The first main contribution of Martin Zenck with the title The structure of fantasies in the signatures of the early modern age develops the issue of the meaning of signatures in discursive field with fantasies. First, he defines the semantic contrast between signature and fantasies.With that usually two systems of signs are described, where the signatures name adamitic imprints in those things which are intertwined by the principle of similarity and dissimilarity. To feel and perceive this a mimetic-mnemonic access is necessary, which is based on the reflective relationship between a macrocosmic inscription and a microcosmic charge of things. On the other hand, in fantasies the signs are not regarded as given facts or prescriptions, but they are set also in the course of coming off the rules of mimesis anthropocentrically and made to appear in things and artefacts. – The next step is, on the one hand, to work out seven different fields of meaning of the „signature“ and to exemplify them directly in Hieronymus Bosch’s „Garten der Lüste“(especially the right wing of the altar). On the other hand, these areas of meaning are again confronted with the new concept of the „fantasia“ under the perspective of a more complex and inherent understanding of the poetics of Renaissance and Baroque. Accordingly, „signature“ literally means, firstly, a personal signature, indeed, that of a client who wants a specific work to be performed in an adequate manner, by which his/her intention regarding the picture and the work is imprinted into the artefact. Secondly, „signature“ means the signature the artist imprints into the picture, and by this special way of imprinting ruled by a certain position of the hand, the manner of painting and the style of a picture is influenced. Thirdly, by way of the „signature“ principally a field becomes writing, so it is a relationship between the picture and the writing. This denotes in detail, as a fourth aspect, that a connection between numerals and inscriptions is achieved, which is a connection between ideal or fixed numerals and cited or invented inscriptions of a picture. Regarding Wilhelm Fraenger’s book about Hieronymus Bosch, in the fifth place, one can speak of „pharmaceutical signatures and signatures of opiate“ generally playing a role in the explanations about certain kinds of berries and in the „Liebesäpfel der Mandragora“ in the theory of signature. They are no less subject of presentation than means for stimulating the artist’s creative „fantasia“. If one speaks of a signature of an age, it is, in the sixth place, either an autonomous assignment or, in the seventh place, a theologically labelled interpretation, showing how it is compatible with the theory of signature. – The decisive question to be asked regarding the relationship between „signature“ and „fantasies“ in order to differentiate effectively between the two categories and aspects is to what extent signs of fantasies, e.g. frightening half-breeds and hybrids of appearance, can still be virtual compounds of the „signature“ or if these inspirations are mere thanks to the unleashed „fantasia“. This question can be answered as follows: Within a theo-centrically based theory of signature these monsters, e.g. the frightening mixed heads and dragon’s heads at the „Freiburger Münster“, are marginalia: They are a matter of peripheral importance and are not – like in mannerism – a peculiar stylistic version of a fantasia set absolutely – in the centre of attention. For one side the monstrosities serve for proving an incontestable truth, for the other they are a subject of an inexhaustible inventiveness