45, 47–8, 50, 52, 63, 66–7, 69Irreecha as a national culture61–2, 63, 68IdentityNationalism54, 60, 65, 96, 98, 121, 187Oromo nationalism48, 49n, 54, 61–4, 70, 94–5, 158n, 159state nationalism136Identity; ethnic identity; national cultureNeocosmos, Michael5n, 7, 180Oda Tree23, 26–7, 31, 33, 75nsacred tree34, 70, 76, 79, 88–9, 93n, 94–5, 100, 106, 187OLF19, 53n, 56, 114n, 120, 123–26, 142–163, 170, 175n, 182OPDO1–2, 7n, 8n, 28n, 77, 139, 149, 153, 154, 156, 158–9, 162, 166–7, 172–5Oromia115, 127, 132, 152–3, 163–5, 175Oromia Media Network177Oromia regional state1, 7, 8n, 14–5, 21, 31, 33–4, 36, 39, 54, 100, 117n, 127, 132, 139, 141n, 144n, 162–3, 169Oromia Regional State Culture and Tourism Bureau20, 25, 27–8, 34, 37–38, 56, 59, 70, 72–3, 75, 79n, 102, 111, 113, 123–4ORSCTB34, 37, 125, 145Oro-mara137Oromumma18, 45, 51–6, 60, 62–3, 65–6, 68, 70, 172, 177Pan Oromo40, 44, 46, 61–2Centre40Irreecha18, 38, 65, 78, 88Rallying point26Symbol38, 60Patronage9–10, 19, 48, 53, 58, 65, 117, 123, 156Pawlos Gnogno88PoliticalParties2, 5, 123–4, 161, 182EPRDF; OPDO; OLF; TPLFPractices2–5, 7–8, 10–12, 139, 148, 160, 179, 183Processes2–3, 5, 8–12, 19, 108, 147–8, 159, 185, 187, 189Subjectivities5, 7–8, 13, 16, 19, 96, 148, 159, 183, 188Thoughts5, 7–12, 139, 188Post-19912, 4, 6, 14, 26, 62n, 82, 108, 121, 165, 181, 185, 187Prayer1–2, 16, 20–23, 26, 29–30, 34, 37, 39, 43, 54n, 73, 86, 88–94, 106, 125, 127, 149, 157, 163, 167, 175Prime MinisterAbiy Ahmed173Demeke Mekonnen173Hailemariam Desalegn146n, 161Meles Zenawi1, 161Qallu/Qalliti22–3, 32, 86–7Ayyana; spirits; mediumship; multiple IrreechasQeerro165–8, 173Reed, Susan37, 53n, 69, 70, 107Resistrance104–6Religiousinstitutions5, 15, 40, 49n, 65, 70, 83n, 84–7, 113, 185practice6, 8, 16, 18, 35, 39–40, 51, 57, 80–2, 84–5, 119, 133, 155, 176revival4, 45, 64–5rights4, 77, 115, 182, 186subjectivities183freedom; identity; sacredResponsibilisation127, 130, 140Sacredbecoming133experience25knowledge70object26, 57sacred death163sacred day178space15–6, 20, 24, 26, 35–6, 40, 43, 75, 108, 112–17, 127, 133, 178Hora Arsadi; Oda tree; compartmentalisationSchielke, Samuli20, 31n, 33, 99, 147, 185–6Scott, James8, 12, 147, 168–9Spectacle33, 130, 181–3Spectators130, 175, 183Speech1–2, 11, 16, 19, 55–6, 61–2, 65–6, 77, 79n, 81, 92, 108, 112n, 117, 125, 128–30, 37, 156Spiritsguardian, Waaqa assigned, benevolent20–2, 26, 30, 33, 70, 74, 87, 101invocation/possession31, 37, 71, 101–2, 105–6Hora Arsadi; trance, delega; ayyana; multiple Irreechas; Oda tree; Resisitrance; mediumshipSubjectivity68, 130, 187political subjectivityStateDevelopmental state115Ethiopian state5, 46, 66, 179, 185, 187Federal state1, 7n, 8, 115, 152, 158, 159nP’énté state99State-building4State society relation9, 16, 168, 177ethnic federalism; Oromia regional state, FDRESelf-presentation63, 116–7, 178, 182Secularsecular reason186secular state115secularising99secularism185secularist principles121, 185Securitisation143Senegal9–10Sida26–7Sri Lanka37Reed, SusanSyriaLisa WedeenThanksgiving1–2, 8, 18, 20–1, 23, 26, 34–8, 41n, 57–9, 63, 79nTPLF3, 19, 62n, 152–4, 158–9, 165–8, 172, 188EPRDF; OPDO; political partiesTrance31, 34, 42, 71–4, 78, 80, 84–5, 87, 94, 99–101, 104, 106delegaTsegaye Gebremedhin6, 56, 149Tulema18, 20–1, 23, 26, 28n, 38–45, 48–9, 57, 60, 86–8, 103MTA; Tulema Gada CouncilVenue14, 116, 139, 148, 158, 184Violence3, 8n, 19, 46, 70, 75n, 108, 129, 140, 142–6, 148, 151n, 161, 167, 178, 187Waaqalakes and mountains21Sky God/creator3unWaaqa83Waaqa-given benevolent spirits33Waaqayyoo163Waqqeeffana19, 34, 47, 51–2, 55–6, 59, 66, 72, 74, 81, 83–6, 100, 102, 104, 157WFA55, 72, 74–5AssociationWedeen, Lisa13, 17, 130, 139, 172, 182, 184Whitehouse, Harvey85–6Women6, 19, 22, 28, 30, 41–2, 69–70, 72, 75n, 88–98, 108, 119, 129, 149, 170, 187