In: Power and Impotence
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My fieldwork refers to different research and extension projects. As a Fellow of the Institute of Applied Economic Research (IPEA), I was investigating the issue of brasiguaios1 in Paraguay when President Lugo was deposed in 2012. Beginning in 2014, I was in Venezuela, Colombia, Bolivia, Peru, Cuba, Argentina and Chile within the framework of the Universidade Federal de São Paulo (UNIFESP) Latin American Reality extension program. This is a project that brings together groups of students and teachers around an agenda of academic and political education culminating in collective field research involving visits and interviews with popular leaders as well as political and intellectual personalities. The program is supported by the Pro-Rectory of Extension of UNIFESP, which deserves special thanks.

The Memorial of Latin America offered its facilities for the project activities, before and after the trips, besides organizing the electronic publication of its results. Fundação de Apoio à Pesquisa do Estado de São Paulo (FAPESP) supported the research project ‘Neodevelopmentalism or neoliberalism: Brazil and the sense of South American regional integration’, process no. 2014 / 05549-3. This support enabled me to undertake additional research in the following countries: Venezuela, Ecuador, Bolivia, Peru and Uruguay. The chapter on regional integration is based on the results of this research. And lastly, the interviews in Ecuador were done in 2011 within the framework of a project similar to the Latin American Reality, but carried out outside the university, for which I updated the data and bibliography later.

I am grateful to the following institutions, colleagues and students who participated in the different projects: Pedro Barros, Verena Hitner, Felippe Ramos, Daniel Feldman, Pietro Alarcón, Hector Mondragón, Carol Ramos, Nilson Araújo, Luis Pinto, Rodrigo Chagas, Regiane Bressan, Daniel Carvalho, Gilberto Maringoni, Agustín Espinosa, Fabiana Dessoti, Vivian Urquidi, Bruna Muriel, Salvador Schavelzon, Luciana Sousa, Marcelo Carvalho, Carlos Alberto Cordovano, Joana Salem, Patrícia Mecchi, Vanderlei Vazelesk, Fabio Maldonado, Silvia Adoue, Luis Fernando Ayerbe, Plínio de Arruda Sampaio Junior, Frei Betto, Carlos Eduardo Carvalho and Vitor Schincariol, in addition to the students who participated in the different projects. Outside of Brazil, my thanks go to all quoted in the respective chapters, as well as to Miguel Tinker Salas, Rodrigo Chagas, Salvador Schavelzon, Javier Gomez, Bernardo Sorj, Michael Löwy, Marcelo Santos, Clécio Mendes, and Julio Gambina, all of whom were among the critical readers of different chapters. Further thanks to my colleagues at various academic journals, in which versions of some of these texts were published. Isabel Loureiro and Daniel Feldman read and commented on the whole manuscript. A special metion goes to swop at Wits University for their financial support of copy editing this manuscript. I want to thank David Kane for translating my work into English, as well as Dale McKinley and Monica Seeber who did the copy editing. Finally, I should thank Alfredo-Saad Filho for his support and David Fasenfest who was an invaluable partner as an editor. Thank you.

Who wants to keep order?

Who wants to create disorder?

Brazilian rock band Titãs, ‘Disorder’ (1988)


Brazilians living in Paraguay, some of whom have assumed a leading role in the soybean business.