Chapter 11 Violence and Money: A Constituency-level Survey of Pre-electoral Manipulation

In: Democracy and Electoral Politics in Zambia
Michael Wahman
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This chapter introduces the results from the Zambian Election Monitor Survey (zems), a constituency-level survey of pre-electoral manipulation. It focuses particularly on sub-national variations in the illegal use of money and election violence. It maps these forms of electoral manipulation at the constituency-level and further elaborate on the dynamics of manipulation using data from focus-groups with domestic election observers. The data show that manipulation, violence in particular, was common and wide-spread in the 2016 election. Furthermore, the analysis challenges the commonly held view that violence in the election was an exclusively urban problem, confined to a few particularly competitive locations.

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