Index

Page numbers in italic type signify graphics

Abbot Suger 241
Acosta, José 71, 197
adorno (figural strap-handle) 81, 81
Africans
Guaman Poma’s opinions of 143144, 149151
in the illustrations of El primer nueva corónica y buen gobierno 145, 148, 150
living conditions in Cuba 107108, 118120
treatment in Peru 146149
See alsobozal
Aleijadinho 75
Allen, Catherine 211, 221, 227
altepetl (Aztec community) 6
Amazonian rainforest 88, 91, 125, 137138
Ancestral Pueblo 9
Angola 117, 118, 120
Aplomado falcon 135136, 136, 137
Arawakan (Caribbean language family) 7983, 85, 8687, 91, 94, 95
archangels
Andean influences in 169174
Barachiel 163, 164, 173
Bourbon fashion influence on 180181
Eliel 166, 167, 174
Gabriel 163, 164, 173, 180, 183, 184
Haniel 173, 174, 174n
Heavenly Hierarchies of 162, 163, 166, 171, 173
Iconography 164166, 178180
Jehudiel 163164
St. Michael 164, 165, 166, 173, 183, 246, 246
St. Raphael 163, 164, 168, 175
Sealtiel 163, 164
Uriel 163, 164, 182, 183
Areche, José Antonio de 198, 201n, 202
Arobe, don Francisco 144, 156, 158
Arriaga, Antonio 198
Arriaga, Pablo José 170, 182
Atetelco (Teotihuacan, Mexico) 1415, 14
Ausangate, Mount (Cuzco, Peru) 211, 211n, 212
Avenida del Sol (Cuzco) 223, 224
Aymara (Andean people) 162, 170, 182, 184, 185, 197
Bahamas, The 79
Bantu 120
Barachiel. See archangels
Barrio y Sepúlveda, Juan del 156
Becerra Tanco, Luis 71
Benavente, Toribio de 39, 65
Betanzos, Juan de 213, 214215, 214n, 218, 218n, 219
Bitti, Bernardino 167, 184
Book of Enoch 164, 164n
Borgia Group (codices) ix, 2, 21, 23, 25, 26, 32, 37
Breton, Raymond 8586
bohío
African influence in 117121
architectural features of 102105
construction technique 109117
historical descriptions of 103, 105106, 106107, 118
Spanish influence in 105107
Bolivia x, 80, 138, 178, 183, 184, 188, 191, 193, 214, 237
bozal 143, 145149, 145, 151, 155
Bravo, Juan 225, 226n
búcaro de Indias (altar lamp) 241242, 242, 245
Buenos Aires 189
Burkhart, Louise 9, 13, 43
Cabrera, Miguel 71
cacique 80, 85, 89, 104, 104, 119, 121
Calamarca church (La Paz, Bolivia) 178, 180, 183
Calendar Stone (Aztec monument) 226
Campeche, José 236
caney (Cuban indigenous house) 103, 104
Cantero, Justo Germán 110, 114, 115, 115n
Cariban (Caribbean language family) 79, 86
Cárdenas, Juan de 71, 72
Casas, Bartolomé de las 8485, 102, 103n, 105, 107, 146, 146n, 155
Castro Tito Cussi Yupanqui, Diego 182
ceques (Inca ritual pathways) 216, 238
cemí (Taíno sacred object) 81, 82, 84, 95
Cerda, José Manuel de la 247, 248
Chang-Rodríguez, Raquel 161, 173
chalchihuitl (Aztec precious greenstone) 3, 11, 35
Chavín 124, 125, 129, 132, 233, 243
Chera (Guadalajara, Spain) 185
Chibchan (Caribbean language family) 79
chicha (Andean beverage) 190, 194195, 194n
Chichén Itzá (Yucatan, Mexico) 2, 6, 7, 9, 11, 67
Chimalpahin Cuauhtlehuanitzin, Domingo Francisco de San Antón Muñón 65
Chinchaysuyu (Inca province) 217
Chinchero (Cuzco, Peru) 224
Ciboney (Caribbean people) 79
Ciguayo (Caribbean people) 79
Cihuacoatl (Aztec goddess) 31, 35
cihuateotl. See tzitzimitl
Cobo, Bernarbé 213, 215217, 215n, 217n
Cochabamba (Bolivia) 181
Codex Borbonicus 23, 31, 33, 3739, 22
Codex Borgia 5, 5, 7, 8, 8, 12, 13, 22, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 29, 31, 35, 36, 36, 3739
Codex Cospi 12, 22, 24, 25, 29, 31
Codex Fejérváry-Mayer 12, 22, 24, 31, 34
Codex Laud
as copy 23, 27, 29, 30, 34, 35
as mantic device 2326
four directions in 2324
New Fire ceremony in 24, 24, 29, 32, 33
solar cycle in 3031, 33
Codex Magliabechiano 5, 12, 12, 31
Codex Telleriano-Remensis 1, 5, 13, 30
Codex Tudela 23, 31
Codex Vaticanus B 22, 23, 25, 29, 39
cohoba (mind-altering substance) 84
coleletli (Aztec god) 43, 55
Collasuyu (Inca province) 170
Columbus, Christopher 79, 83
Condor 129, 132, 133135, 134, 135, 136, 233
Congo
African people 108, 118
African region 120
conuco (Cuban, plot of land) 105, 110111, 112, 114, 118
copal (natural resin) 64
Coricancha. See Korikancha
Corpus Christi
Celebration 144, 181, 200
Painting series 151154, 152, 154, 176178, 177
Correa, Juan 69
Correa, Nicolás 240, 240
Cortés, Hernán 65, 68, 69, 70
Cruz, Sor Juan Inés de 71, 76, 77, 241, 242
Cuba 79, 89, 90
See also Africans, bohío, ingenio
Cummins, Tom 156, 162
curaca (Inca lord) 154, 174176, 183
Cuzco x, 151152, 156, 162, 169, 170, 171, 172, 176, 177, 178, 181, 184, 189, 191, 191n, 193, 193n, 198, 200, 201, 237238, 243
design of 218219
huacas in 216, 238
mythical founding of 213219
stonework in 220221, 220
tourism in 224225
Cuzco School 144, 152, 156, 159, 167, 174, 185
Deminán Caracaracol (Taíno culture hero) 84, 84
demons. See Devil
Devil
as Tlaloc 46, 48, 49
as tlaquimilolli (sacred bundle) 44, 44n, 5052, 51
carved image of 4950, 50
European imagery of 4446
Nahua influences in the depiction of 5758, 57
Nahuatl terminology for 43
Díaz del Castillo, Bernal 65
duho (Taíno wooden stool) 81, 81
Durán, Diego 65
Ecuador 156, 246, 246
ehecacoxcatl (Aztec conch shell pectoral) 66, 67
Eliel. See archangels
El Museo del Barrio (New York) 93
El primer nueva corónica y buen gobierno (Felipe Guaman Poma de Ayala)
depictions of Africans in 145151
illustrations from 145, 148, 150, 175, 192
El Rosario Dominican convent (Lima) 155
encomienda (Spanish tribute system) 146n
embarrado (construction technique) 109, 116117, 118, 121
Enconchado 239240
Baroque aesthetics of 6970, 7576
iconography 6364
pre-Hispanic influences in 6467
religious values of 7076
technique 62
Entrance of Viceroy Morcillo into Potosí (Pérez de Holguín) 181
Esmeraldas (Ecuador) 156, 159
Estrada, Daniel (mayor of Cuzco) 226n
Ezcaray (La Rioja, Spain) 185
Fernández de Oviedo, Gonzalo 85, 102105
Fierro, Francisco (Pancho Fierro) 236
Fiore, Joachim de 170
Foucault, Michel 213, 219220
Florentine Codex ix, 38, 39, 65, 6970, 236
general aspects of 4243
painters of 4648
Flower Mountain 2
as heuristic device 910
in Querétaro 1013
in Teotihuacan 1415, 14
Garcilaso de la Vega, ‘El Inca’ 188, 197, 213, 226n
Gheyn, Jacob 178, 179
González family 68, 77, 241
Gouvenot, Laurent de 146
Gujarat (India) 62
Gell, Alfred viiviii, 92, 205, 221
Halcón, Fatima 241
Haniel. See archangels
haucaypata (plaza, Cuzco) 195
Hays-Gilpin, Kelly 9
Hill, Jane H. 9
huaca (Andean sacred place or object) 194, 216217, 237
Huaca Prieta (La Libertad, Peru) 125, 132, 233
huaminca (Andean gods) 169170, 184
Huatanay, River (Cuzco) 218
Huayracpunco (huaca, Cuzco) 238
Hatun Rumiyoc, Street (Cuzco) 220, 220, 223, 228
Huitzilopochtli (Aztec god) 52, 58, 70, 76
Hurtado de Mendoza, García 167
Ijo (African people) 118
Illapa (Andean god of thunder) 170, 182, 191, 191n
Inca empire 162, 178, 183, 188, 198, 217, 221
Indigeneity viiviii, 189n, 222225, 243247
ingenio (Cuban sugar mill)
Amistad 110, 111, 112, 113
Buena Vista 110, 111, 111, 115
Carolina 116
Güinía de Soto 110, 111, 112, 114, 115n
Manaca Iznaga 110, 111, 114, 114, 115, 115n, 116
Surinam 110, 117, 118
Instituto Nacional de Antropología e Historia, Mexico 3
Inti Raymi (Inca ceremony) 224, 225, 238
Itzpapalotl (Aztec goddess) 45, 5, 8, 13
Ixtapantongo (Hidalgo, Mexico) 2, 6, 7
Ixtlilxochitl, Fernando de Alva 65
Jamaica 92, 103, 103n
Jehudiel. See archangels
Jode, Gerard de 164
Kalinago (Caribbean people) 86
kero (Andean cup) 183, 183
khipu (Andean knotted cord) 197
Kircher, Athanasius 7071, 241
Korikancha (Inca Temple of the Sun/Convent of Santo Domingo, Cuzco) 170, 171, 172, 216, 238
Kristeva, Julia 213n
Kubler, George 1, 15, 16, 239
La Merced church (Lima) 167, 168, 175
Laplante, Eduard 110, 111, 112, 113, 114
Laud, William 21
Lezama Lima, José 7576
Liberia 108
Lima 74, 153n, 155, 162, 167, 169, 173, 175, 176, 182, 184, 189, 192, 236, 243
Lo Duca, Antonio 164
López de Gómara, Francisco 65
Lord of the Earthquakes (Crucifix) 198202, 199, 204
Lucayo (Caribbean people) 79, 80
Macorix (Caribbean people) 79, 84
Magaloni Kerpel, Diana 42, 48n
Mama Occlo (Inca ruler) 215, 223226, 224, 228, 237
Manco Capac (Inca ruler) 170, 171, 214, 217, 217n, 223226, 224, 228, 237
Martín de Porres 155156, 157
Materiality of images 6869, 7273, 126127, 190195, 211212, 216218
Maya (civilization) vii, 2, 6, 7, 910, 11, 16, 67, 243
Mayta Capac (Inca ruler) 171, 172
Medoro, Angelino 167, 169, 184
Mendieta, Jerónimo 10
Mexican Constitution 245
Mexico City ix, 42, 71, 74, 77, 236, 237, 242, 243
Michelangelo 164
Michoacán (Mexico) 245, 247
Mictlantecuhtli (Aztec god) 30, 31, 34, 34, 35, 36
Miranda, Juan 71
mita (Andean labor system) 188
Mixcoatl (Aztec god) 5
Mixteca-Puebla ix, 5, 6, 7, 8, 12, 21
Moche (civilization) 134
Motecuhzoma visits Cortés (González family) 68
Mollinedo Angulo, Manuel 176, 200
Monument to the Founders (Cuzco) 223224, 224
mosaic mask 64, 65
Moscoso, Juan Manuel de 198202, 201n
Motolinía. See Benavente, Toribio de
Motyl, Alexander 243
Museo de Arte Religioso (Cuzco) 220
Museo de Historia, Antropología y Arte, University of Puerto Rico (San Juan) 93
Museo Ma Carlota (Matanzas, Cuba) 120, 121
Museo Nacional de Arqueología, Antropología e Historia del Perú (Lima) 127
Museo Nacional de Arte (Mexico City) 71
Natán (Panama) 242, 245
Nasca 233, 234
Nigeria 108, 118, 119n, 120
nightjar 137138, 138, 139, 233
Nuestra Señora de Belén church (Cuzco) 152
obraje (textile mill) 196197, 196n
Oculate Being (Andean supernatural) 126, 127, 129131, 130, 141, 233
Oruro rebellion 188, 190191
orisha 120, 121
Our Lady of Bethlehem (image) 198200, 200, 201
owl 30, 43, 53, 54, 128, 129131, 233
Pacarictambo (Cuzco, Peru) 214, 217, 217n, 225
Pachacuteq Monument (Cuzco) 223, 223, 226n
Pachacuti Yupanqui (Inca ruler) 215, 217219, 223, 228
Pachamama (Andean god) 171, 201, 235
Palermo (Italy) 164, 171, 173, 184
Pan (Greek god) 45, 47, 54
Pané, Ramón 8385
Panquetzaliztli (Aztec ceremony) 33
Panofksy, Erwin 87
Paraguay 80
Pasto (Nariño, Colombia) 245
Pasztory, Esther 1
Paracas textiles
Block Color style 126127, 133, 135, 136, 137, 137, 139, 139, 140, 140, 233, 234
development of avian iconography in 127128, 132133
Linear Style 126127, 129, 130, 132, 133, 233
Pátzcuaro (Michoacán, Mexico) 247
Pérez de Alesio, Mateo 167169, 168, 175, 184
Pérez de Guzmán, Alonso 153
Pérez de Holguín, Melchor 181, 181
Pisac (Cuzco, Peru) 224
Pomacanchi (Cuzco, Peru) 196
Portrait of Don Francisco de Arobe and his sons Don Pedro and Don Domingo (Mulatos of Esmeraldas) (Sánchez Galque) 144, 156158, 158
Potosí (Bolivia) 169, 178, 181, 181, 184, 185, 194n, 237
Pueblo revolt 191
Puerto Rico 79, 8890, 9294, 95, 103n
Primeros Memoriales (Bernardino de Sahagún) 33
Psalmodia christiana (Bernardino de Sahagún) 9
pururauca (Inca gods) 215, 215n
Qorikancha. See Korikancha
Quito 156
Raleigh, Walter 85
Real Colegio de Santa Cruz, Tlatelolco (Mexico) 42
Reglas Congas 120
Riaño, Luis de 169
Rodríguez, Diego 7071
Román, Bartolomé 176, 184
Quetzalcoatl (Aztec god) 35, 38, 54, 66
Quiñones Keber, Eloise vii, 1, 2, 15, 16, 231, 232, 238, 244, 249
Sacsayhuaman (Cuzco) 191, 218n, 225
Sahagún, Bernardino de 1, 9, 10, 11, 13, 15, 42, 42n, 43, 44, 57, 65, 236
Saint Francis Xavier embarking for Asia (González family) 63
St. James the Apostle confraternity (Cuzco) 191
San Bartolomé church (Tinta, Cuzco) 156, 157
San Blas parish (Cuzco) 220
San Jerónimo church (Cuzco) 193
Sánchez Galque, Adrían 156158, 158
Santa Cruz Pachacuti, Juan 170172, 172, 182
Santa Cruz Pumacallao, Basilio 176, 177
Santa Maria degli Angelli e dei Martiri church (Rome) 164
Santa María Xoxoteco (Hidalgo, Mexico) 55
Santería 120, 121
Santiago, Apostle 191193, 192
Santo Niño de Atocha (image) 238
Sapa Inca (Inca ruler) 215, 217
Sarmiento de Gamboa, Pedro 218
Saunders, Nicholas J. 6870
Sealtiel. See archangels
Seler, Eduard 15, 16, 37
Senegal 118, 146
Sierra Leone 108
Sigüenza y Góngora, Carlos 70, 71, 76, 77, 241
Sillota (Oruro, Bolivia) 191
Slavery. See Africans, bohío, bozal
Spanish conquest
of the Caribbean 8286, 102103
of Mexico 21, 68, 68, 70, 72
of Peru 161162
Suárez y Romero, Anselmo 110, 113114, 117119
Sucre (Chuquisaca, Bolivia) 169
Sullivan, Lawrence E. 211
Tahuantinsuyu. See Inca empire
Taíno ix, 79, 8184, 81, 82, 84, 86, 89, 9293, 102, 105, 106, 108, 113, 117, 121, 137, 232, 238
Tamoanchan (Aztec supernatural realm) 9, 13
Tartanedo (Guadalajara, Spain) 185
Taube, Karl 2, 6, 912, 13, 1516, 232, 235
teixiptla (Aztec god surrogate) 44, 44n, 57, 58
temicamatl (Aztec book of dreams) 39
Templo Mayor (Mexico City) 67, 237
Tenochtitlan (Mexico) 31, 39, 67, 69, 76, 243
Teonanacatl (Aztec sacred mushroom) 58
Teotetl (Aztec jet stone) 57, 58
Teotihuacan (Mexico) 1, 2, 9, 10, 12, 14, 14, 15, 16
Textiles
redistribution by Tupac Amaru 195198
See also Paracas textiles, obraje
Tezcatlipoca (Aztec god) 35, 38, 66
Tezozomoc, Fernando Alvarado 65
The wedding at Cana (Correa) 240, 240
Tiahuanaco (Bolivia) 214
Tikal (Guatemala) 67
Tipón (Cuzco, Peru) 224
Titicaca, Lake (Peru/Bolivia) 172, 178, 181, 214
tlacatecolotl (Aztec sorcerer) 43, 54, 55
tlacuilo (Aztec scribe) 23, 42, 4647
Tlaloc (Aztec god) 35, 46, 48, 49, 58
Tlalocan (Aztec supernatural realm) 9
Tlatelolco (Mexico City) ix, 42
tlaquimilolli (Aztec sacred bundle) 44, 44n, 52
Tlazolteotl (Aztec goddess) 24, 24, 27
Toledo, Francisco 219
Tonalá (Jalisco, Mexico) 234, 242, 245
tonalamatl (Aztec sacred book) 39
tonalpohualli (Aztec calendar) 2225, 26, 27, 29, 31
Tonatiuh (Aztec god) 6, 7, 9, 1112, 13
Topa Inca (Inca ruler) 219
Toussaint, Manuel 62, 239
Tovar de Teresa, Guillermo 239, 241
Trinidad (Caribbean island) 79, 85, 87, 93, 94
Trinidad (Cuba) 109, 111, 112, 114, 115n, 116117, 116
Tula (Hidalgo, Mexico)
art and iconography of 26, 3, 5, 7, 1113, 15
Tullumayo, River (Cuzco) 218
Tupa Amaro, Manuela 202, 203, 204
Tupac Amaru (Inca ruler) 191, 192, 193, 196197, 196n, 198, 201202, 201n
Tupac Amaru rebellion x, 236
ethnic composition of 188189
iconoclasm during 190192
repression of 189190
twelve-angle stone (Cuzco) 220221, 220, 222, 224225, 227
tzitzimitl (cihuateotl) (Aztec goddesses) 5, 8, 13, 43, 55, 56, 58, 59
Uriel. See archangels
Valera, Blas 169170
Valverde, Fernando 171, 173, 174n
Vanvitelli, Luigi 164
Villalpando, Cristóbal de 69, 77
Viracocha (Andean god) 169, 170, 171, 182, 184, 201, 214, 215n
Vasari, Giorgio 167, 168
Virgin of Guadalupe 7076, 74, 75
Vos, Maerten de 146n, 164
Wamani (Andean gods) 171
Warao (Caribbean people) 79, 94
Wierix, Jerome 164, 165, 171
wiphala (Andean flag) 183184, 183
Xiuhcoatl (Aztec god) 16
Xiuhtecuhtli (Aztec god) 33, 35
Xochipilli (Aztec god) 9, 12, 12, 13
Ymaymana (Inca gods) 171, 184
Yoruba (African people) 120
Zaire 117, 118
Zuccari, Federico 167, 168
Zurbarán, Francisco 169, 176, 184