In March 2000, the United Nations Secretary-General convened an international panel to conduct a major study on United Nations Peace Operations. Chaired by former Algerian Foreign Minister and current Under-Secretary-General, Lakhdar Brahimi, the Panel was tasked to conduct a wide-ranging study and analysis over lessons learned from past operations such as those in Rwanda and Somalia, as well as current missions in Kosovo, East Timor, and the Democratic Republic of the Congo.
The Panel looked at how peacekeeping missions could achieve greater efficiency and success in attaining the key objectives of maintaining peace and promoting reconciliation and reconstruction. It also reviewed the context within which peacekeeping missions took place, the resources and limitations of the United Nations Department of Peacekeeping Operations (DPKO) specifically, and the modality, efficacy, and extent of assistance rendered by the `international community' within the framework of peacekeeping and peace-building in general.
The fifth in a series of conferences organised on lessons learnt from peacekeeping operations was held under the auspices of the United Nations Institute for Training and Research (UNITAR), the Institute of Policy Studies (IPS) of Singapore and the Japan Institute of International Affairs (JIIA). Throughout two intense days in Singapore, in April 2001, an eminent group of academics, government officials, representatives of international organisations, representatives from ongoing UN Missions, and military scholars gathered behind closed doors to reflect upon the recommendations of the Brahimi Report and the obstacles to reform of peacekeeping.
This volume contains all the papers presented at that event. It also includes the
Co-Chairs' Summary and Recommendations. The Report is a summary of the many animated debates that took place during the conference. Recommendations of the Co-Chairs have been drawn from the broad range of opinions and insights from the conference. The findings and reactions of the participants to the Brahimi Report should give policy-makers, researchers, and international affairs analysts a candid review and critique of past experiences that is essential to the comprehension of the failures of current peacekeeping and requirements for future success.
This volume explores the extent to which frameworks of tradional neutrality might remain useful in modern contexts of peace and war, notwithstanding the technical prohibition of war in the Charter of the United Nations. Traditional neutrality constituted a system through which non-belligerent states could remain at peace with warring states, and thereby avoid attack and continue peacetime trading relations. The essays here collected deal with the rules of neutrality as they had developed and operated generally by the outbreak of World War 1, those variations in and alternatives to traditional neutrality which arose in the aftermath of World War 1, and particular aspects of the legacy of neutrality which continue to survive in the post-1945 era. It is argued that the operable rules of traditional neutrality foundered in the face of industrialized warfare, but that the retreat from the 'logic' of neutrality in the modern era has been premature.
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The United Nations Observer Mission in El Salvador (ONUSAL) is the result of dialogue and negotiation between the Salvadorian Government and the Farabundo Marti National Liberation Front (FMLN). It constitutes the first UN attempt to mediate the settlement of an non-international armed conflict. This work studies the benefits and disadvantages intrinsic to a political body in monitoring the respect for international humanitarian law, and analyzes new requirements demanded by the enlargement of the functions of the UN. The analysis is based on the reports of the ONUSAL, prepared during its peace-making phase, and focuses on the question of the extent to which the mission succeeded in assuring a better protection of the norms of humanitarian law.
The work is based on a Ph.D. thesis originally written in French. Tathiana Flores Acuña received her doctorate from the European University Institute in Florence in 1994. She now works for the Organization of American States in Costa Rica.