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The first chapter focuses on the identities of travelers and the historical contexts of their travels. The corpus contains texts written in different periods by various people, each of whom experienced China in a unique way. By analyzing who they were, when and how they traveled to China, as well as the purpose of their writing, a basis for further analysis is created. Circumstances of a journey, a traveler’s habitus, and the role in which he or she is traveling, the point of view from which the narrative is written, and the projected readers — all these factors are crucial for understanding travelogues and the images of China within them. Because of this, the first step in this investigation is to introduce the main protagonists, Polish and Serbian travelers.