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IndexAbelardo Ramos, Jorge281Acción Democratica13Acción Ecológica13031AcerBrag steelworks161Achacachi101Acosta, Alberto12326, 12829, 13233, 135, 167, 279Aerolíneas Argentinas76, 85afp19192, 196African National Congress3agrarian reform5354, 94, 97, 138, 140, 145, 148, 151, 17273, 176, 197, 200201, 213, 226, 228agribusiness4546, 51, 53, 55, 86, 96, 102, 108, 114, 119, 132, 137, 144, 145, 147, 155, 239Aguayo, Luis149, 151Alanism198, 203, 210, 218alba5, 21, 3334, 11819, 135, 16364, 168, 244, 277Alckmin, Geraldo65Alcoa group162Alderete, Alberto146, 150, 151Alfonsín, Raul75, 76, 89Alianza País124, 127, 128, 13032, 13337Allende, Salvador96, 17174, 181Almaraz, Alejandro99, 11012, 11416Almeyda, Clodomiro177Alstom161Altamirano, Carlos177Alumar44Alunorte44Álvarez, Victor26Alzugaray Treto256Amazon53, 105, 12223, 128, 158, 215Ambev44American Hispanic War11Ames, Rolando209Amoedo, João65Amorim, Celso146Andean-Amazonian Capitalism105Andean Development Corporation164Andeism208Anderson, Benedict205Andréz Pérez, Carlos1718Ángel Beltrán, Miguel224Angola267anti-capitalist forces283anti-capitalist imagination285anti-capitalist projects35anti-PT59, 6568, 166apra198201, 2035, 208, 211, 218Aracruz Celulose42Arantes, Pedro5253Arbenz, Jacobo7architecture, new regional financial164, 166Argaña, Luis María147Argentina12, 2122, 7073, 75, 77, 79, 8385, 8789, 139, 14445, 161, 16465, 27274, 276, 27879Argentinazo7980armed forces30, 34, 87, 92, 176, 180, 200, 207, 210, 213, 218armed struggle4, 19, 173, 177, 222, 234, 240, 242, 273army16, 20, 26, 30, 33, 205, 207, 211, 217, 22223, 231, 236, 239Aronson, Bernard W.212Asange, Julian137Assis Brasil-Iñapari161auc23435, 237autocoup211autonomy22, 33, 35, 47, 58, 1023, 1067, 227, 232, 241, 248, 274, 284, 287Avella, Aida223Avellaneda78Ayacucho2069, 212ayllu99Aylwin administration182Aymara93, 111, 119Aymara bourgeoisie113, 119Ayoreo147Azellini, Dario28Bachelet, Michelle180, 183, 187, 19394Bagua massacre217Banzer, Hugo9697, 100101barbarism14, 27576, 28081, 286Barrantes, Alfonso2023, 205Bartolina Sisa106, 112Belaúnde Terry199, 202Belo Monte Dam45, 162Benjamin, Walter4, 286Bertin meat company162Betancourt Doctrine14Betancourt, Rómulo95binomial system178, 184, 195Blair, Tony10, 19Blanco, Hugo201Blas Riquelme152blockades7, 101, 151, 247, 261economic251bndes42, 44, 145, 15966, 277bndespar16062Bobbio, Noberto72Boff, Leonardo104Bogotazo227boliburguesía21Bolívar, Simón11, 19, 180Bolivarianism1, 23, 28, 356, 88, 16869, 279Bolivarian process7, 13, 23, 2526, 3134, 36, 273, 27577Bolivarian Revolution11, 18, 20, 22, 35Bolivarian socialism21, 26Bolivia13, 67, 9, 9295, 98, 100101, 1037, 11112, 11719, 121, 13334, 14446, 16162, 200201, 27176Bolsa Família Program46, 53, 54, 59, 160, 275Bolsonaro, Jair6468Boulos, Guilherme63Bourdieu, Pierre105Bourgeois Autocratic State278bourgeois-democratic revolution70, 72bourgeoisie6, 25, 48, 80, 13132, 278commercial111, 113country’s236dependent6, 263financial122national16, 7072, 82, 90Brasiguayo Question8, 13839, 141, 143, 145, 147, 149, 151, 153, 155brasiguayos138, 14142, 14446, 150, 152brasiguayo space141Brasil Foods43, 160Brazil1, 48, 3334, 37, 3945, 5157, 63, 67, 6970, 13841, 14345, 15152, 154, 156, 16265, 16769, 225, 27273, 27576, 27879Brenco group162Brezhnev, Leonid174British Guiana11Bucaram, Abdalá125Buen Vivir104Bunge143cabildos10001cae184, 18788caf164, 166Cajamarca219Caldera, Rafael18Camargo Corrêa16162cambas103Campero, Ariana116Campora, Hector73Canada154, 158, 162, 215Candia Amarilla, Rubén154Canese, Ricardo154capitalism26, 45, 121, 123, 125, 127, 129, 131, 133, 135, 137, 263, 26768, 282, 284, 2889dependent67, 88peripheral45, 245shock175, 232capitalist restoration5, 257, 28990Capriles, Henrique31Caracazo10, 17, 31carapintadas76carbon market policies136Cardenas, Victor Hugo99Cardoso, Fernando Henrique40, 5960, 157, 280Cardoso administration46, 53, 158Cargill143, 153Carmona, Pedro131carperos151Cartes, Horacio9, 138, 15354cash transfer programs46, 55, 86, 129, 133, 275Castañeda, Jorge205Castaño brothers235, 238Castro, Cipriano11Castro, Fidel12, 26, 156, 244, 246, 248, 25152, 256, 259, 271Raul252, 257, 25862castrochavismo221, 242Cavallo, Domingo76, 12627cdrs27, 245Cely, Nathalie131Cementos Avellaneda161Central America75, 230, 241Central American12, 205, 226Central Obrera Boliviana112Centro Democratico238Cepeda, Iván224cgt72, 87Chaco aqueduct161Chaco War94, 96Chapare98, 111, 119Chaparina109Chávez, Adolfo10911second168Chávez, Hugo5, 8, 10, 1719, 2028, 3035, 105, 10911, 118, 156, 164, 168, 214, 273Chavism20, 22, 27, 31, 3334, 276Chevron84, 123Chile1, 35, 7, 9, 102, 17173, 17597, 210, 213, 23132, 27274, 277, 279contemporary183, 186, 196Chilean Christian Democracy172Chilean Constitution179, 187China21, 81, 104, 132, 144, 160, 185, 212, 217, 25657cholets113, 119Chonchol, Jacques17273, 175Christ from the robbery43Chulavitas228Chuquisaca115Chuschi206cia95, 212, 246cidob106, 10910, 112, 119Cimitarra River Valley233Cisneros Visquerra, Luis207Citizen Constitution38, 61citizen credit182, 184, 196citizenization of politics127Citizen Revolution2, 12122, 12728, 13031, 13335, 273self-described128Clarín86, 90classes, conciliation of39, 90class struggle7, 15, 24, 67, 72, 120, 178, 221, 227clientelism23, 34, 116, 142, 274Clinton, Bill251Cobos, Julio85coca100, 111, 233cocaine11112, 216, 229, 233coca leaf100, 104, 11112, 118, 229cocaleros100, 106, 108, 11112Cochabamba96, 100, 105, 110, 112Codelco176Cold War7, 72, 110, 141, 178, 195, 244, 251, 271, 273, 283Collor, Fernando39, 66Colombia1, 35, 79, 30, 64, 67, 135, 137, 22125, 22741, 243, 271, 27374, 277, 279Colombian guerrillas222, 22829Coloradism153Colorados138, 14748, 151, 15355commodities45, 50, 111, 14344, 155, 179, 185, 19697, 271, 27576, 278commodity boom81, 89, 160, 165commodity consensus278Communal Councils Law22communal state21, 2628, 33, 35Commune, Paris291communism3, 38, 212, 22728, 26265, 268, 282, 284, 28991community105, 113, 136, 215, 217, 223, 228community justice109, 119conaie125, 127, 13031conamaq99, 106, 109Concertación1, 17778, 18085, 19091, 19395, 273Concertación governments180, 18485, 187Condor, Operation96, 140, 175cidob106Conga mining project2156, 220Conisur109constituent assembly19, 35, 100101, 106, 128, 132, 136, 196, 201, 232, 241constituent process118, 206, 231constitution3, 5, 113, 115, 128, 130, 136, 15860, 17779, 184, 213, 215, 23132, 250, 275new92, 1056, 118, 262construction2829, 105, 110, 114, 116, 119, 133, 140, 145, 16163, 165civil43, 51, 111, 16061, 277financing161housing21consumption1516, 2324, 27, 3334, 41, 44, 5455, 57, 11920, 13334, 137, 18384, 26365, 267, 28687consumption patterns15, 2324, 27, 3334, 57, 119, 184, 252, 263, 28487continuities1415, 61, 89, 127, 157, 171, 185, 220, 239colonial92macroeconomic156structural79, 157Contreras, Manuel175Convivir234cooperation263, 281economic181, 288south-south167cooperatives21, 113, 25455cooperativism220, 254, 258cooptation110, 127, 130, 274Copei14, 18Córdoba, Piedad224Cordobazo73Corfo173Coroníl, Fernando1516, 24corralito7778Correa, Rafael1, 18, 121, 12432, 13435, 137, 273Correismo13435corruption1516, 18, 23, 27, 5860, 112, 137, 142, 166, 204, 210, 213, 215, 21920corruption scandals30, 39, 43, 58, 87, 124, 161, 181, 194, 196Cosiplan159, 164, 16667Council for Mutual Economic Assistance247counterinsurgency75, 22930, 235counterrevolution6, 136, 271, 289, 291counterrevolution, permanent69, 222, 270coup6, 912, 14, 18, 20, 5961, 6364, 6667, 71, 13132, 15255, 171, 175alleged131failed33, 76crisis17, 23, 3031, 3940, 4546, 7071, 83, 8687, 1023, 12426, 13335, 16566, 18485, 191, 19394, 25152, 279capitalist276diplomatic162economic39, 42, 59, 131, 166, 195, 202, 249global55, 132, 160humanitarian30csutcb97, 101cta83, 87ctep80, 83ctv14, 22Cuba35, 78, 22, 31, 16465, 174, 24457, 25968, 272, 277, 285cultural emancipation286cultural revolution119, 270cultural self-reference285Cunha, Eduardo59cup250, 253Curuguaty152, 155Cutipa, Luis112Dacal, Ariel260, 262, 268Dardot, Pierre41Dávalos, Pablo127Dayuma128, 136dea106, 111, 118debt crisis10, 16, 92, 12425, 177, 203, 229, 27172debts19, 53, 7677, 81, 87, 161, 18890, 192, 203, 248external25, 70, 7677, 98, 154, 213public12, 57, 185decolonization111, 28687Degregori, Ivan2058de-industrialization456, 70, 76, 176, 182democracy1314, 97, 131, 135, 142, 171, 177, 183, 185, 194, 199, 248, 251Democratic Center238democratization33, 37, 56, 88, 143, 155, 171, 241, 25859, 283, 287, 29091denationalization46, 60, 70, 76, 80, 82, 229Deng Xiaoping256depeasantisation13, 143dependence4, 6, 8, 16, 2324, 27, 3435, 85, 90, 263, 27071, 275, 278, 28081depoliticization61, 194, 214, 260Deposition of Lugo in Paraguay13839, 141, 143, 145, 147, 149, 151, 153, 155development1, 5, 42, 45, 82, 84, 108, 112, 12021, 164, 167, 280, 28285dependent2entrepreneurial259national72, 256developmentalism3, 42, 45, 157, 165, 167, 169, 171, 175, 272developmental regionalism159, 167development myth34, 124Díaz-Canel, Miguel262dictatorship3739, 4950, 6465, 67, 7376, 8083, 8889, 9698, 125, 13942, 14748, 150, 171, 17578, 18087, 193, 195, 22728, 245, 272Diez Canseco2012Digcoin112discipline31, 65, 87, 116, 211, 213, 232, 250, 261disciplining27, 40, 155, 250, 253discourse42, 48, 87, 92, 127, 149, 181, 209, 235, 239, 252alternative220anti-party210distribution16, 21, 24, 41, 76, 111, 255dogmatism38, 218, 24748, 258, 261, 264dollarization30, 89, 121, 124, 12627, 129, 134Dominican Republic14, 33, 161, 165Dória, João65drugs68, 233illicit241drug trafficking97, 11112, 119, 214, 216, 219, 223, 22930, 23334, 236, 238Duhalde, Eduardo7879Duque, Iván243Durand, Francisco216Dutch disease12, 16, 24Duvalier14Eastern Europe24849East European countries247ecla157, 17273, 200, 245, 272ecology12021, 123, 125, 127, 129, 131, 13335, 137, 266, 283economic aid95, 101Economic Development Programs43economic diversification34, 116, 283economic growth2, 42, 45, 5051, 55, 78, 81, 133, 135, 137, 141, 215, 220myth of2, 169, 287Ecuador13, 6, 89, 18, 12125, 127, 13133, 135, 16162, 164, 167, 27376, 278Ecuadorian State Oil Corporation123education51, 57, 62, 179, 186, 188, 192, 19697, 248, 250, 257, 260, 266El Alto102, 113El Caguan235electoral frauds214, 228Eletrosul162eln228, 234El Niño126El Salvador229El Universo130emergency21011, 213, 228Emergency Economic Law76emigration126, 143, 155employment10, 19, 50, 58, 90, 248, 253, 257formal17, 23, 133public87, 134enclave145, 226, 236, 271equality179, 249, 250, 255, 261, 263, 265, 279, 282, 284, 28690values of253, 268Erdogan64Escobar, Pablo230, 235, 238Escoto, Miguel d´104establishment9, 19, 94, 140, 149, 176, 179, 199ethnic discourses99ethnicity92, 118, 120Eurocommunism38, 181Europe38, 184, 282European experiments280European Social Democracy177European Union135, 251Evoism93evolution46, 50, 95, 105, 145economic183, 281gradual82exploitation6, 8, 82, 84, 89, 12223, 169, 185, 220, 262class291historical foreign102exploration84, 162, 186export corridors158, 277expropriation20, 103, 107, 143, 146, 15052, 173, 227Extra21, 116extractivism93, 119, 130, 134, 136, 21720, 278, 283extradition230, 236Falabella stores196Falkland Islands75farc214, 221, 228, 231, 233, 235, 240, 24243Farouk, Yanine Díaz230fascism64, 68fascist inclinations227Favero, Tranquilo138, 151Felcn112Fernandes, Florestan6, 24, 37, 245, 263, 270, 278, 290Fernández Estrada, Julio Antonio26062feu252, 268Fibria43, 160Fides110fifa57financial capital401, 45, 4748, 55, 74, 124, 170, 272financialization2, 42, 135, 181, 184, 196, 287financial markets81, 191, 211financial speculation25, 238financial system75, 81, 186fiscal adjustment17, 58, 232, 253fiscal austerity42fiscal deficits856, 89, 252fiscal pedals59fiscal responsibility law4041, 59, 184Fogel, Ramón150Fondo Indígena112Fonplata164, 166forajidos127Foreign Affairs42, 14546, 159, 176foreign capital12, 23, 31, 77, 82, 250, 256, 261foreign companies13, 107, 144, 25556foreign debt11, 80, 128, 132foreign exchange7, 11, 16, 29, 31, 35, 125, 176, 24950abundance of1011, 15, 24, 271foreign investment40, 103, 107, 134, 182, 185, 21516, 25051, 253, 256Fox, Vicente158France65, 172Francis, Pope104Franco, Frederico152freedom22, 136, 17273, 179, 187, 237, 248, 263, 265, 28586creative197, 264free trade agreements158, 18384, 214, 232, 236, 277, 283Free Trade Area21, 102, 1589Freire, Paulo260Frente Amplio1, 194, 196, 219Frente Nacional228Frente Patriotico Manuel Rodríguez177Frondizi, Arturo72Frondizi, Silvio72Fujimontesinismo203, 213Fujimori, Alberto203, 20915, 21719, 232Fujimori, Keiko21920Fujimorism19899, 211fujishock7, 210Fundación Lazos222Fundación Sol190Fundación Tierra10910funds47, 108, 112, 118, 140, 151, 160, 166, 19192vulture81, 87, 90Furtado, Celso11, 14, 2324, 27, 34, 28485, 287Gaitán, Jorge Eliécer22627Gaitanism227Galán, Luis Carlos23031Gallegos, Romulo14Galo Plaza122Garcés, Joan175García, Alan198, 2035, 2089, 214, 21819, 22627, 253, 262Garcia, Marco Aurelio168García Linera96, 1056, 110, 113, 116, 118García Marquez, Gabriel2256García Meza97gasolinazos108, 119Gas War100Gaviria, César232genocide212, 233geopolitical139, 141, 247Ghaddafi, Muammar19globalization12, 132, 272Global South3Gómez, Laureano22628Gonçalves, José Botafogo170Goni99, 101Gonzalo, President208Gorbachev, Mikhail248Gott, Richard19, 96, 24851Gramsci, Antonio28, 286Gran Mision AgroVenezuela21Gran Misión Vivienda21Grez, Sergio178grfa200201, 220Gringo83Growth Acceleration Program43growth peaks215Guanche, Julio Cesar248, 252, 260Guarani aquifer143Guatemala7, 229Guatemalan Civil Self-Defense Patrols234guerrillas200, 203, 206, 212, 221, 22324, 22931, 23337, 24042Guevara, Ernesto Che96, 104, 24647, 265Gutiérrez, Lucio127Guzmán, Abimael206, 212Guzmán, Jaime177Haddad, Fernando56, 6365, 67Haiti14, 67, 101, 165, 225Halperin Donghi, Tulio225Harvey, David238Haya198, 202Heleno, General Augusto67Helms-Burton Act251herbicide Roundup143Hernández, Rafael25758Hobsbawm, Eric221, 225Honduras168horizon26, 35, 46, 54, 120, 181continent’s civilizing286national45, 94neo-developmental167, 170utopian220Huancavelica215Huilca, Pedro213Humalla, Ollanta165, 198, 214, 217human capital25859, 268human rights19, 75, 130, 149, 231hydrocarbons8384, 89, 108, 110, 113, 119nationalization of103, 107, 118hyperinflation76, 89, 92, 98, 204Ibarra, Velasco123Ibis110idb42, 140, 15859, 164, 166ideology39, 456, 48, 52, 62, 82, 88, 91, 157, 169, 195, 255, 257, 261, 283, 285capitalist263communist289iirsa5, 53, 108, 15859, 161, 164, 16667, 16970, 27778, 283Ilia, Arturo72illusion3, 34, 45, 47, 56, 188, 194, 26364, 267, 274, 284imf29, 40, 55, 7678, 95, 102, 124, 128, 167, 203, 211, 213, 272impeachment9, 37, 39, 48, 55, 5859, 6263, 139, 15455impeachment process59, 15455, 215imperialism7, 156, 245, 251, 258, 261, 267, 271, 274, 27879, 290imperialist onslaught10, 18import substitution industrialization226, 271Inacap188Inambari163, 216Inco162indec8586independence72, 93, 122, 134, 190, 226, 247, 283, 286second279indert143, 146, 14952India3, 64, 160Indian Revolution97Indians92, 106, 111, 169, 200201indigenous19, 101, 1035, 109, 111, 121, 130, 136, 2001, 206, 220indigenous march119, 163indigenous movements99, 106, 108, 12627, 13031, 143, 162indigenous municipalities107indigenous organizations1112, 125, 127, 135industrialization13, 21, 23, 38, 42, 44, 79, 95, 102, 112, 116, 172, 24748, 272, 280, 282inequality34, 6, 27, 34, 39, 80, 169, 190, 250, 257, 265, 270, 275, 280infantile environmentalism, indigenism121, 135inflation17, 23, 2830, 42, 47, 50, 73, 76, 8687, 114, 117, 204, 211, 213, 27172inflationary pressures29, 58, 85, 98infrastructure53, 123, 129, 166, 159, 253, 283infrastructure works16, 137, 275inredh13031insurgency61, 205, 20810, 212, 22931, 23337, 23940, 242, 276integration2, 5, 8, 156, 158, 163, 167, 170, 200, 203, 277, 27981, 285, 287continental279, 285, 287counter-hegemonic164Integrationist projects28081Inter-American Commission on Human Rights231Inter-American Development Bank42, 158internationalization160, 165, 167, 170, 271, 277, 287International Nickel Company of Canada162Iran21, 120Israel231, 236Israeli advisers230Itaipu141, 143, 154Izquierda Unida218Jamaica33January agenda103Japan214Jara, Victor173Jaramillo, Bernardo231jbs-Friboi conglomerate42, 16062Jirau plant162Juana Azurduy program117Juancito Pinto program117June Days5556Juriti162Katarism97, 105, 120Kennedy, John F.95Kerensky173Kichwa131Kirchner, Cristina701, 85, 701, 79, 825, 87, 90, 273Kirchner, Néstor1, 2, 70, 79, 812, 86, 89, 273Kirchnerism71, 7980, 8283, 85, 8788, 90, 279Kirchners70, 79, 82, 87, 89Kissinger, Henry174Klein, Naomi175, 181, 210, 231kollas103Korean War228Kuczynski, Pedro Pablo215, 219Lagos, Ricardo1, 180, 183Lagos government184, 187Lagunita Country Club25land distribution142, 15051Lander, Edgardo23, 31, 36Landless Rural Workers Movement (Brazil)32, 53land occupations147, 153, 172, 200landscapes52, 122, 196, 200, 219, 229, 23940, 263, 27475, 279, 288alternative civilizing285Lara Bonilla, Rodrigo230Larrea, Gustavo130Latam airlines119Latin America58, 9495, 98, 101, 157, 159, 22021, 24849, 26364, 272, 27980, 282, 28586, 288, 290Latin American Organization of Solidarity247Latin American Revolution9, 27980, 282Laureate International187Lava Jato operation48, 59Laval, Christophe41Leal, Eusebio269Lebanon231Lechín, Juan956Lenin19, 289Leninism209Leninist bet292liberalism12, 42, 128, 205, 227liberalization15, 41, 76, 195, 258economic25, 72, 135, 177financial175, 22930Limia Díaz, Ernesto247Lineamientos253, 25556Living well104, 119, 121, 220Loma Negra161López Maya, Margarita22, 28López Obrador, Andrés Manuel3, 274López Pumarejo, Alfonso226Lugo, Fernando1, 7, 13839, 141, 143, 145, 147, 149, 15155, 273Luksic191Lula, Luis Inácio1, 18, 21, 3739, 41, 45, 47, 59, 6268, 146, 15657, 160, 16364, 168, 273, 276Lula administrations161, 165Lula government46, 50, 146, 157, 159Lulaism / Lulism37, 39, 41, 43, 45, 47, 49, 51, 53, 55, 57, 5961, 6369, 278Lulista mode of regulating social conflict46, 49Luxemburg, Rosa279, 290, 292M-19223, 23132Macri, Mauricio70, 85, 8788, 90Macron, Emmanuel65Maduro, Nicolás7, 26, 3133, 356, 168Maduro government27, 276Magdalena Medio222, 23031, 234magic state16, 27Mahuad, Jamil126Malpica, Carlos199Malvinas75Mao205Maoism209Mapuche18485maquiladoras1545Mariana45Mariátegui, José Carlos207, 209, 217, 280mariateguista199Mariel25657marijuana229, 233Marinho, Luis63Markas99Martí, José265, 281, 285Martínez Heredia, Fernando24648, 252, 258, 26768, 289Marx, Karl60Marxism19, 173, 209, 266Marxist guerrilla218massacres96, 153, 222, 226, 230, 234, 266, 291mass movement100, 206, 240radicalized226Matos Mar, Jose203Matte191Media Luna102, 118Medina, Nilson14546Meirelles, Henrique65Mendoza, Verónika219Menem, Carlos7778, 84, 8788Menemato70, 7677, 82mensalão48Mercal21mercosur21, 25, 158, 170, 183Mesa Gisbert, Carlos97Mesoamerican Plan158Mészáros, István288Mexican Revolution289Mexico3, 38, 158, 213, 22425, 234, 27374, 277Miami158, 244, 251, 268, 286middle class13, 5051, 56, 58, 72, 7778, 8081, 87, 12627middle class populism87militarization33, 230, 232, 23738Military-Peasant Pact96Millennium Foundation110Minha Casa Minha Vida program43, 534mir9899, 174Misión Barrio Adentro21Misiones Ribas21missions20, 22, 26, 33, 67, 73, 165misti2067mnr94, 9798, 120modernities55, 195, 265alternative136modernization6, 49, 5557, 13336, 284, 287Modi, Narendra64Mommer, Bernard145, 17Monedero, Juan Carlos20, 25Monsanto143, 154Montecristi128, 136Montesinos, Vladimir210, 2134Montoneros Peronistas73Morales, Evo1, 18, 92, 98, 100, 10309, 1156, 11819, 121, 12829, 146, 270brother111Morales Bermúdez201Moreno, Lenin137Morlote, Luis261Moro, Sergio65Moulian, Tomás182, 183, 196Movement for Socialism-Political Instrument99movements12, 5, 7, 4849, 5256, 7778, 82, 98, 100101, 112, 193, 20708, 23738, 27071, 287guerrilla202, 205, 229Movimiento Emancipador Peronista80Moxos-Villa Tunari161Moyano, Hugo87Moyano, Maria Elena212mrb-20019mrta209, 212mst32, 5354mtl77, 83, 89mtl governista81myth46, 66, 172, 274, 280, 282Ñacunday146, 15152, 155Napoleon27narcoguerrilla230narcolavado129narco-terrorism238narcotrafficking230, 235Nationalist Democratic Alliance98National League of Carperos151National Liberation Army228neo-developmentalism157, 167, 169, 170neodevelopmentalist project41, 44, 46neodevelopmentism2, 39, 42neoliberal adjustments41, 210neoliberal fundamentalism70, 171, 175, 220neoliberalism17, 4142, 4547, 49, 64, 9293, 9798, 100, 157, 181, 19697, 210, 229, 23233, 27172inclusive2, 59, 64, 68multicultural99neoliberalism with a human face181neo-Pentecostalism55, 206, 266new Peruvian left199, 201New Republic38, 61, 6466, 226Newsweek43ngoism110Nickson, Andrew140non-alignment173North-Rurrenabaque-El-Chorro Project161Norwegian Norsk Hydro44Nuestra America244Nueva Mayoría178oas161, 163Obama, Barack43, 156,168, 244, 268October agenda102Odebrecht434, 16162, 165oea173, 226, 246oil10, 1213, 15, 24, 76, 84, 1078, 125, 129, 132, 160dependence on23, 27, 3435sowing13, 16, 24, 31Onganía, Juan Carlos73opec1415Ordoñéz, Alejandro224Oviedo, Lino148pac43, 53Pachacutik125, 127, 136Pachamama118, 128Pacific Alliance277Pacific War102Palacio, Alfredo127Palau, Tomas143, 14950Paley, Julia183Panama11, 19, 111, 224, 226Pandora’s Box63paradox3, 107, 113, 155, 159, 214, 216, 220, 25859, 261, 276, 278paradoxical139, 159, 28283Paraguay12, 4, 78, 13839, 14151, 15355, 161, 164, 168, 273, 27576, 27879paramilitaries223, 228, 23031, 23438paramilitarism23031, 234, 236, 238Paranaguá140Paraná River154, 161parapolitics221, 223, 232, 235, 24142parasite feeding13parasite of nature24Pardo Leal, Jaime231participatory budgeting39, 52partidocracy125, 127Partido Sociedad Patriotica128parties3739, 4748, 56, 5861, 63, 65, 67, 97, 99, 102, 11516, 127, 17778, 19899, 2012alternative243center-left98conventional18, 124, 200201, 229Patiño, Simón95Patria, Plan de la23, 26, 31Patria Roja (PR)201Patriotic Agenda115Paz Estenssoro, Victor95, 98, 272Paz Zamora, Jaime98pcp199200, 206pcp Patria Roja201pdvsa15, 20, 34peace process9, 221, 231, 235, 23942peasant movements26, 96, 15152, 199, 240, 273Pease, Henry205penguin revolt193People’s Liberation Army232Peredo, Osvaldo109, 115Perez Compac161Perez Jimenez14period, special31, 249, 25153, 255, 265, 268periphery1, 34, 45, 90, 201, 209, 263, 265, 269, 282urban233, 238Perón, Juan Domingo7073, 88Peronism7076, 7980, 8890Peru45, 4344, 161, 16465, 167, 199, 202, 206, 21011, 21517, 220, 272, 274, 277, 279neighbors93Peru Brand217, 220Petro, Gustavo243Petrobras54, 589, 161, 166Petrocaribe21, 33, 163picketers7778, 83Pilgrim’s Pride Corp161Pineiro Harnecker, Camila254, 2589, 261Piñera, José177Piñera, Sebastián177, 184, 191, 193Pinochet, Augusto1, 175, 17778, 180, 182, 184, 210, 232Plan Colombia7, 149, 221, 226, 23536, 277Plan Patriota, so-called236plurinationalism11920repressing113plurinationality107, 118, 128, 136pmdb48, 58, 65Podemos106polarization173, 240fake169ideological226political57, 227Popular Action199, 211Popular American Revolutionary Alliance199Popular Front17172, 194Popular Unity98, 173, 195, 231, 265popular uprisings6, 10, 94populism867fiscal42populist demagoguery38Porto Alegre127positives, false222post-neoliberal157, 167post-neoliberalism158post-neoliberal regionalism157, 16970Prada, Raul110Pradel, Gumercindo109privatizations4041, 52, 57, 767, 80, 84, 177, 179, 182, 211, 213generalized213progress2, 4, 34, 41, 95, 172, 228, 235, 267, 28285alliance for95, 172capitalist282ideology of2, 28283paradigm of34, 28485progressive expectations37, 39progressive governments2, 4, 6, 8, 157, 159, 170, 244, 27476, 290so-called274progressive intelligentsia79progressive wave17, 9, 21, 70, 88, 92, 121, 244, 263, 27071, 273, 27579progressivism16, 8, 37, 121, 169, 276, 278limits of36, 277psuv22, 28PT3740, 4748, 5152, 5657, 5968, 104, 156, 159, 163, 16566, 273, 276PT administrations39, 44, 49, 5253, 6162, 16566Puebla-Panama Plan158Puerto Rico11Puerto Stroessner140Pueyrredón Bridge78Punto Fijo Pact10, 14, 1619, 34, 169, 228Quechua111, 200, 207, 212Queiroz Galvão161que se vayan todos78, 127Quijano, Aníbal200, 203, 213quinoa114, 217Quispe, Felipe101Quito122Qullasuyu99racism103, 206, 266, 287Radical Civic Union72, 76radicalism88, 197radicalize101, 263, 265, 274Radical Party172Ralito Pact235Ramonet, Ignacio27raspacupos30real neoliberalism171, 173, 175, 177, 179, 181, 183, 18687, 19197dimensions of194, 197Real Plan40, 50, 169Red Derecho223reform67, 9, 38, 41, 173, 178, 19193, 222, 252, 258, 271constitutional183, 239, 256, 262economic204, 258financial74social38, 95, 271social security117, 157, 177structural83, 213tax80, 85, 107, 204, 213urban49, 5254, 245regional integration45, 8, 33, 157, 16465, 167, 170, 27071, 27679, 281, 28384project of8, 157, 159, 166, 168regionalism, open15759, 167, 170regression4950, 55, 60conservative271Renta Dignidad program117rentier state14, 31rentism15, 42, 245repression7375, 79, 97, 102, 119,130, 136, 140, 163, 175, 177, 181, 184, 19495, 197, 199, 227, 234, 236Repsol84revolution5, 9293, 95, 17274, 208, 222, 24449, 25153, 25758, 26061, 26365, 26771, 27475, 28283, 28891permanent264Revolutionary Vanguard199Revolutionary Workers Party95Reyes, Raúl224rhetoric22, 45, 79, 85, 90, 119, 132, 136, 150, 170, 172, 212, 218, 224, 236, 23839anti-imperialist21counter-terrorist221populist204revolutionary33, 200, 273Rice, Condoleeza168Rivera Cusicanqui, Silvia105, 109, 113Rockefeller Standard Oil84Rodrigazo73Rodrigues, Roberto146Rodríguez, General Andrés147, 150Rodríguez, José Luis253, 257, 265Rodríguez, Simón189, 26Rojas Pinilla, General223, 2278Rojas Villagra, Luis144, 149Romero, Carlos119Romero, José Luis Martin259rondas campesinas209Rostow, W. W.280Rousseff, Dilma7, 39, 43, 49, 5759, 6163, 165, 169Rulli, Javier143Russian Revolution279, 282, 291sabotage10, 18, 131, 151, 235Sachs, Jeffrey98Said, Edward208Sainz, Hugo110Salary Bonus Program43Salcedo, Guadalupe228Samaniego, Lilian154Sampaio Jr, Plinio42, 4546, 63Samper, Ernesto233Sánchez de Lozada, Gonzalo989, 107, 224Sandinista Revolution229Sandinistas290Santa Cruz79, 1023, 106, 110, 11415Santa Elisa44Santos, Gregorio219Santos, Juan Manuel9, 221, 23942Saravia, Ramiro105Sarayacu136scandals48, 112, 1656, 213Schavelzon, Salvador107Scioli, Daniel88segregation93, 187self-management22, 39, 52, 254, 25960, 264, 288self-organization105Senderistas setbacks212Sendero Luminoso199, 2012, 20513, 218Senderoism198, 203Shell12Sherman, Wendy168Shining Path7, 199, 205shock148, 21011, 218, 257Shuar leaders131Sicad29Sidor3132Siles Zuazo98Silva, Golbery Couto e141social change18, 33, 38, 46, 58, 148, 226, 229, 236, 276, 279social conflicts55, 94, 131, 133, 21617, 228social contradictions25, 102, 118, 195, 208, 226Social Democratic Party136socialism18, 21, 26, 35, 38, 169, 171, 173, 175, 195, 257, 259, 28081, 284, 286, 28889dependent266real244rentier24socialist25, 28, 32, 173, 199, 208, 24546, 252, 25657, 267Socialist International202socialist market economy256Socialist Party173, 177, 19495socialist realism264socialists1, 10, 19, 17173, 175, 18081, 18384, 195, 257, 259, 27273socialist transformism275socialist values258social movements37, 4749, 9798, 1045, 109, 119, 127, 130, 132, 149, 226, 228, 230, 241, 27276government of105, 111social protest100101, 125, 224, 226, 230, 23839, 273social revolution36, 119, 221social rights179, 196, 232, 252commodification of177, 184, 197sociedad abigarrada7, 9293variegated7, 9293, 120, 169, 271SocioBosque135SocioPáramo135Souchaud, Sylvaine141soup kitchens77, 81, 89South Africa3, 160, 182South American Integration5, 15657, 159, 161, 163, 165, 167, 16970, 283sovereignty2, 5, 107, 122, 13435, 168, 172, 246, 249, 265, 26768, 27879, 28485, 287, 289soviets174, 24647, 26365, 284, 286, 289Soviet Union31, 211, 229, 244, 24648, 26263, 272, 28283, 288, 291soy83, 86, 111, 14245, 160soybeans8384, 119, 14344expansion of138, 143, 145, 147, 217Spanish Civil War289Special Development Zone256stability40, 64, 131, 171, 18083, 189, 19495, 215, 220, 233, 247stabilization95, 211, 213Stalin, Josef181Stalinism289Standard Oil12Starn, Orin208state1317, 3233, 7172, 7678, 8182, 9394, 10105, 107, 11215, 13436, 17173, 18688, 196203, 20710, 23035, 24950, 25255, 26162, 26669, 28891bourgeois136, 173, 266plurinational118state repression98, 100, 102, 147, 220state terrorism80, 89, 175, 181, 195, 200, 212, 273Stroessner, Alfredo139, 14142, 147, 15051Stronismo153structural adjustment2, 6, 40, 46, 61, 63, 76, 89, 124, 157, 164student revolt194students49, 51, 55, 105, 18688, 193, 197, 206, 213, 224, 228, 246, 252subsidies16, 27, 33, 51, 85, 90, 108, 144, 154, 187, 190, 214, 255Sumak Kawsay121, 128, 169constitutional precept of129Svampa, Maristella8687Swift & Co161Syngenta145Tablada250Tacna215Tacutu River161Taiwan144Tambogrande216Tambs, Ambassador Lewis230Tapia, Luis93Tarija-Bermejo Highway161tcos99, 114Techint161Teixeira, Ulisses Rodrigues151, 155Tejada, Sergio219Telesur22, 163, 168Televen25Tella, Chancelor Guido di76Temer, Michel48, 6162, 667, 161, 276out with63territories93, 99, 109, 111, 122, 141, 145, 213, 215, 223, 228autonomous111national151, 223terror74, 181, 212, 235war on224terrorism10, 18, 131, 149, 176, 209, 23536, 238terrorists208, 237, 242Thatcher, Margaret75Third World3, 195, 248, 256, 265Thorstensen, Vera170Thousand Days War22627tierras excedentes142tierras fiscales114tierras mal habidas142timber176, 185Tinker Salas, Miguel1314Tipnis1089, 110, 112, 119, 162Toledo, Alejandro214, 219Toledo, Alexis26Toribio Merino180Torres, Javier210Torricelli Act251Torrijos, Omar19Toucans56, 6366trade liberalization40, 76, 233, 284multilateral277trade union movement62, 72, 98, 189trade union organization60, 71trade unions14, 26, 47, 83, 88, 237, 272traffickers155drug231, 233, 23839transgenic36, 53, 84, 118, 137, 1423, 267transition26, 38, 148, 178, 195, 201, 268, 27172, 28990negotiated201Trinidad, Simon230Triple Alliance139, 144Trotskyists95, 199, 201truce149Trujillo14Trump, Donald64Tupac Amaru200Túpac Amaru Revolutionary Movement209Tupac Katari101, 119, 200Tuto Quiroga106udp9899unasur5, 25, 55, 135, 156, 159, 16364, 16869, 273, 27779underdevelopment67, 1011, 1415, 2324, 3435, 119, 123, 195, 245, 24748, 263, 271, 288unesco260Únete219Unidad Popular7, 96Unión Patriótica231Union Sindical Obrera222United Fruits Company226United Left199, 2023, 205United Nations55, 104, 165United Nations Development Program129, 185, 238United Self-Defense Forces of Colombia234United Socialist Party of Venezuela22United States5, 7, 64, 7576, 9496, 11920, 168, 226, 22930, 24447, 25051, 268, 27374, 27778, 28687Unitel116Unity Pact109, 112Universal Church62Uraba234Uribe, Álvaro5, 8, 221, 231, 23435, 23642Uribe accords231Uribe bloc242Uribe politics9Uribism64, 221, 241Uruguay1, 4, 6, 8, 18, 22, 90, 161, 164, 273, 276Uslar Pietri, Arturo13utopia2, 28, 31, 45, 90, 135, 171, 19596, 268, 286Vadillo, Alcides98, 111vagabonds130Valdés Paz, Juan25557, 262Vale44, 160162Vargas, Getulio38Vargas Lleras, Germán242Vargas Llosa, Mario204, 210, 218Vatican154Vázquez, Tabaré1, 18Velasco Alvarado19, 96, 199202, 217Velasquism201, 206, 218Venevision25Venezuela13, 5, 710, 1219, 2128, 3136, 12324, 128, 161, 16465, 16769, 27173, 27577Vicente Gómez, Juan12Vietnam257Villa El Salvador201Villarán, Susana219violence7, 6466, 120, 199, 207, 210, 21516, 22123, 227, 23335, 23842Violencia222, 227Vladivídeos213Votorantim42, 161water68, 85, 100, 113, 13031, 179, 190, 198, 208, 215, 217, 220, 241Water War100wave2, 5859, 78, 103, 116, 162, 193reactionary63repressive231workers1617, 32, 41, 47, 5051, 53, 58, 6061, 7173, 8283, 9497, 162, 179, 18992, 197, 22628, 25255, 259, 286, 29192rural96, 141, 149, 151, 233, 260, 288World Bank42, 46, 5253, 55, 100, 117, 128, 135, 140, 148, 204, 211World Cup55, 57, 165, 222World Social Forum in Porto Alegre127World Trade Organization55, 170Xingu River162Yasunidos130Yasuní-itt initiative129, 132, 13536Yeltsin, Boris248Yom Kippur123ypf76, 8485ypfb95, 99, 107, 118Yungas111Zamora, Ezequiel19Zamora government99Zapata205Zapatismo273, 290Zapatista principle104Zavaleta Mercado, René9294, 103, 120, 169Zero Hunger program39Zucolillo, Aldo15354Zuluaga, Iván240Zuma, Jacob3