References

In: Reading Islam
Author: Fabio Vicini
Free access
References

Abenante, Paola. 2013. “Inner and Outer Ways: Sufism and Subjectivity in Egypt and Beyond.” Ethnos: Journal of Anthropology 78 (4): 490514.

  • Search Google Scholar
  • Export Citation

Abenante, Paola, and Fabio Vicini. 2017. “Interiority Unbound: Sufi and Modern Articulations of the Self.” Culture and Religion 18 (2): 5771.

  • Search Google Scholar
  • Export Citation

Acar, Feride. 1991. “Women in the Ideology of Islamic Revivalism in Turkey: Three Islamic Women’s Journals.” In Islam in Modern Turkey: Religion, Politics and Literature in a Secular State, edited by Richard Tapper, 280303. London and New York: I.B. Tauris.

  • Search Google Scholar
  • Export Citation

Agai, Bekim. 2003. “The Gülen Movement’s Islamic Ethic of Education.” In Turkish Islam and the Secular State: The Gülen Movement, edited by M. Hakan Yavuz and John L. Esposito, 4868. Syracuse, NY: Syracuse University Press.

  • Search Google Scholar
  • Export Citation

Agai, Bekim. 2007. “Islam and Education in Secular Turkey: State Policies and the Emergence of the Fethullah Gülen Group.” In Schooling Islam: The Culture and Politics of Modern Muslim Education, edited by Robert W. Hefner and Muhammad Qasim Zaman, 149171. Princeton: Princeton University Press.

  • Search Google Scholar
  • Export Citation

Agamben, Giorgio. 2013. The Highest Poverty: Monastic Rules and Form-of-Life. Stanford: Stanford University Press.

Ahmad, Feroz. 1993. The Making of Modern Turkey. London and New York: Routledge.

Ahmad, Irfan. 2017. Religion as Critique: Islamic Critical Thinking From Mecca to the Marketplace. Chapel Hill, NC: The University of North Carolina Press.

  • Search Google Scholar
  • Export Citation

Ahmed, Shahab. 2016. What Is Islam? The Importance of Being Islamic. Princeton: Princeton University Press.

Aishima, Hatsuki. 2016. Public Culture and Islam in Modern Egypt. London and New York: I.B. Tauris.

Akşit, Bahattin. 1991. “Islamic Education in Turkey: Medrese Reform in Late Ottoman Times and Imam-Hatip Schools in the Republic.” In Islam in Modern Turkey: Religion, Politics and Literature in a Secular State, edited by Richard Tapper, 145170. London and New York: I.B. Tauris.

  • Search Google Scholar
  • Export Citation

Al-Anani, Khalil. 2016. Inside the Muslim Brotherhood: Religion, Identity, and Politics. New York: Oxford University Press.

Al-Attas, Syed Muhammad Naguib. 1979. “Preliminary Thoughts on the Nature of Knowledge and the Definition and Aims of Education.” In Aims and Objectives of Islamic Education, edited by Syed Muhammad Naguib Al-Attas, 1947. London: Hodder & Stoughton.

  • Search Google Scholar
  • Export Citation

Alatas, Syed Farid. 2017. “Said Nursi (1877–1960).” In Sociological Theory Beyond the Canon, edited by Syed Farid Alatas and Vineeta Sinha, 205236. London: Palgrave Macmillan.

  • Search Google Scholar
  • Export Citation

Algar, Hamid. 2001. “The Centennial Renewer: Bediüzzaman Said Nursi and the Tradition of Tajdid.” Journal of Islamic Studies 12 (3): 291311.

  • Search Google Scholar
  • Export Citation

Ali, Jan A. 2012. Islamic Revivalism Encounters the Modern World: A Study of the Tabligh Jama‘at. New Delhi: Sterling Publishers.

Altinay, Ayşe Gül. 2006. The Myth of the Military-Nation: Militarism, Gender, and Education in Turkey. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.

Anderson, Benedict. 1991 [1983]. Imagined Communities: Reflections on the Origin and Spread of Nationalism. London and New York: Verso.

Angey, Gabrielle. 2018. “The Gülen Movement and the Transfer of a Political Conflict from Turkey to Senegal.” Politics, Religion & Ideology 19 (1): 5368.

  • Search Google Scholar
  • Export Citation

Anjum, Ovamir. 2007. “Islam as a Discursive Tradition: Talal Asad and His Interlocutors.” Comparative Studies of South Asia, Africa and the Middle East 27 (3): 656672.

  • Search Google Scholar
  • Export Citation

Anscombe, Gertrude E. M. 1958. “Modern Moral Philosophy.” Philosophy 33 (124): 119.

Asad, Talal. 1986. The Idea of an Anthropology of Islam. Washington, DC: Georgetown University Center for Contemporary Arab Studies.

Asad, Talal. 1993. Genealogies of Religion: Discipline and Reasons of Power in Christianity and Islam. Baltimore and London: Johns Hopkins University Press.

  • Search Google Scholar
  • Export Citation

Asad, Talal. 2003. Formations of the Secular: Christianity, Islam, Modernity. Stanford: Stanford University Press.

Asad, Talal. 2015. “Thinking About Tradition, Religion, and Politics in Egypt Today.” Critical Inquiry 42 (1): 166214.

Asad, Talal. 2018. Secular Translations: Nation-State, Modern Self, and Calculative Reason. New York: Columbia University Press.

Atasoy, Yıldız. 1997. “Islamic Revivalism and the Nation-State Project: Competing Claims for Modernity.” Social Compass 44 (1): 8399.

  • Search Google Scholar
  • Export Citation

Ay, Mehmet Emin. 1993. Din Eğitimi ve Öğretiminde Mükafat ve Ceza. Izmir: Uludağ Üniversitesi Basımevi.

Babou, Cheikh A. M. 2007. Fighting the Greater Jihad: Amadu Bamba and the Founding of the Muridiyya of Senegal, 1853–1913. Athens, OH: Ohio University Press.

  • Search Google Scholar
  • Export Citation

Bacık, Gökhan. 2018. “How Has the Gülen Movement Ended Up Where It Is?Ahval, May 9, 2018. Accessed July 17, 2018. https://ahvalnews.com/gulen-movement/how-has-gulen-movement-ended-where-it.

  • Search Google Scholar
  • Export Citation

Baker, Barbara G. 2018. “Erdoğan Demands Gülen Extradition for US Pastor’s Release.” World Watch Monitor, April 23, 2018. Accessed July 17, 2018. https://www.worldwatchmonitor.org/2018/04/erdogan-demands-gulen-extradition-for-us-pastors-release/.

  • Search Google Scholar
  • Export Citation

Balci, Bayram. 2003. Missionnaires de l’Islam en Asie Centrale: Les Écoles Turques de Fethullah Gülen. Paris and Istanbul: Maisonneuve & Larose–Institut Français d’Études Anatoliennes.

  • Search Google Scholar
  • Export Citation

Balci, Tamer, and Christopher L. Miller, eds. 2012. The Gülen Hizmet Movement: Circumspect Activism in Faith-Based Reform. Newcastle upon Tyne: Cambridge Scholars.

  • Search Google Scholar
  • Export Citation

BBC. 2013. “Turkey Ministers Caglayan, Guler and Bayraktar Resign Amid Scandal.” BBC News, December 25, 2013. Accessed June 14, 2018. https://www.bbc.com/news/world-europe-25514579.

  • Search Google Scholar
  • Export Citation

Bein, Amit. 2011. Ottoman Ulema, Turkish Republic: Agents of Change and Guardians of Tradition. Stanford: Stanford University Press.

Bellah, Robert N. 1999. “Max Weber and World-Denying Love: A Look at the Historical Sociology of Religion.” Journal of the American Academy of Religion 67 (2): 277304.

  • Search Google Scholar
  • Export Citation

Berkes, Niyazi. 1998 [1964]. The Development of Secularism in Turkey. London: Hurst.

Bialecki, Jon. 2014. “Does God Exist in Methodological Atheism? On Tanya Lurhmann’s When God Talks Back and Bruno Latour.” Anthropology of Consciousness 25 (1): 3252.

  • Search Google Scholar
  • Export Citation

Bialecki, Jon. 2018. “Anthropology, Theology, and the Challenge of Immanence.” In Theologically Engaged Anthropology, edited by J. Derrick Lemons, 156178. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

  • Search Google Scholar
  • Export Citation

Bilici, Faruk. 1993. “Sociabilité et Expression Politique Islamiste en Turquie: Les Nouveaux Waqfs en Turquie.” Revue Française de Science Politique 43 (3): 412434.

  • Search Google Scholar
  • Export Citation

Bilici, Mucahit. 2006. “The Gülen Movement and Its Politics of Representation in Turkey.” The Muslim World 96 (1): 120.

Birgün. 2017. “FETÖ’den Boşalan Yerler Yeni Tarikatlarla Dolduruldu.” Birgün, August 11, 2017. Accessed July 17, 2018. https://www.birgun.net/haber-detay/feto-den-bosalan-yerler-yeni-tarikatlarla-dolduruldu-174268.html.

  • Export Citation

Birnbaum, Michael. 2013. “In Turkey Protests, Splits in Erdogan’s Base.” The Washington Post, June 14, 2013. Accessed June 14, 2018. https://www.washingtonpost.com/world/erdogan-offers-concessions-to-turkeys-protesters/2013/06/14/9a87fff6-d4bf-11e2-a73e-826d299ff459_story.html?noredirect=on&utm_term=.6caf10f546d5.

  • Search Google Scholar
  • Export Citation

Bowen, John R. 1993. Muslims Through Discourse: Religion and Ritual in Gayo Society. Princeton: Princeton University Press.

Boyle, Helen N. 2004. Quranic Schools: Agents of Preservation and Change. New York and London: Routledge.

Bozdoğan, Sibel, and Reşat Kasaba, eds. 1997. Rethinking Modernity and National Identity in Turkey. Seattle, WA: University of Washington Press.

  • Search Google Scholar
  • Export Citation

Bruinessen, Martin van. 2009. “Sufism, ‘Popular’ Islam and the Encounter with Modernity.” In Islam and Modernity: Key Issues and Debates, edited by Masud M. Khalid, Armando Salvatore and Martin van Bruinessen, 125157. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press.

  • Search Google Scholar
  • Export Citation

Bulaç, Ali. 2007. Din, Kent ve Cemaat: Fethullah Gülen Örneği. Istanbul: Ufuk Kitap.

Butler, Daren. 2012. “Turkish Spy Row Hits Kurdish Peace, Democratization Move.” Reuters, February 17, 2012. Accessed June 14, 2018. https://www.reuters.com/article/us-turkey-kurds-idUSTRE81G0HT20120217.

  • Search Google Scholar
  • Export Citation

Calverley, Edwin E. 1943. “Doctrines of the Soul (Nafs and Ruh) in Islam.” The Muslim World 33 (4): 254264.

Casanova, José. 1994. Public Religions in the Modern World. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press.

Cebecioğlu, Ethem. 1997. Hizmet. In Tasavvuf Terimleri ve Deyimleri Sözlüğü, edited by Ethem Cebecioğlu. Ankara: Rehber.

Chih, Rachida. 2007. “What is a Sufi Order? Revisiting the Concept Through a Case Study of the Khalwatiyya in Contemporary Egypt.” In Sufism and the “Modern” in Islam, edited by Martin van Bruinessen and Julia D. Howell, 2138. London and New York: I.B. Tauris.

  • Search Google Scholar
  • Export Citation

Chittick, William C. 1989. The Sufi Path of Knowledge: Ibn Arabi’s Metaphysics of Imagination. Albany, NY: SUNY Press.

Chittick, William C. 1998. The Self-Disclosure of God: Principles of Ibn al-Arabi’s Cosmology. Albany, NY: SUNY Press.

Chittick, William C. 2000. Faith and Practice of Islam: Three Thirteenth Century Sufi Texts. Kuala Lumpur: S. Abdul Majeed & Co.

Chittick, William C. 2007. Sufism: A Beginner’s Guide. London: Oneworld Publications.

Chittick, William C. 2011. “Wahdat Al-Shuhud.” In Encyclopedia of Islam, 2nd Edition, edited by P. Bearman, Th. Bianquis, C. E. Bosworth, E. van Donzel and W. P. Heinrichs. Leiden: Brill.

  • Search Google Scholar
  • Export Citation

Coleman, Janet. 1994. “MacIntyre and Aquinas.” In After MacIntyre: Critical Perspectives on the Work of Alasdair MacIntyre, edited by John Horton and Susan Mendus. Cambridge: Polity Press.

  • Search Google Scholar
  • Export Citation

Cook, David. 2015. Understanding Jihad. Oakland, CA: University of California Press.

Cooper, John. 1999 [1993]. “Rumi and Hikmat: Towards a Reading of Sabziwari’s Commentary on the Mathnawi.” In The Heritage of Sufism, Vol. I, edited by Leonard Lewisohn, 409433. Oxford: Oneworld Publications.

  • Search Google Scholar
  • Export Citation

Copeaux, Etienne. 1996. “Hizmet: A Keyword in the Turkish Historical Narrative.” New Perspectives on Turkey 14 (Spring): 97114.

Copeaux, Etienne. 1998. “Ahmed Arvasi, un Idéologue de la Synthèse Turco-Islamique.” Turcica 30: 211223.

Corbin, Henry. 1993. History of Islamic Philosophy. London and New York: Kegan Paul International.

Corbin, Henry. 1998 [1969]. Alone with the Alone: Creative Imagination in the Sufism of Ibn Arabi. Princeton: Princeton University Press.

  • Search Google Scholar
  • Export Citation

Cornell, Vincent J. 2010. “Reasons Public and Divine: Liberal Democracy, Shariʿa Fundamentalism, and the Epistemological Crisis of Islam.” In Rethinking Islamic Studies: From Orientalism to Cosmopolitanism, edited by Carl W. Ernst and Richard C. Martin, 2351. Columbia, SC: The University of South Carolina Press.

  • Search Google Scholar
  • Export Citation

Coşkun, Feray. 2011. “An Ottoman Preacher’s Perception of a Medieval Cosmography: Mahmud al-Hatib’s Translation of Kharidat al-Aja’ib wa Faridat al-Ghara’ib.” Al-Masaq 23 (1): 5366.

  • Search Google Scholar
  • Export Citation

Coşkun, Şevki. 2006. “Sağa Yatarak Uyuma.” Sızıntı 28 (327).

Çaǧatay, Neşet. 1968. “The Tradition of Mavlid Recitations in Islam Particularly in Turkey.” Studia Islamica 28: 127133.

Çaha, Ömer, Yasin Aktay, Ferhat Kentel, and Ramazan Yelken. 2011. Türkiye Cemaatlerle Barışık. Istanbul: Andy-ar Strateji Geliştirme ve Sosyal Araştırmalar Merkezi.

  • Search Google Scholar
  • Export Citation

Çakır, Ruşen, and Semih Sakallı. 2014. 100 Soruda Erdoğan x Gülen Savaşı. Istanbul: Metis Yayıncılık.

Çelik, Gürkan, Johan Leman, and Karel Steenbrink, eds. 2015. Gülen-Inspired Hizmet in Europe: The Western Journey of a Turkish Muslim Movement. Brussels: Peter Lang.

  • Search Google Scholar
  • Export Citation

Çepni, Ozan. 2018. “Güneydoğu Nurculara Kaldı.” Cumhuriyet, February 13, 2018. Accessed July 17, 2018. http://www.cumhuriyet.com.tr/haber/egitim/925998/Guneydogu_Nurculara_kaldi.html.

  • Search Google Scholar
  • Export Citation

Çınar, Alev. 2005. Modernity, Islam, and Secularism in Turkey: Bodies, Places, and Time. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.

Danielson, Michael N., and Ruşen Keleş. 1985. Politics of Rapid Urbanization: Government and Growth in Modern Turkey. New York and London: Holmes and Meier.

  • Search Google Scholar
  • Export Citation

Daston, Lorraine, and Katharine Park. 1998. Wonders and the Order of Nature, 1150–1750. New York: Zone Books.

Davison, Andrew. 2003. “Turkey, a ‘Secular’ State? The Challenge of Description.” South Atlantic Quarterly 102 (2–3): 333350.

  • Search Google Scholar
  • Export Citation

Deeb, Lara. 2006. An Enchanted Modern: Gender and Public Piety in Shi’i Lebanon. Princeton: Princeton University Press.

Deeb, Lara. 2015. “Thinking Piety and the Everyday Together: A Response to Fadil and Fernando.” HAU: Journal of Ethnographic Theory 5 (2): 9396.

  • Search Google Scholar
  • Export Citation

Delibaş, Kayhan. 2014. The Rise of Political Islam in Turkey: Urban Poverty, Grassroots Activism and Islamic Fundamentalism. London and New York: I.B. Tauris.

  • Search Google Scholar
  • Export Citation

Dohrn, Kristina. 2014. “Translocal Ethics: Hizmet Teachers and the Formation of Gülen-Inspired Schools in Urban Tanzania.” Sociology of Islam 1 (3–4): 233256.

  • Search Google Scholar
  • Export Citation

Dohrn, Kristina. 2018. “Navigating the Future of the Gülen Movement in Tanzania.” In Turkey’s July 15th Coup: What Happened and Why, edited by Hakan M. Yavuz and Bayram Balci. Salt Lake City: Utah University Press.

  • Search Google Scholar
  • Export Citation

Donzel, Emeri J. van. 2011. “Mudjaddid.” In Encyclopedia of Islam, 2nd Edition, edited by P. Bearman, Th. Bianquis, C. E. Bosworth, E. van Donzel and W. P. Heinrichs. Leiden: Brill.

  • Search Google Scholar
  • Export Citation

Dumovich, Liza. 2018. “Pious Creativity: Negotiating Hizmet in South America after July 2016.” Politics, Religion & Ideology 19 (1): 8194.

  • Search Google Scholar
  • Export Citation

Dupret, Baudouin. 2004. “The Person and the Law: Contingency, Individuation and the Subject of the Law.” In Standing Trial: Law and the Person in the Modern Middle East, edited by Baudouin Dupret, 938. London and New York: I.B. Tauris.

  • Search Google Scholar
  • Export Citation

Ebaugh, Helen R. F. 2010. The Gülen Movement: A Sociological Analysis of a Civic Movement Rooted in Moderate Islam. Dordrecht, London and New York: Springer.

  • Search Google Scholar
  • Export Citation

Eickelman, Dale F. 1978. “The Art of Memory: Islamic Education and its Social Reproduction.” Comparative Studies in Society and History 20 (4): 485516.

  • Search Google Scholar
  • Export Citation

Eickelman, Dale F. 1992. “Mass Higher Education and the Religious Imagination in Contemporary Arab Societies.” American Ethnologist 19 (4): 643655.

  • Search Google Scholar
  • Export Citation

Eickelman, Dale F. 2003. “Qur’anic Commentary, Public Space, and Religious Intellectuals in the Writings of Said Nursi.” In Islam at the Crossroads: On the Life and Thought of Bediuzzaman Said Nursi, edited by Ibrahim M. Abu-Rabi, 5160. Albany, NY: SUNY Press.

  • Search Google Scholar
  • Export Citation

Eickelman, Dale F., and Jon W. Anderson, eds. 2003. New Media in the Muslim World: The Emerging Public Sphere. Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press.

  • Search Google Scholar
  • Export Citation

Eickelman, Dale F., and James Piscatori. 1996. Muslim Politics. Princeton: Princeton University Press.

Eickelman, Dale F., and Armando Salvatore. 2006. “Muslim Publics.” In Public Islam and the Common Good, edited by Armando Salvatore and Dale F. Eickelman, 327. Leiden and Boston: Brill.

  • Search Google Scholar
  • Export Citation

El-Zein, Abdul Hamid. 1977. “Beyond Ideology and Theology: The Search for the Anthropology of Islam.” Annual Review of Anthropology 6: 227254.

  • Search Google Scholar
  • Export Citation

Elliot, Alice. 2016. “The Makeup of Destiny: Predestination and the Labor of Hope in a Moroccan Emigrant Town.” American Ethnologist 43 (3): 488499.

  • Search Google Scholar
  • Export Citation

Erder, Sema. 1996. İstanbul’da Bir Kent Kondu: Ümraniye. Istanbul: İletişim Yayınları.

Erdoğan, Latif. 2006 [1995]. Fethullah Gülen Hocaefendi: Küçük Dünyam. Istanbul: Ufuk Kitapları.

Es-Suyuti, Celaleddin. 1994. Peygamberimizin Mucizeleri ve Büyük Özellikleri. Konya: Uysal Kitabevi.

Euben, Roxanne L. 2001. Enemy in the Mirror: Islamic Fundamentalism and the Limits of Modern Rationalism. Princeton: Princeton University Press.

  • Search Google Scholar
  • Export Citation

Ewing, Katherine P. 1997. Arguing Sainthood: Modernity, Psychoanalysis, and Islam. Durham, NC: Duke University Press.

Fadil, Nadia. 2011. “Not-/unveiling as an Ethical Practice.” Feminist Review 98 (July): 83109.

Fadil, Nadia, and Mayanthi Fernando. 2015. “Rediscovering the ‘Everyday’ Muslim: Notes on an Anthropological Divide.” HAU: Journal of Ethnographic Theory 5 (2): 5988.

  • Search Google Scholar
  • Export Citation

Farag, Iman. 2001. “Private Life, Public Affairs: The Uses of Adab.” In Muslim Traditions and Modern Techniques of Power, Yearbook of the Sociology of Islam, Vol. III, edited by Armando Salvatore, 93120. Hamburg: Lit/New Brunswick, NJ and London: Transaction.

  • Search Google Scholar
  • Export Citation

Fassin, Didier. 2014. “The Ethical Turn in Anthropology: Promises and Uncertainties.” HAU: Journal of Ethnographic Theory 4 (1): 429435.

  • Search Google Scholar
  • Export Citation

Faubion, James D. 2011. An Anthropology of Ethics. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Findley, Carter V. 1980. Bureaucratic Reform in the Ottoman Empire: The Sublime Porte, 1789–1922. Princeton: Princeton University Press.

  • Search Google Scholar
  • Export Citation

Fortna, Benjamin. 2002. Imperial Classroom: Islam, Education and the State in Late Ottoman Empire. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Foucault, Michel. 1972. The Archeology of Knowledge and the Discourse on Language. New York: Pantheon Books.

Foucault, Michel. 1980. Power/Knowledge: Selected Interviews and Other Writings 1972–1977. New York: Pantheon Books.

Foucault, Michel. 1982. “Le Combat de la Chasteté.” Communications 35: 1525.

Foucault, Michel. 1991. “Governmentality.” In The Foucault Effect: Studies in Governmentality, edited by G. Burchell, C. Gordon and P. Miller, 87104. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press.

  • Search Google Scholar
  • Export Citation

Foucault, Michel. 1997a. “Technologies of the Self.” In Ethics: Subjectivity and Truth, Essential Works of Foucault, 1954–1984, Vol. I, edited by Paul Rabinow, 223252. New York: New Press.

  • Search Google Scholar
  • Export Citation

Foucault, Michel. 1997b. “The Ethics of Concern of the Self as a Practice of Freedom.” In Ethics: Subjectivity and Truth, Essential Works of Foucault, 1954–1984, Vol. I, edited by Paul Rabinow, 253280. New York: New Press.

  • Search Google Scholar
  • Export Citation

Foucault, Michel. 1997c. “On the Genealogy of Ethics: An Overview of Work in Progress.” In Ethics: Subjectivity and Truth, Essential Works of Foucault, 1954–1984, Vol. I, edited by Paul Rabinow, 281301. New York: New Press.

  • Search Google Scholar
  • Export Citation

Fountain, Philip, and Sin Wen Lau. 2013. “Anthropological Theologies: Engagements and Encounters.” The Australian Journal of Anthropology 24 (3): 227234.

  • Search Google Scholar
  • Export Citation

Franks, Tim. 2014. “Fethullah Gulen: Powerful but Reclusive Turkish Cleric.” BBC News, January 27, 2014. Accessed July 20, 2018. https://www.bbc.com/news/world-europe-25885817.

  • Search Google Scholar
  • Export Citation

Friedmann, Yohanan. 2008. “Shaykh Ahmad Sirhindi and Bediuzzaman Nursi: Some Comparative Considerations.” In Spiritual Dimensions of Bediuzzaman Said Nursi’s Risale-i Nur, edited by Ibrahim M. Abu-Rabi, 275285. Albany, NY: SUNY Press.

  • Search Google Scholar
  • Export Citation

Gabrieli, Francesco. 2011. “Adab.” In Encyclopedia of Islam, 2nd Edition, edited by P. Bearman, Th. Bianquis, C. E. Bosworth, E. van Donzel and W. P. Heinrichs. Leiden: Brill.

  • Search Google Scholar
  • Export Citation

Gaibazzi, Paolo. 2015. “The Quest for Luck: Fate, Fortune, Work and the Unexpected Among Gambian Soninke Hustlers.” Critical African Studies 7 (3): 227242.

  • Search Google Scholar
  • Export Citation

Gardet, Louis. 2011a. “Fikr.” In Encyclopedia of Islam, 2nd Edition, edited by P. Bearman, Th. Bianquis, C. E. Bosworth, E. van Donzel and W. P. Heinrichs. Leiden: Brill.

  • Search Google Scholar
  • Export Citation

Gardet, Louis. 2011b. “Ikhlas.” In Encyclopedia of Islam, 2nd Edition, edited by P. Bearman, Th. Bianquis, C. E. Bosworth, E. van Donzel and W. P. Heinrichs. Leiden: Brill.

  • Search Google Scholar
  • Export Citation

Gaskins, Suzanne, and Ruth Paradise. 2009. “Learning Through Observation in Daily Life.” In The Anthropology of Learning in Childhood, edited by David F. Lancy, John Bock, Susanne Gaskins and Walnut Creek, 85117. Lanham, MD: AltaMira Press.

  • Search Google Scholar
  • Export Citation

Geertz, Clifford. 1968. Islam Observed: Religious Development in Morocco and Indonesia. New Haven: Yale University Press.

Gellner, Ernest. 1983. Muslim Society. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Gerber, Haim. 2002. “The Public Sphere and Civil Society in the Ottoman Empire.” In The Public Sphere in Muslim Societies, edited by Miriam Hoexter, Shmuel N. Eisenstadt and Nehemia Levtzion, 6582. Albany, NY: SUNY Press.

  • Search Google Scholar
  • Export Citation

Giladi, Avner. 1989. “Concepts of Childhood and Attitudes Towards Children in Medieval Islam: A Preliminary Study with Special Reference to Reaction to Infant and Child Morality.” Journal of the Economic and Social History of the Orient 32 (2): 121152.

  • Search Google Scholar
  • Export Citation

Gilsenan, Michael. 1973. Saint and Sufi in Modern Egypt: An Essay in the Sociology of Religion. Oxford: Clarendon Press.

Gilsenan, Michael. 2005 [1982]. Recognizing Islam: Religion and Society in the Modern Middle East. London and New York: I.B. Tauris.

Gökalp, Ziya. 1959. “Islam and Modern Civilization.” In Turkish Nationalism and Western Civilization, edited by Niyazi Berkes, 214223. London: George Allen and Unwin.

  • Search Google Scholar
  • Export Citation

Göle, Nilüfer. 1996. The Forbidden Modern: Civilization and Veiling. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press.

Göle, Nilüfer. 1997. “The Quest for the Islamic Self Within the Context of Modernity.” In Rethinking Modernity and National Identity in Turkey, edited by Sibel Bozdoğan and Reşat Kasaba, 8194. Seattle, WA: University of Washington Press.

  • Search Google Scholar
  • Export Citation

Göle, Nilüfer. 2002. “Islam in Public: New Visibilities and New Imaginaries.” Public Culture 14 (1): 173190.

Gräf, Bettina, and Jakob Skovgaard-Petersen. 2009. Global Mufti: The Phenomenon of Yusuf al-Qaradawi. New York: Columbia University Press.

  • Search Google Scholar
  • Export Citation

Green, Nile. 2012. Sufism: A Global History. Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell.

Guida, Michelangelo. 2008. “The Sèvres Syndrome and ‘Komplo’ Theories in the Islamist and Secular Press.” Turkish Studies 9 (1): 3752.

  • Search Google Scholar
  • Export Citation

Guida, Michelangelo. 2010. “The New Islamists’ Understanding of Democracy in Turkey: The Examples of Ali Bulaç and Hayreddin Karaman.” Turkish Studies 11 (3): 347370.

  • Search Google Scholar
  • Export Citation

Guida, Michelangelo. 2012. “Founders of Islamism in Republican Turkey: Kısakürek and Topçu.” In Intellectuals and Civil Society in the Middle East: Liberalism, Modernity and Political Discourse, edited by Mohammed A. Bamyeh, 111133. London and New York: I.B. Tauris.

  • Search Google Scholar
  • Export Citation

Guida, Michelangelo. 2014. “Nurettin Topçu and Necip Fazıl Kısakürek: Stories of ‘Conversion’ and Activism in Republican Turkey.” Journal for Islamic Studies 34 (1): 98117.

  • Search Google Scholar
  • Export Citation

Guyer, Paul. 2010. Kant on Freedom, Law, and Happiness. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Gülen, Fethullah. 1990. “Beklenen Gençlik.” Sızıntı 135 (April).

Gülen, Fethullah. 1996. I’lâ-yi Kelimetullah veya Cihad. Izmir: Nil Yayınları.

Gülen, Fethullah. 1997. “Kaos İçindeki Işık.” Sızıntı 218 (March).

Gülen, Fethullah. 1998a. “Claims and Answers.” Aksiyon, June 6, 1998.

Gülen, Fethullah. 1998b. İrşad Ekseni. Izmir: Nil Yayınları.

Gülen, Fethullah. 1998c. Ruhumuzun Heykelini Dikerken. Istanbul: Nil Yayınları.

Gülen, Fethullah. 1998d. Towards the Lost Paradise. Izmir: Kaynak.

Gülen, Fethullah. 1999. Sonsuz Nur. Izmir: Nil Yayınları.

Gülen, Fethullah. 2005. “İsyan Ahlakı Değil İnat Ahlaksızlığı.” Herkül.org, June 12, 2005. Accessed May 15, 2016. www.herkul.org/kirik-testi/isyan-ahlaki-degil-inat-ahlaksizligi.

  • Search Google Scholar
  • Export Citation

Gülen, Fethullah. 2008. Prizma 2. Izmir: Nil Yayınları.

Gülen, Fethullah. 2010a. “Gıybet Eden Yanınızda Konuşturmayın.” Zaman Gazetesi, March 12, 2010.

Gülen, Fethullah. 2010b. “Gıybet ve Fitnenin Olduğu bir Börüşme Kısırdır.” Zaman Gazetesi, March 5, 2010.

Gülen, Fethullah. 2010c. “İhtilaf Ne Zaman Rahmet Olur?”, April 9, 2010. Accessed August 7, 2012. http://tr.fgulen.com/content/view/18377/18/.

  • Export Citation

Gülen, Ramiz B. (penname of Gülen, Fethullah). 1981a. “Gençliğin Problemlerine Doğru.” Sızıntı 3 (26).

Gülen, Ramiz B. (penname of Gülen, Fethullah). 1981b. “Gençliğin Problemlerine Doğru: Yuva.” Sızıntı 3 (28).

Gülen, Ramiz B. (penname of Gülen, Fethullah). 1981c. “Gençlik: Gençliğin Problemleri.” Sızıntı 3 (35).

Gülen, Ramiz B. (penname of Gülen, Fethullah). 1990. “Beklenen Gençlik.” Sızıntı 12 (135).

Gülen, Ramiz B. (penname of Gülen, Fethullah). 1992a. “Işık Evler (1).” Sızıntı 14 (156).

Gülen, Ramiz B. (penname of Gülen, Fethullah). 1992b. “Işık Evler (2).” Sızıntı 14 (157).

Güneş-Ayata, Ayşe. 1991. “Pluralism Versus Authoritarianism: Political Ideas in Two Islamic Publications.” In Islam in Modern Turkey: Religion, Politics and Literature in a Secular State, edited by Richard Tapper, 254279. London and New York: I.B. Tauris.

  • Search Google Scholar
  • Export Citation

Güven, Yusuf M. 2010. Gözümü Haramdan Nasıl Kururum. Istanbul: Işık Yayınları.

Habermas, Jürgen. 1989. The Structural Transformation of the Public Sphere: An Inquiry Into a Category of Bourgeois Society. Cambridge: Polity Press.

  • Search Google Scholar
  • Export Citation

Hadot, Pierre. 1995. Philosophy as a Way of Life: Spiritual Exercises From Socrates to Foucault. Malden, MA: Blackwell.

Hadot, Pierre. 2004. What is Ancient Philosophy? Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

Hallaq, Wael B. 2009. Shari‘a: Theory, Practice, Transformations. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Hallaq, Wael B. 2013. The Impossible State: Islam, Politics, and Modernity’s Moral Predicament. New York: Columbia University Press.

Halstead, Mark J. 2004. “An Islamic Concept of Education.” Comparative Education 40 (4): 517529.

Hart, Kimberly. 2013. And Then We Work for God: Rural Sunni Islam in Western Turkey. Stanford: Stanford University Press.

Hatina, Meir. 2006. “Restoring a Lost Identity: Models of Education in Modern Islamic Thought.” British Journal of Middle Eastern Studies 33 (2): 179197.

  • Search Google Scholar
  • Export Citation

Hefner, Robert W. 2000. Civil Islam: Muslims and Democratization in Indonesia. Princeton: Princeton University Press.

Hefner, Robert W. 2007. “Introduction: The Culture, Politics, and Future of Muslim Education.” In Schooling Islam: The Culture and Politics of Modern Muslim Education, edited by Robert W. Hefner and Qasim Muhammad Zaman, 139. Princeton: Princeton University Press.

  • Search Google Scholar
  • Export Citation

Hendrick, Joshua D. 2010. “Globalization, Islamic Activism, and Passive Revolution in Turkey: The Case of Fethullah Gülen.” Journal of Power 2 (3): 343368.

  • Search Google Scholar
  • Export Citation

Hendrick, Joshua D. 2013. Gülen: The Ambiguous Politics of Market Islam in Turkey and the World. New York: New York University Press.

Hendrick, Joshua D. 2018. “A Turkish Red Herring? The Production and Consumption of Fethullah Gülen as ‘Good Islam’.” In Turkey’s July 15th Coup: What Happened and Why, edited by Hakan M. Yavuz and Bayram Balci, 287308. Salt Lake City: University of Utah Press.

  • Search Google Scholar
  • Export Citation

Henkel, Heiko. 2007. “The Location of Islam: Inhabiting Istanbul in a Muslim Way.” American Ethnologist 34 (1): 5770.

Hermansen, Marcia. 2007. “The Cultivation of Memory in the Gülen Community.” In Proceedings of the International Conference on the Muslim World in Transition, 6076. Leeds: Metropolitan University Press.

  • Search Google Scholar
  • Export Citation

Heyd, Uriel. 1961. “The Ottoman Ulema and Westernization in the Time of Selim iii and Mahmud ii.” In Scripta Hierosolymitana: Studies in Islamic History and Civilization, Vol. IX, 6396. Jerusalem: Magnes Press.

  • Search Google Scholar
  • Export Citation

Hirschkind, Charles. 2006. The Ethical Soundscape: Cassette Sermons and Islamic Counterpublics. New York: Columbia University Press.

Hodgson, Marshall G. S. 1970. “The Role of Islam in World History.” International Journal of Middle East Studies 1 (2): 99123.

Hodgson, Marshall G. S. 1974. The Venture of Islam: Conscience and History in a World Civilization, Vol. I . Chicago: The University of Chicago Press.

  • Search Google Scholar
  • Export Citation

Hodgson, Marshall G. S. 1977. The Venture of Islam: Conscience and History in a World Civilization, Vol. II . Chicago: The University of Chicago Press.

  • Search Google Scholar
  • Export Citation

Hourani, Albert. 1981. “Sufism and Modern Islam: Shaikh Khalid and the Naqshbandi Order.” In The Emergence of the Modern Middle East, edited by Albert Hourani, 7589. Berkeley: University of California Press.

  • Search Google Scholar
  • Export Citation

Hürriyet Daily News. 2013. “Turkish Government Determined to Close Private Tutoring Schools.” Hürriyet Daily News, November 5, 2013. Accessed May 5, 2017. http://www.hurriyetdailynews.com/turkish-government-determined-to-close-private-tutoring-schools-57375.

  • Search Google Scholar
  • Export Citation

Hürriyet Daily News. 2016. “Hundreds of Companies Seized in Probe Into Turkey’s Failed Coup Attempt.” Hürriyet Daily News, August 28, 2016. Accessed July 17, 2018. http://www.hurriyetdailynews.com/hundreds-of-companies-seized-in-probe-into-turkeys-failed-coup-attempt--103324.

  • Search Google Scholar
  • Export Citation

Idris, Jafaar Sheikh. 1990. “Is Man the Vicegerent of God?Journal of Islamic Studies 1 (1): 99110.

Irfan, Omar. 1993. “Khidr in the Islamic Tradition.” The Muslim World 83 (3–4): 279294.

İnsel, Ahmet. 1997. “Altın Nesil, Yeni Muhafazakarlık ve Fethullah Gülen.” Birikim 99 (July): 6776.

Johnson, William A. 2000. “Toward a Sociology of Reading in Classical Antiquity.” The American Journal of Philology 121 (4): 593627.

  • Search Google Scholar
  • Export Citation

Kahn, Joel S. 2011. “Understanding: Between Belief and Unbelief.” The Australian Journal of Anthropology 22 (1): 7688.

Kahn, Joel S. 2016. Asia, Modernity, and the Pursuit of the Sacred: Gnostics, Scholars, Mystics, and Reformers. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.

  • Search Google Scholar
  • Export Citation

Kandil, Hazem. 2016. Inside the Brotherhood. Cambridge: Polity Press.

Kant, Immanuel. 2009. An Answer to the Question: ‘What is Enlightenment’? London: Penguin.

Kaplan, Samuel. 2006. The Pedagogical State. Stanford: Stanford University Press.

Kara, Ismail. 1998 [1990]. Türkiye’de İslamcılık Düşüncesi, Vol. I–III. Istanbul: Kitabevi Yayınları.

Karabaşoğlu, Metin. 2003. “Text and Community: An Analysis of the Risale-i Nur Movement.” In Islam at the Crossroads: On the Life and Thought of Bediuzzaman Said Nursi, edited by Ibrahim M. Abu-Rabi, 263296. Albany, NY: SUNY Press.

  • Search Google Scholar
  • Export Citation

Karamustafa, Ahmet T. 2007. Sufism: The Formative Period. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press.

Kasaba, Reşat. 1997. “Kemalist Certainties and Modern Ambiguities.” In Rethinking Modernity and National Identity in Turkey, edited by Sibel Bozdoğan and Reşat Kasaba. Seattle, WA: University of Washington Press.

  • Search Google Scholar
  • Export Citation

Koru, Fehmi. 2016. Ben Böyle Gördüm: Cemaat’in Siyasetle Sınavı. Istanbul: Alfa Yayınları.

Kosky, Jeffrey L. 2004. “The Birth of the Modern Philosophy of Religion and the Death of Transcendence.” In Transcendence: Philosophy, Literature, and Theology Approach the Beyond, edited by Regina Schwartz, 1329. London and New York: Routledge.

  • Search Google Scholar
  • Export Citation

Koyuncu-Lorasdağı, Berrin. 2010. “The Prospects and Pitfalls of the Religious Nationalist Movement in Turkey: The Case of the Gülen Movement.” Middle Eastern Studies 46 (2): 221234.

  • Search Google Scholar
  • Export Citation

Köksal, Asım M. 2013. Hazreti Muhammed ve İslamiyet. Istanbul: Işık Yayınları.

Kuhn, Thomas. 1962. The Structure of Scientific Revolutions. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press.

Kuşpınar, Bilal. 1996. “Said Nursi’s Evaluation of Sufism.” In Proceedings of the International Symposium on Bediuzzaman Vol. III, 452462. Istanbul: Nesil Matbaacılık.

  • Search Google Scholar
  • Export Citation

Kuşpınar, Bilal. 2010. “Death in Nursi’s Thought.” In Theodicy and Justice in Modern Islamic Thought: The Case of Said Nursi, edited by Ibrahim M. Abu-Rabi, 5368. Farham and Burlington: Ashgate.

  • Search Google Scholar
  • Export Citation

Laidlaw, James. 2002. “For an Anthropology of Ethics and Freedom.” The Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute 8 (2): 311332.

  • Search Google Scholar
  • Export Citation

Laidlaw, James. 2014. The Subject of Virtue: An Anthropology of Ethics and Freedom. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Lambek, Michael. 1993. Knowledge and Practice in Mayotte: Local Discourses of Islam, Sorcery and Spirit Possession. Toronto: University of Toronto Press.

  • Search Google Scholar
  • Export Citation

Lambek, Michael. 2000. “The Anthropology of Religion and the Quarrel Between Poetry and Philosophy.” Current Anthropology 41 (3): 309320.

  • Search Google Scholar
  • Export Citation

Lambek, Michael. 2010. “Toward an Ethics of the Act.” In Ordinary Ethics: Anthropology, Language, and Action, 3963. New York: Fordham University Press.

  • Search Google Scholar
  • Export Citation

Lapidus, Ira M. 1975. “The Separation of State and Religion in the Development of Early Islamic Society.” International Journal of Middle East Studies 6 (4): 363385.

  • Search Google Scholar
  • Export Citation

Lapidus, Ira M. 1984. “Knowledge, Virtue, and Action: The Classical Muslim Conception of Adab and the Nature of Religious Fulfillment in Islam.” In Moral Conduct and Authority: The Place of Adab in South Asian Islam, edited by Barbara D. Metcalf, 3961. Berkeley: University of California Press.

  • Search Google Scholar
  • Export Citation

Lapidus, Ira M. 1996. “State and Religion in Islamic Societies.” Past and Present 151 (1): 36385.

Lave, Jean, and Etienne Wenger. 1991. Situated Learning : Legitimate Peripheral Participation. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Lemons, J. Derrick. 2018. “Introduction: Theologically Engaged Anthropology.” In Theologically Engaged Anthropology, edited by J. Derrick Lemons, 117. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

  • Search Google Scholar
  • Export Citation

Lerner, Daniel. 1958. The Passing of Traditional Society: Modernizing the Middle East. New York: Free Press.

LeVine, Mark, and Armando Salvatore. 2009. “Religious Mobilization and the Public Sphere: Reflections on Alternative Genealogies.” In Publics, Politics and Participation: Locating the Public Sphere in the Middle East and North Africa, edited by Seteney Shami, 6590. New York: Social Science Research Council.

  • Search Google Scholar
  • Export Citation

Lewis, Bernard. 1968 [1961]. The Emergence of Modern Turkey, 2nd Edition. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Lewis, Geoffrey. 1999. The Turkish Language Reform: A Catastrophic Success. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

MacIntyre, Alasdair. 1984 [1981]. After Virtue. Notre Dame, IN: University of Notre Dame Press.

MacIntyre, Alasdair. 1988. Whose Justice? Which Rationality? London: Duckworth.

MacIntyre, Alasdair. 1991. Three Rival Versions of Moral Enquiry: Encyclopaedia, Genealogy, and Tradition. Notre Dame, IN: University of Notre Dame Press.

  • Search Google Scholar
  • Export Citation

Mahmood, Saba. 2005. Politics of Piety: The Islamic Revival and the Feminist Subject. Princeton: Princeton University Press.

Malik, Jamal. 2018. “The Sociopolitical Entanglements of Sufism.” In The Wiley Blackwell History of Islam, edited by Armando Salvatore, Roberto Tottoli and Babak Rahimi, 585606. Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell.

  • Search Google Scholar
  • Export Citation

Mamdani, Mahmood. 2002. “Good Muslim, Bad Muslim: A Political Perspective on Culture and TerrorismAmerican Anthropologist 104 (3): 766775.

  • Search Google Scholar
  • Export Citation

Mardin, Şerif. 1969. “Power, Civil Society and Culture in the Ottoman Empire.” Comparative Studies in Society and History 11 (3): 258281.

  • Search Google Scholar
  • Export Citation

Mardin, Şerif. 1971. “Ideology and Religion in the Turkish Revolution.” International Journal of Middle East Studies 2 (3): 197211.

  • Search Google Scholar
  • Export Citation

Mardin, Şerif. 1973. “Center-Periphery Relations: A Key to Turkish Politics?Daedalus 102 (1): 169190.

Mardin, Şerif. 1989. Religion and Social Change in Modern Turkey: The Case of Bediuzzaman Said Nursi. Albany, NY: SUNY Press.

Mardin, Şerif. 1991a. “The Just and the Unjust.” Daedalus 120 (3): 113129.

Mardin, Şerif. 1991b. “The Nakşibendi Order in Turkish History.” In Islam in Modern Turkey: Religion, Politics and Literature in a Secular State, edited by Richard Tapper, 121142. London and New York: I.B. Tauris.

  • Search Google Scholar
  • Export Citation

Mardin, Şerif. 1997. “Projects as Methodology: Some Thoughts on Modern Turkish Social Science.” In Rethinking Modernity and National Identity in Turkey, edited by Sibel Bozdoğan and Reşat Kasaba, 6480. Seattle, WA: University of Washington Press.

  • Search Google Scholar
  • Export Citation

Mardin, Şerif. 2000 [1962]. The Genesis of Young Ottoman Thought: A Study in the Modernization of Turkish Political Ideas. Syracuse, NY: Syracuse University Press.

  • Search Google Scholar
  • Export Citation

Mardin, Şerif. 2005. “Turkish Islamic Exceptionalism Yesterday and Today: Continuity, Rupture and Reconstruction in Operational Codes.” Turkish Studies 6 (2): 145165.

  • Search Google Scholar
  • Export Citation

Mardin, Şerif. 2006. “Islam in Nineteenth- and Twentieth-Century Turkey.” In Religion, Society and Modernity in Turkey, edited by Şerif Mardin, 260297. Syracuse, NY: Syracuse University Press.

  • Search Google Scholar
  • Export Citation

Marranci, Gabriele. 2008. The Anthropology of Islam. Oxford: Berg.

Marsden, Magnus. 2005. Living Islam: Muslim Religious Experience in Pakistan’s North-West Frontier. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

  • Search Google Scholar
  • Export Citation

Martensson, Ulrika. 2007. “The Power of Subject: Weber, Foucault and Islam.” Critique: Critical Middle Eastern Studies 16 (2): 97136.

  • Search Google Scholar
  • Export Citation

Marty, Martin E., ed. 2015. Hizmet Means Service: Perspectives on an Alternative Path Within Islam. Berkeley: University of California Press.

  • Search Google Scholar
  • Export Citation

Mattingly, Cheryl. 2014. “Moral Deliberation and the Agentive Self in Laidlaw’s Ethics.” HAU: Journal of Ethnographic Theory 4 (1): 473486.

  • Search Google Scholar
  • Export Citation

Mauss, Marcel. 1985. “A Category of the Human Mind: The Notion of Person; the Notion of Self.” In The Category of the Person: Anthropology, Philosophy, History, edited by Michael Carrithers, Steven Collins and Steven Lukes, 125. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

  • Search Google Scholar
  • Export Citation

Meeker, Michael. 1991. “The New Muslim Intellectuals in the Republic of Turkey.” In Islam in Modern Turkey: Religion, Politics and Literature in a Secular State, edited by Richard Tapper, 189219. London and New York: I.B. Tauris.

  • Search Google Scholar
  • Export Citation

Menin, Laura. 2015. “The Impasse of Modernity: Personal Agency, Divine Destiny, and the Unpredictability of Intimate Relationships in Morocco.” Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute 21 (4): 892910.

  • Search Google Scholar
  • Export Citation

Merriam, Charles Edward. 1999 [1900]. History of the Theory of Sovereignty Since Rousseau. Clark, NJ: The Lawbook Exchange, Ltd.

Messick, Brinkley. 1993. The Calligraphic State: Textual Domination and History in a Muslim Society. Berkeley: University of California Press.

  • Search Google Scholar
  • Export Citation

Messick, Brinkley. 1997. “Genealogies of Reading and the Scholarly Cultures of Islam.” In Cultures of Scholarship, edited by S. C. Humphreys. Ann Arbor: The University of Michigan Press.

  • Search Google Scholar
  • Export Citation

Meyer, Brigit. 2008. “Religious Sensations: Why Media, Aesthetics and Power Matter in the Study of Contemporary Religion.” In Religion: Beyond a Concept, edited by Hent de Vries, 704723. New York: Fordham University Press.

  • Search Google Scholar
  • Export Citation

Milbank, John. 2004. “Sublimity: The Modern Transcendent.” In Transcendence: Philosophy, Literature, and Theology Approach the Beyond, edited by Regina Schwartz, 211234. New York and London: Routledge.

  • Search Google Scholar
  • Export Citation

Milbank, John. 2006 [1990]. Theology and Social Theory: Beyond Secular Reason. Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell.

Mitchell, Timothy. 1988. Colonizing Egypt. Berkeley: University of California Press.

Mittermaier, Amira. 2011. Dreams That Matter: Egyptian Landscapes of the Imagination. Berkeley: University of California Press.

Mittermaier, Amira. 2012. “Dreams From Elsewhere: Muslim Subjectivities Beyond the Trope of Self-Cultivation.” Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute 18 (2): 247265.

  • Search Google Scholar
  • Export Citation

Moosa, Ebrahim. 2005. Ghazali and the Poetics of Imagination. Chapel Hill, NC: The University of North Carolina Press.

Nakissa, Aria. 2014. “An Epistemic Shift in Islamic Law: Educational Reform at al-Azhar and Dar al-Ulum.” Islamic Law and Society 21 (3): 209251.

  • Search Google Scholar
  • Export Citation

Navaro-Yashin, Yael. 2002a. Faces of the State: Secularism and Public Life in Turkey. Princeton: Princeton University Press.

Navaro-Yashin, Yael. 2002b. “The Market for Identities: Secularism, Islamism, Commodities.” In Fragments of Culture: The Everyday of Modern Turkey, edited by Deniz Kandiyoti and Ayşe Saktanber, 221253. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press.

  • Search Google Scholar
  • Export Citation

Netton, Richard. 2000. Sufi Ritual: The Parallel Universe. Surrey: Curzon Press.

Neyzi, Leyla. 2001. “Object or Subject? The Paradox of ‘Youth’ in Turkey.” International Journal of Middle East Studies 33 (3): 411432.

  • Search Google Scholar
  • Export Citation

Noddings, Nel. 1984. Caring: A Relational Approach to Ethics and Moral Education. Berkeley: University of California Press.

Noddings, Nel. 2002. Educating Moral People: A Caring Alternative to Character Education. New York: Teachers College Press.

Noor, Farish A. 2012. Islam on the Move: The Tablighi Jama’at in Southeast Asia. Amsterdam: Amsterdam University Press.

Norden, Eduard. 1923 [1989]. Die Antike Kunstprosa, Vol. I, 4th Edition. Leipzig and Berlin: Teubner.

Norton, Jenny, and Cagli Kasapoglu. 2016. “Turkey’s Post-Coup Crackdown Hits ‘Gulen Schools’ Worldwide.” BBC News, September 23, 2016. Accessed July 17, 2018. https://www.bbc.com/news/world-europe-37422822.

  • Search Google Scholar
  • Export Citation

NTV. 2009. “YÖK, Katsayı Uygulamasını Kaldırdı.” NTV.com.tr, July 20, 2009. Accessed May 5, 2017. http://www.ntv.com.tr/turkiye/yok-katsayi-uygulamasini-kaldirdi,ywcOPJKV7ESa6iJsaP4pcw.

  • Search Google Scholar
  • Export Citation

Nursi, Said. 1993a. The Rays Collection. Translated by Şükran Vahide. Istanbul: Sözler Publications.

Nursi, Said. 1993b. The Words. Translated by Şükran Vahide. Istanbul: Sözler Publications.

Nursi, Said. 1995a. Asa-yı Musa. Istanbul: Envar Neşriyat.

Nursi, Said. 1995b. The Flashes Collection. Translated by Şükran Vahide. Istanbul: Sözler Publications.

Nursi, Said. 1995c. İşaratü’l İ’caz. Istanbul: Envar Neşriyat.

Nursi, Said. 1995d. Tarihçe-i Hayat. Istanbul: Envar Neşriyat.

Nursi, Said. 1997. The Letters. Translated by Şükran Vahide. Istanbul: Sözler Publications.

Ochs, Elinor, and Merav Shohet. 2006. “The Cultural Structuring of Mealtime Socialization.” New Directions for Child and Adolescent Development 111: 3549.

  • Search Google Scholar
  • Export Citation

Ortner, Sherry B. 1984. “Theory in Anthropology Since the Sixties.” Comparative Studies in Society and History 26 (1): 126166.

Özbek, Nadir. 2005. “Philanthropic Activity, Ottoman Patriotism, and the Hamidian Regime, 1876–1909.” International Journal of Middle East Studies 1 (37): 5981.

  • Search Google Scholar
  • Export Citation

Özdalga, Elisabeth. 2003. “Secularizing Trends in Fethullah Gülen’s Movement: Impasse or Opportunity for Further Renewal?Critique: Critical Middle Eastern Studies 12 (1): 6173.

  • Search Google Scholar
  • Export Citation

Özdalga, Elisabeth. 2006. “The Hidden Arab: A Critical Reading of the Notion of ‘Turkish Islam’.” Middle Eastern Studies 42 (4): 551570.

  • Search Google Scholar
  • Export Citation

Özyürek, Esra. 1997. “‘Feeling Tells Better Than Language:’ Emotional Expression and Gender Hierarchy in the Sermons of Fethullah Gülen Hocaefendi.” New Perspectives on Turkey 16 (Spring): 4151.

  • Search Google Scholar
  • Export Citation

Özyürek, Esra. 2006. Nostalgia for the Modern: State Secularism and Everyday Politics in Turkey. Durham, NC: Duke University Press.

Pandian, Anand. 2008. “Tradition in Fragments: Inherited Forms and Fractures in the Ethics of South India.” American Ethnologist 35 (3): 466480.

  • Search Google Scholar
  • Export Citation

Pandya, Sophia, and Nancy Elizabeth Gallagher. 2012. The Gülen Hizmet Movement and its Transnational Activities: Case Studies of Altruistic Activism in Contemporary Islam. Boca Raton, FL: BrownWalker Press.

  • Search Google Scholar
  • Export Citation

Paradise, Ruth, and Barbara Rogoff. 2009. “Side by Side: Learning by Observing and Pitching In.” Ethos 37 (1): 102138.

Paul, Jürgen. 2014. “Khidma in the Social History of Pre-Mongol Iran.” Journal of the Economic and Social History of the Orient 3 (57): 392422.

  • Search Google Scholar
  • Export Citation

Rahman, Fazlur. 1966. “The Status of the Individual in Islam.” Islamic Studies 5 (4): 319330.

Rahman, Fazlur. 1979 [1966]. Islam. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press.

Rahman, Taha Abdel. 2003. “The Separation of Human Philosophy From the Wisdom of the Qur’an in Said Nursi’s Work.” In Islam at the Crossroads: On the Life and Thought of Bediuzzaman Said Nursi, edited by Ibrahim M. Abu-Rabi, 199214. Albany, NY: SUNY Press.

  • Search Google Scholar
  • Export Citation

Rasanayagam, Johan. 2010. Islam in Post-Soviet Uzbekistan: The Morality of Experience. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Renard, John. 1988. “Al-Jihad al-Akbar: Notes on a Theme in Islamic Spirituality.” Muslim World 78 (3–4): 225242.

Risale Haber. 2016. “Fethullah Gülen Said Nursi’nin her Şeyini Çaldı.” Risale Haber, July 29, 2016. Accessed July 17, 2018. https://www.risalehaber.com/fethullah-gulen-said-nursinin-her-seyini-caldi-279025h.htm.

  • Search Google Scholar
  • Export Citation

Robbins, Joel. 2006. “Anthropology and Theology: An Awkward Relationship?Anthropological Quarterly 79 (2): 285294.

Robbins, Joel. 2016. “What is the Matter with Transcendence? On the Place of Religion in the New Anthropology of Ethics.” Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute 22 (4): 767808.

  • Search Google Scholar
  • Export Citation

Robinson, Francis. 2004. “Other-Worldly and This-Worldly Islam and the Islamic Revival: A Memorial Lecture for Wilfred Cantwell Smith Delivered at the Royal Asiatic Society on 10 April 2003.” Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society 14 (1): 4758.

  • Search Google Scholar
  • Export Citation

Saenger, Paul. 1997. Space Between Words: The Origins of Silent Reading. Stanford: Stanford University Press.

Saktanber, Ayşe. 1991. “Muslim Identity in Children’s Picture-Books.” In Islam in Modern Turkey: Religion, Politics and Literature in a Secular State, edited by Richard Tapper, 171188. London and New York: I.B. Tauris.

  • Search Google Scholar
  • Export Citation

Saktanber, Ayşe. 2002a. Living Islam: Women and Islamic Politics in Turkey. London and New York: I.B. Tauris.

Saktanber, Ayşe. 2002b. “‘We Pray Like You Have Fun:’ New Islamic Youth in Turkey Between Intellectualism and Popular Culture.” In Fragments of Culture: The Everyday of Modern Turkey, edited by Deniz Kandiyoti and Ayşe Saktanber, 254276. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press.

  • Search Google Scholar
  • Export Citation

Salvatore, Armando. 2001a. “Introduction: The Problem of the Ingraining of Civilizing Traditions Into Social Governance.” In Muslim Traditions and Modern Techniques of Power, Yearbook of the Sociology of Islam, Vol. III, edited by Armando Salvatore, 942. Hamburg: Lit/New Brunswick, NJ and London: Transaction.

  • Search Google Scholar
  • Export Citation

Salvatore, Armando. 2001b. “After the State: Islamic Reform and the ‘Implosion’ of Shari‘a.” In Muslim Traditions and Modern Techniques of Power, Yearbook of the Sociology of Islam, Vol. III, edited by Armando Salvatore, 123140. Hamburg: Lit/New Brunswick, NJ and London: Transaction.

  • Search Google Scholar
  • Export Citation

Salvatore, Armando. 2004. “The ‘Implosion’ of Shari‘a within the Emergence of Public Normativity: The Impact on Personal Responsibility and the Impersonality of Law.” In Standing Trial: Law and the Person in the Modern Middle East, edited by Baudouin Dupret, 116139. London: I.B. Tauris.

  • Search Google Scholar
  • Export Citation

Salvatore, Armando. 2007. The Public Sphere: Liberal Modernity, Catholicism, Islam. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.

Salvatore, Armando. 2011. “Civility: Between Disciplined Interaction and Local/Translocal Connectedness.” Third World Quarterly 32 (5): 807825.

  • Search Google Scholar
  • Export Citation

Salvatore, Armando. 2016. The Sociology of Islam: Knowledge, Power and Civility. Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell.

Salvatore, Armando, and Dale F. Eickelman. 2002. “The Public Sphere and Muslim Identities.” European Journal of Sociology 43 (1): 92115.

  • Search Google Scholar
  • Export Citation

Salvatore, Armando, and Dale F. Eickelman. 2006. Public Islam and the Common Good. Leiden: Brill.

Salvatore, Armando, and Babak Rahimi. 2018. “The Crystallization and Expansiveness of Sufi Networks Within the Urban-Rural-Nomadic Nexus of the Islamic Ecumene.” In The Wiley Blackwell History of Islam, edited by Armando Salvatore, Roberto Tottoli and Babak Rahimi, 253271. Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell.

  • Search Google Scholar
  • Export Citation

Sarıçam, İbrahim. 2004. Hz. Muhammed ve Evrensel Mesajı. Ankara: Diyanet İşleri Başkanlığı Yayınları.

Saul, Stephanie. 2011. “Charter Schools Tied to Turkey Grow in Texas.” The New York Times, June 6, 2011. Accessed April 15, 2019. https://www.nytimes.com/2011/06/07/education/07charter.html.

  • Search Google Scholar
  • Export Citation

Schielke, Samuli. 2007. “Hegemonic Encounters: Criticism of Saints-day Festivals and the Formation of Modern Islam in Late 19th and Early 20th-Century Egypt.” Die Welt des Islams 47 (3–4): 319355.

  • Search Google Scholar
  • Export Citation

Schielke, Samuli. 2009. “Ambivalent Commitments: Troubles of Morality, Religiosity and Aspiration Among Young Egyptians.” Journal of Religion in Africa 39 (2): 158185.

  • Search Google Scholar
  • Export Citation

Schielke, Samuli. 2010. “Second Thoughts About the Anthropology of Islam, or How to Make Sense of Grand Schemes in Everyday Life.” ZMO Working Papers, No. 2: 116.

  • Search Google Scholar
  • Export Citation

Schielke, Samuli. 2019. “The Power of God: Four Proposals for an Anthropological Engagement.” Leibniz-Zentrum Moderner Orient, No. 13: 120.

  • Search Google Scholar
  • Export Citation

Schielke, Samuli, and Liza Debevec. 2012. Ordinary Lives and Grand Schemes: An Anthropology of Everyday Religion. New York: Berghahn.

Schimmel, Annemarie. 1994. Deciphering the Signs of God: A Phenomenological Approach to Islam. Albany, NY: SUNY Press.

Schimmel, Annemarie. 2011 [1975]. Mystical Dimensions of Islam. Chapel Hill, NC: The University of North Carolina Press.

Schwartz, Regina. 2004. “Introduction: Transcendence: Beyond.” In Transcendence: Philosophy, Literature, and Theology Approach the Beyond, edited by Regina, Schwartz, vii–xii. New York and London: Routledge.

  • Search Google Scholar
  • Export Citation

Shively, Kim. 2005. “Religious Bodies and the Secular State: The Merve Kavakçı Affair.” Journal of Middle East Women’s Studies 1 (3): 4672.

  • Search Google Scholar
  • Export Citation

Shively, Kim. 2008. “Taming Islam: Studying Religion in Secular Turkey.” Anthropological Quarterly 81 (3): 683711.

Silverstein, Brian E. 2007. “Sufism and Modernity in Turkey: From the Authenticity of Experience to the Practice of Discipline.” In Sufism and the “Modern” in Islam, edited by Martin van Bruinessen and Julia D. Howell, 3960. London and New York: I.B. Tauris.

  • Search Google Scholar
  • Export Citation

Silverstein, Brian E. 2008. “Disciplines of Presence in Modern Turkey: Discourse, Companionship and the Mass Mediation of Islamic Practice.” Cultural Anthropology 23 (1): 118153.

  • Search Google Scholar
  • Export Citation

Silverstein, Brian E. 2011. Islam and Modernity in Turkey. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.

Sirriyeh, Elizabeth. 1999. Sufis and Anti-Sufis: The Defence, Rethinking and Rejection of Sufism in the Modern World. London: Curzon Press.

  • Search Google Scholar
  • Export Citation

Smith, Wilfred Cantwell. 1977. Islam in Modern History. Princeton: Princeton University Press.

Soares, Benjamin, and Filippo Osella. 2010. “Islam, Politics, Anthropology.” In Islam, Politics, Anthropology, edited by Benjamin Soares and Filippo Osella, 122. Malden and Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell and Royal Anthropological Institute.

  • Search Google Scholar
  • Export Citation

Spadola, Emilio. 2014. The Calls of Islam: Sufis, Islamists, and Mass Mediation in Urban Morocco. Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press.

  • Search Google Scholar
  • Export Citation

Starrett, Gregory. 1995. “The Hexis of Interpretation: Islam and the Body in the Egyptian Popular School.” American Ethnologist 22 (4): 953969.

  • Search Google Scholar
  • Export Citation

Starrett, Gregory. 1998. Putting Islam to Work: Education, Politics, and Religious Transformation in Egypt. Berkeley: University of California Press.

  • Search Google Scholar
  • Export Citation

Stroumsa, Guy G. 2015. “The New Self and Reading Practices in Late Antique Christianity.” Church History and Religious Culture 95 (1): 118.

  • Search Google Scholar
  • Export Citation

Suffa Vakfı. 2016. “Tarihinde Erzurum’da Yapılan Umumi İstişarenin tam Metnidir.” Suffavakfi.org.tr, July 30, 2016. Accessed July 4, 2018. http://suffavakfi.org.tr/sayfa/30072016-tarihinde-erzurumda-yapilan-umumi-istisarenin-tam-metnidir.

  • Export Citation

Sunier, Thijl. 2014. “Cosmopolitan Theology: Fethullah Gülen and the Making of a ‘Golden Generation’.” Ethnic and Racial Studies 37 (12): 21932208.

  • Search Google Scholar
  • Export Citation

Sunier, Thijl, and Mehmet Sahin. 2015. “The Weeping Sermon: Persuasion, Binding and Authority Within the Gülen Movement.” Culture and Religion 16 (2): 228241.

  • Search Google Scholar
  • Export Citation

Sviri, Sara. 2002. “The Self and its Transformation in Sufism: With Special Reference to Early Literature.” In Self and Self-Transformation in the History of Religions, edited by David Shulman and Guy S. Stroumsa, 195215. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

  • Search Google Scholar
  • Export Citation

Şahiner, Necmeddin. 1979. Said Nursi ve Nurculuk Hakkında Aydınlar Konuşuyor. Istanbul: Yeni Asya Yayınları.

T24. 2010. “Erdoğan: Bizim Kitabımızda Ayrımcılık Yok Çine.” T24, October 10, 2010. Accessed February 27, 2018. http://t24.com.tr/haber/erdogan-bizim-kitabimizda-ayrimcilik-yok-cine-aa,104221.

  • Search Google Scholar
  • Export Citation

T24. 2016. “Star Yazarı, ‘Cemaat Abilerinin Gülen’e Yazdığı’ İddia Edilen Mektubu Yayımladı.” T24, August 3, 2016. Accessed July 17, 2018. http://t24.com.tr/haber/star-yazari-cemaat-abilerinin-gulene-yazdigi-iddia-edilen-mektubu-yayimladi,353175.

  • Search Google Scholar
  • Export Citation

Tanrıkulu, Nurbanu. 2014. “Disturbing Mavi Marmara Remarks Add to Gülen’s Deteriorating Reputation.” Daily Sabah, February 6, 2014. Accessed June 14, 2018. https://www.dailysabah.com/turkey/2014/02/06/disturbing-mavi-marmara-remarks-add-to-gulens-deteriorating-reputation.

  • Search Google Scholar
  • Export Citation

Tapper, Nancy, and Richard Tapper. 1991. “Religion, Education and Continuity in a Provincial Town.” In Islam in Modern Turkey: Religion, Politics and Literature in a Secular State, edited by Richard Tapper, 5683. London and New York: I.B. Tauris.

  • Search Google Scholar
  • Export Citation

Tapper, Richard, and Nancy Tapper. 1987. “The Birth of the Prophet: Ritual and Gender in Turkish Islam.” Man, New Series, 22 (1): 6992.

  • Search Google Scholar
  • Export Citation

Tavernise, Sabrina. 2008. “Turkish Schools Offer Pakistan a Gentler Vision of Islam.” New York Times, May 4, 2008. Accessed April 16, 2019. https://www.nytimes.com/2008/05/04/world/asia/04islam.html.

  • Search Google Scholar
  • Export Citation

Taylor, Charles. 1989. Sources of the Self: The Making of the Modern Identity. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

Taylor, Charles. 2004. “A Place for Transcendence?” In Transcendence: Philosophy, Literature, and Theology Approach the Beyond, edited by Regina Schwartz, 111. New York and London: Routledge.

  • Search Google Scholar
  • Export Citation

Tee, Caroline. 2016. The Gülen Movement in Turkey: The Politics of Islam and Modernity. London and New York: I.B. Tauris.

Tee, Caroline. 2018. “The Gülen Movement in London and the Politics of Public Engagement: Producing ‘Good Islam’ Before and After 15 July.” Politics, Religion & Ideology 19 (1): 109122.

  • Search Google Scholar
  • Export Citation

Tittensor, David. 2014. The House of Service: The Gülen Movement and Islam’s Third Way. New York: Oxford University Press.

Topbaş, Osman Nuri. 2006. Hazret-i Muhammed Mustafa: Sallallahu Aleyhi ve Sellem. Istanbul: Erkam Yayınları.

Topçu, Nurettin. 1997. Türkiye’nin Maarif Davası. Istanbul: Dergah Yayınları.

Toprak, Binnaz. 1981. Islam and Political Development in Turkey. Leiden: Brill.

Trimingham, J. Spencer. 1971. The Sufi Orders in Islam. Oxford: Clarendon Press.

Tuğal, Cihan. 2009. Passive Revolution: Absorbing the Islamic Challenge to Capitalism. Stanford: Stanford University Press.

Turam, Berna. 2007. Between Islam and the State: The Politics of Engagement. Stanford: Stanford University Press.

Turner, Colin. 2013. The Qur’an Revealed: Analysis of Said Nursi’s Epistles of Light. Berlin: Gerlach Press.

Uludağ, Süleyman. 1997. “Hadim.” In TDV İslam Ansiklopedisi, 2324. Istanbul: İslam Araştırma Merkezi.

Ünal, Ali. 2008. The Qur’an, With Annotated Interpretation in Modern English. Somerset, NJ: Tughra Books.

Ünal, Ali, and Alphonse Williams. 2000. The Advocate of Dialogue: Fethullah Gülen. Fairfax, VA: The Fountain.

Vahide, Şükran. 2005. Islam in Modern Turkey: An Intellectual Biography of Bediuzzaman Said Nursi. Albany, NY: SUNY Press.

Valkenberg, Pim. 2015. Renewing Islam by Service: A Christian View of Fethullah Gülen and the Hizmet Movement. Washington, DC: The Catholic University of America Press.

  • Search Google Scholar
  • Export Citation

Vicini, Fabio. 2013. “Pedagogies of Affection: The Role of Emulation in Learning Processes—Extracurricular Islamic Education in the Fethullah Gülen Community in Istanbul.” Anthropology & Education Quarterly 44 (4): 381398.

  • Search Google Scholar
  • Export Citation

Vicini, Fabio. 2014a. “‘Do Not Cross Your Legs:’ Islamic Sociability Reciprocity and Brotherhood in Turkey.” La Ricerca Folklorica 69: 93104.

  • Search Google Scholar
  • Export Citation

Vicini, Fabio. 2014b. “The Irrepressible Charm of the State: Dershane Closures and the Domestic War for Power in Turkey.” Jadaliyya, March 24, 2014. Accessed June 26, 2018. h ttp://www.jadaliyya.com/Details/30437/The-Irrepressible-Charm-of-the-State-Dershane-Closures-and-the-Domestic-War-for-Power-in-Turkey.

  • Search Google Scholar
  • Export Citation

Vicini, Fabio. 2015. “Representing Islam: Cinematographic Productions of the Gülen Movement.” In The Gülen Media Empire, edited by Lea Nocera, 93101. Rome: Reset.

  • Search Google Scholar
  • Export Citation

Vicini, Fabio. 2016. “Post-Islamism or Veering Toward Political Modernity? State, Ideology and Islam in Turkey.” Sociology of Islam 4 (3): 261279.

  • Search Google Scholar
  • Export Citation

Vicini, Fabio. 2017. “Thinking Through the Heart: Islam, Reflection and the Search for Transcendence.” Culture and Religion 18 (2): 110128.

  • Search Google Scholar
  • Export Citation

Vicini, Fabio. 2018. “Turkish Islamism, Conservatism and Human Rights Before and After Gezi: The Case of Mazlumder.” British Journal of Middle Eastern Studies 45 (5): 760775.

  • Search Google Scholar
  • Export Citation

Villelabeitia, Ibon. 2009. “Ex-Turkish Army Chief Says ‘E-coup’ Justified.” Reuters, May 8, 2009. Accessed June 14, 2018. https://www.reuters.com/article/us-turkey-military-general/ex-turkish-army-chief-says-e-coup-justified-idUSTRE5471UQ20090508.

  • Search Google Scholar
  • Export Citation

Waley, Muhammad Isa. 1999 [1993]. “Contemplative Disciplines in Early Persian Sufism.” In The Heritage of Sufism, Vol. I, edited by Leonard Lewisohn, 497548. Oxford: Oneworld Publications.

  • Search Google Scholar
  • Export Citation

Walton, Jeremy F. 2017. Muslim Civil Society and the Politics of Religious Freedom in Turkey. New York: Oxford University Press.

Weber, Max. 1978. Economy and Society. Berkeley: University of California Press.

Weber, Max. 2005 [1930]. The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism. Oxon and New York: Routledge.

Weismann, Itzchak. 2007. The Naqshbandiyya: Orthodoxy and Activism in a Worldwide Sufi Tradition. Oxon and New York: Routledge.

Weismann, Itzchak. 2011. “Modernity From Within: Islamic Fundamentalism and Sufism.” Der Islam 86 (1): 142170.

Werbner, Pnina. 2017. “The Abstraction of Love: Personal Emotion and Mystical Spirituality in the Life Narrative of a Sufi Devotee.” Culture and Religion 18 (2): 165180.

  • Search Google Scholar
  • Export Citation

White, Jenny B. 2002. Islamist Mobilization in Turkey: A Study in Vernacular Politics. Seattle, WA: University of Washington Press.

White, Jenny B. 2012. Muslim Nationalism and the New Turks. Princeton: Princeton University Press.

Williams, Bernard. 2011 [1985]. Ethics and the Limits of Philosophy. Oxon: Routledge.

Wittgenstein, Ludwig. 1986 [1958]. Philosophical Investigations. Translated by G. E. M. Anscombe. Oxford: Basil Blackwell.

Woodall, Martha, and Claudio Gatti. 2011. “U.S. Charter-School Network With Turkish Link Draws Federal Attention.” The Inquirer, March 20, 2011. Accessed April 16, 2019. https://www.philly.com/philly/news/homepage/20110320_U_S__charter-school_network_with_Turkish_link_draws_federal_attention.html.

  • Search Google Scholar
  • Export Citation

Yavuz, M. Hakan. 2003a. Islamic Political Identity in Turkey. New York: Oxford University Press.

Yavuz, M. Hakan. 2003b. “Islam in the Public Sphere: The Case of the Nur Movement.” In Turkish Islam and the Secular State: The Gülen Movement, edited by M. Hakan Yavuz and John L. Esposito, 1–18. Syracuse, NY: Syracuse University Press.

Yavuz, M. Hakan. 2003c. “The Gülen Movement: The Turkish Puritans.” In Turkish Islam and the Secular State: The Gülen Movement, edited by M. Hakan Yavuz and John L. Esposito, 1947. Syracuse, NY: Syracuse University Press.

  • Search Google Scholar
  • Export Citation

Yavuz, M. Hakan. 2013. Toward an Islamic Enlightenment: The Gülen Movement. New York: Oxford University Press.

Yavuz, M. Hakan, and Bayram Balci, eds. 2018. Turkey’s July 15th Coup: What Happened and Why. Salt Lake City: Utah University Press.

Yeğin, Abdullah. 2005. Yeni Lugat: Islami, İlmi, Edebi, Felsefi. Istanbul: Hizmet Vakfı Yayınları.

Yeni Şafak. 2018. “İki Yılda Büyük Temizlik.” Yeni Şafak, July 9, 2018. Accessed July 10, 2018. https://www.yenisafak.com/gundem/iki-yilda-buyuk-temizlik-3382884.

  • Search Google Scholar
  • Export Citation

Yilmaz, Hale. 2016. Becoming Turkish: Nationalist Reforms and Cultural Negotiations in Early Republican Turkey 1923–1945. Syracuse, NY: Syracuse University Press.

  • Search Google Scholar
  • Export Citation

Yinanç, Barçın. 2017. “Ample Evidence to Prove That Gülenists Were Behind Turkey’s Coup Attempt: Journalist Sedat Ergin.” Hurriyet Daily News, August 28, 2017. Accessed April 16, 2019. http://www.hurriyetdailynews.com/ample-evidence-to-prove-that-gulenists-were-behind-turkeys-coup-attempt-journalist-sedat-ergin-117241.

  • Search Google Scholar
  • Export Citation

Zachs, Fruma. 2014. “Growing Consciousness of the Child in Ottoman Syria in the 19th Century: Modes of Parenting and Education in the Middle Class.” In The Ottoman Middle East: Studies in Honor of Amnon Cohen, edited by Eyal Ginio and Elie Podeh, 113128. Leiden: Brill.

  • Search Google Scholar
  • Export Citation

Zaman, Muhammad Qasim. 2002. The Ulama in Contemporary Islam: Custodians of Change. Princeton: Princeton University Press.

Zamboni, Lodovico. 2005. La Sura della Famiglia di Imran Nella Sapienza Islamica. Reggio Emilia: Edizioni Orientamento Al Qibla.

Zengin Arslan, Berna. 2009. Pious Science: The Gülen Community and The Making of a Conservative Modernity in Turkey, PhD thesis, University of California Santa Cruz, Santa Cruz.

  • Search Google Scholar
  • Export Citation

Zigon, Jarrett. 2009. “Morality and Personal Experience: The Moral Conceptions of a Muscovite Man.” Ethos 37 (1): 78101.

Zizek, Slavoj. 2004. “The Descent of Transcendence Into Immanence or, Deleuze as a Hegelian.” In Transcendence: Philosophy, Literature, and Theology Approach the Beyond, edited by Regina Schwartz, 235248. New York and London: Routledge.

  • Search Google Scholar