1. 1Location of Mthatha in the Eastern Cape Region of South Africa. Source: 32
  2. 2Position on the map of Qokolweni suburb of Mthatha, Eastern Cape, South Africa. © Open Street Map,,eastern_cape  33
  3. 3Map of the Eastern Cape Region. Source:  105


  1. 1A herbalist (amaXhwele) at work. Photo by Tanyi Besong 170
  2. 2Ancistrocladus Korupensis (commonly called Cameroonian vine). Photo by Emmanuel O. Buea, Cameroon 172
  3. 3A priestess diviner (amagqirha). Photo by Zona Dotwana 173
  4. 4A bone thrower (izangoma esichitha amathambo) at work. Photo by Zona Dotwana 176
  5. 5Faith healer T.B. Joshua exorcising a patient. Photo by Tabi Chama 178
  6. 6A diviner’s shrine Upper Ngqwarha. Photo by Tabi Chama 181
  7. 7The dispensary of a traditional healer. Photo by Zona Dotwana 182
  8. 8Leaves and stripped bark of Prunus Africana (Pygeum, Wotango, African prune, Red stinkwood). Photos by Emmanuel O. Buea, Cameroon 186


  1. 1Defining African traditional medicine 195
  2. 2Usage of traditional medicine 198
  3. 3Respondents who use and encourage others to use traditional medicine 201
  4. 4Traditional vs Biomedicine 203
  5. 5Collaboration between traditional healers and biomedical doctors 204
  6. 6Challenges experienced in the use of traditional medicine 205
  7. 7Difference between traditional medicine and modern medicine 207
  8. 8Opinions on improving traditional medicine 210


  1. 1Traditional healing agencies in South Africa. Source: Traditional Healing Agencies in South Africa (McFarlane, 2015: 66) 166
  2. 2Demographic characteristics of respondents 192
  3. 3Marital status and religious affiliation of respondents 194
  4. 4Effectiveness of traditional medicine 210
  5. 5Number of patients visiting Obale’s shrine 214
  6. 6Number of patients visiting Enow’s shrine 214
  7. 7Number of patients visiting Sangoni Community Health Centre 214