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Notes on Names and Spellings

For the convenience of readers, Russian texts printed in pre-1918 orthography are quoted in modern spelling. Serbian texts are quoted in the Latin alphabet. In the references and bibliography, Serbian and Russian names and titles are Romanized.

Chinese names are given in the East Asian convention, with the family name preceding the given name.

For quotations and titles from the Serbian, Polish and Russian languages, we keep the original spelling of foreign names. In the English language text of the book, including the translation of quotations from foreign languages and titles, Chinese names and words are generally Romanized using the Pinyin system. However, to preserve the spirit of the epoch, in some situations, we use English historical names (thus Mukden instead of Shenyang, Yunnanfu instead of Kunming), adding information about the modern name and the Pinyin Romanization when a particular word appears for the first time. Besides that, some modern names in English are not similar to their Chinese equivalents (Yangtze vs Chang Jiang 长江), there are also many spelling variations of Chinese names. Therefore, in the following list, we include the most important names which appear in the book, comparing different names and variations in spelling with the modern name in Pinyin and the modern name in simplified Chinese characters.