Appendix 1 Kawkab al-Durriya—Translation of the Marginal Notes

In: An Azanian Trio
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  • Note 1: Top Left inset in text. Poem—Blessings upon Mārka. Her people have gained protection from Zanjibār, protection of al-Raḥmān (the Merciful).
  • Note 2: Top Left inset in text. And Barāwa and the beneficence that was seen in her, her choice and good deeds. Sīwī, and Battā, then Mundu and Fāza as well as Jabrīn are all Arabs.
  • Note 3: Right inset in text. Al-Famāwī referred to the above mentioned village that some of them Fāmiya or Afāmiya according to the commentator.
  • Note 4: Sabāʾik, p. 30.
  • Note 5: Right inset in text. It is said they are of Kalfa bin Awf bin ʿAmr bin Awf ibn Awsi. Sabāʾik, p. 74.
  • Note 6: Left inset in text. Matafa? Sabāʾik, 50 8And al-Ṭābiyyah is a branch of the Banū Muhrā from Khuddām, which is a tribe of the Banū Ṭarīf bin Suwayd. The Banū Suwayd used to live in al-Jawf, the valley in al-Sharqiyya of Egypt. He was one of the noblest of Arabs concludes Sabāʾik, 45.Specialists say that it was named Maṭāfa in Swahili, but its origin is al-Ṭābiyya, which is called after the name of the tribe of its people, as we have mentioned before, which are sons of al-Ṭābiyya. See p. 90.
  • Note 7: Left inset. There is a long history of imāma in Nizwa. Julanda bin Masʿūd al-Azdī A.H. 135 corresponding to A.D. 756.2 Then al-imām Muḥammad bin ʿAffān al-Azdī. That was at Nizwa on the two dates mentioned.3 Then al-imām Wārith bin Kaʿb al-Yaḥmadī. That was at Nizwa in A.H. 185 corresponding to A.D. 801
  • Note 8: Left inset. And there was in Nizwa an imām called Ghassān bin ʿAbdallah al-Azdī in A.H. 192 corresponding to A.D. 807.4Then al-imām ʿAbd al Malik Ḥamd al-Azdī in 208 A.H. corresponding to A.D. 824.5Then al-imām Maḥanna bin Jaʿfar al-Jaḥmadī in Nizwa in A.H. 226 corresponding to A.D. 840.6Then al-imām Ṣalt bin Mālik al-Azdī in A.H. 237 corresponding to A.D. 851.Then al-imām Rāshid bin Naṣir al-Azdī in A.H. 273 corresponding to A.D. 886.
  • Then al-imām ʿAzzān bin Tamīm in Nizwa in A.H. 227 corresponding to A.D. 890.7
  • Then there was a king in ʿUmān called Makhzūm bin Fallāḥ al-Nabhānī8 in the land of Bahla in the year A.H. 819 corresponding to A.D. 1056 and the Nabhānī dynasty disappeared. There arose Abū ʾl-Ḥasan9 as imām in ʿUmān in the year 839 A.H. corresponding to 1435 and he is the Azdī.Then al-imām ʿUmar bin al-Khattāb al-Yaḥmadī10 in the year 855 corresponding to the year 1451.Then al-imām ʿUmar bin Sharīf al-Yaḥmadī11 in the year 892 A.H. corresponding to the year 1490.The al-imām Aḥmad bin Muḥammad al-Yaḥmadī12 and all of them were in Bahla in the year?Then al-imām Abū ʾl-Ḥasan13 in Bahla.Then al-imām Muḥammad b. Ismāʿīl al-Yaḥmadī14 was in Zakī in the year 906 corresponding to the year 1500.15
  • Note 9: On the margin. There was in ʿUmān an imām. He was called Rāshid bin Saʿīd al-Kindī in A.H. 445 corresponding to A.D. 1053.16Then al-imām Ḥafṣ bin Rāshid al-Kindī in A.H. 445, year 1053.17Then imām Rāshid bin ʿAlī al-Kindī in the year 446, year 1054.18Then al-imām Abū Jābir Mūsa al-Kindī in the year 549 corresponding to A.D. 1154.19Then al-imām Mālik bin ʿAlī al-Kindī date year 809 corresponding to A.D. 1406.20 Those mentioned were in Nizwa, all of them.21
  • Note 10: On the margin. And we mention the sultans who were in ʿUmān from the first of them. They are Banū Nabhān. The first of them was named al-Fallāḥ bin Muḥsin al-Nabhāni. He was in Qiryāt in A.H. 539 corresponding to A.D. 1154.22 He was one of those who opposed the imām Abū Jābir Mūsa al-Kindī in Nizwa.23 The affairs of ʿUmān were lost when imām and king disappeared and they had no rulers except shaykhs year after year.Then arose al-imām Mālik bin ʿAlī al-Kindī in Nizwa and Muẓaffar bin Sulaymān in Qiryat (Qurayat),24 a powerful king in the year 809 corresponding to A.D. 1406. And Muẓaffar bin Sulaymān al-Nabhānī was the one who sent his friends to Bata in that year 809 corresponding to A.D. 1406. And he ruled the land of Bata and likewise afterwards Mogadishū and Mārka and Barāwa and Āmu without war because they had been ruled by the amīr of the Turks. And the Nabhānī was a great king in East Africa.
  • Note 11: Then al-imām Muḥammad bin Ḥasan al-Azdī in 284 corresponding to A.D. 897.25Then al-imām ʿAzzān ibn al-Khiḍr al-Yaḥmadī in A.H. 285 corresponding to A.D. 898.26Then al-imām ʿAbdallah bin Muḥammad al-Yaḥmadī in A.H. 286 corresponding to A.D. 899.27Then al-imām Ṣalt bin Qāsim al-Yaḥmadī in A.H. 287 corresponding to A.D. 900.28Then al-imām Ḥasan bin Saʿīd al-Yaḥmadī in A.H. 287 corresponding to A.D. 900.29Then al imam Ḥūr bin Maṭraf al-Yaḥmadī in A.H. 292 corresponding to A.D. 904.30Then al-imām ʿUmar bin Muḥammad al-Yaḥmadī in A.H. 300 corresponding to A.D. 912.31Then al-imām Muḥammad bin Yazīd al-Kindī in Nizwa—32Then Mallaḥ bin Baḥr al-Kindī in Nizwa.33Then al-imām Saʿīd bin ʿAbdallah al-Kindī in A.H. 328 corresponding to A.D. 939.34Then al-imām Rāshid b. Walīd. He was in Nizwa.35The al-imām al-Khalīl bin Shādhān al-Kindī in A.H. 400 corresponding to 1009.36
  • Note 12: In top margin. And there was in ʿUmān an imām. He was called Nāṣir bin Murshid al-Yaʿrabī37 in Rustāq in the year 1034 corresponding to the year 1624.
  • Note 13: There was in ʿUmān an imām called Sultan bin Sayf al-Yaʿrabi. His place was in Hazm in the year A.H. 1123 corresponding to A.D. 1711. This was in Hazm. Then ibn Sayf bin Sultan in the year A.H. 1131 corresponding to A.D. 1718. Then Muhanna bin Sultan in the year A.H. 1131 to A.D. 1718; in the past this one was in Rustaq.
  • Note 14: On the margin. Then the imām Barakāt bin Muḥammad al-Yaḥmadī. He was in Nizwa in the year 936 corresponding to 1529. These knew of the entry of the Christians into the Sawāḥil land, but they were defeated and remained quiet, because the sultan of Batta used to send the zakāt every year from the wealth of the Sawāḥil to ʿUmān to whoever was imām in ʿUmān.
  • Note 15: On the margin. Then there was the imām called Yaʿrab bin BalʿArab al-Yaʿrabī38 in the year 1134 corresponding to year 1721 and he was in Nizwā.Then imām Sayf bin Sulṭan al-Yaʿrabī.39 He was in Rustaq in the year 1135 corresponding to year 1722.Then Muḥammad bin Nāṣir al-Jabri40 in ʿUmān in (the) Yabrin encampment in the year 1137 corresponding to year 1724.Then al-imām Sayf bin Sulṭān al-Yaʿrabī41 was in Rustāq in the year 1140 corresponding to year A.D. 1728.Then Sulṭān bin Murshid al-Yaʿrabī42 was in Rustāq in the year 1151 corresponding to 1738. This is he who the shaykhs and ʿulamāʾ who were in ʿUmān deposed and complained to Ibn Saʿūd.

These notes appear sometimes as marginal and at other times as footnotes at the bottom of the original typed copy of Kawkab al-durriya. In the electronic copy, they all appear as marginal notes.


Ibn Razīk, History, pp. 7 f. Footnote 3 has a reference to the historian and geographer Abū ʾl-Fidā al-Ḥamāwī (1273–1331), who claimed that the name Julanda was assume by all the rulers of ʿUmān in this early period. Al-Wārith bin Kaʿb is listed in Ibny Razīk, History, pp. 10 ff.; Wilkinson, Imamate Tradition, pp. 10, 153 (c. 131/748–c. 133/750).


Ibn Razīk, History, pp. 9 f.; Wilkinson, Imamate Tradition, pp. 10, 150, 153, 157 ff. etc. (c. 177/793–179/795).


Ibn Razīk, History, pp. 12–15; Wilkinson, Imamate Tradition, pp. 10, 153, 157 f. etc. (192/808– 207/823). *This material appears as numbered notes on the right and left hand side of the main Arabic text, but as footnotes in the original typed version (TS).


Ibn Razīk, History, p. 15; Wilkinson (Imamate Tradition, pp. 10, 151, 153, etc.) has Ḥumayd (226/841–237/851).


Ibn Razīk, History, pp. 16–19. He adds that Muḥanna died in A.H. 237/851; Wilkinson, Imamate Tradition, pp. 10, 151, 153, 207, etc. (226/841–237/851).


Ibn Razīk, History, pp. 20–25. He has the date 277/890; Wilkinson, Imamate Tradition, 1987 pp. 10, 167, 209 ff. (277/890–280/893).


Ibn Razīk, History, pp. 42–48. Wilkinson (Imamate Tradition, p. 214) mentions imām A. ʾl-Ḥasan b. Khamīs b. Āmir 839/1436–846/1443.


Ibn Razīk, History, p. 48; Wilkinson, Imamate Tradition, p. 214.


Ibn Razīk, History, pp. 48 ff.; Wilkinson, Imamate Tradition, pp. 214 f.


Ibn Razīk, History, p. 50.


Ibn Razīk, History, p. 50; Wilkinson, Imamate Tradition, p. 215.


Ibn Razīk, History, p. 50; Wilkinson, Imamate Tradition, pp. 214, 215 (d. 846/1443).


Ibn Razīk, History, pp. 50 f. “Zaki” see footnote 2 p. 50; Wilkinson, Imamate Tradition, pp. 215 f.


TS p. 65 has ʿAli al-Hāmish. It mentions the imām who was in ʿUmān Bahla; he was called ʿAbdallah b. Muḥammad al-Hināʾī [TS].


Ibn Razīk, History, p. 35; Wilkinson, Imamate Tradition, p. 210.


Ibn Razīk, History, p. 35. The text becomes inconsistent leaving out A.D.; Wilkinson, Imamate Tradition, p. 210.


Ibn Razīk, History, p. 35. The inconsistency continues leaving out A.H. and A.D.; Wilkinson, Imamate Tradition, pp. 210 f.


Ibn Razīk, History, p. 36. Here the A.H. is left out.


Ibn Razīk, History, pp. 36–40. Also here A.H. left out.


See Wilkinson, Imamate Tradition, pp. 211 f.


Ibn Razīk, History, p. 41.


Clerarly some confusion by backtracking to the previous dynasty.


Ibn Razīk, History, p. 41.; Wilkinson (Imamate Tradition, pp. 49, 214) mentions the Nabhānī’s involvement in East Africa. Ibn Razīk may have left it out as irrelevant to the history of ʿUmān. See Allen, Swahili Origins, pp. 151, 228, 244, 252; Mathew, “East African Coast”, p. 119. For assessment of the Pate Chronicle, see H.N. Chittick, “A New Look at the History of Pate”, Journal of African History 10/3 (1969): 375–391; Kirkman 1983 pp. 41–58; Horton, Archaeology, p. 4. The above chronology seems determined by the Pate Chronicle.


The text has omitted a reference to A.H. Ibn Razīk (History, p. 25) has Shaykh M. b. al-Ḥasan. See Wilkinson, Imamate Tradition, p. 209, indicating a split between the groups. He mentions imām al-Ḥawāri b. ʿAbdullah al-ḤuddāniYanqul at this point.


Ibn Razīk, History, p. 25.


Ibn Razīk, History, p. 26.


Ibn Razīk, History, p. 26.


Ibn Razīk, History, pp. 19; Wilkinson, Imamate Tradition, pp. 10, 79, 158, 165, 207, etc. (237/851–272/886).


Ibn Razīk, History, pp. 26 f. He transliterates the name as Hawāri; See Wilkinson, Imamate Tradition, p. 209.


Ibn Razīk, History, pp. 27 f.


The text gives no dates. Ibn Razīk, History, pp. 28 f.


Ibn Razīk, History, p. 29.


Ibn Razīk, History, pp. 29 f.


Ibn Razīk, History, pp. 30–34.


Ibn Razīk, History, p. 35.


Ibn Razīk, History, pp. 53–77; Wilkinson, Imamate Tradition, pp. 218 ff. et passim.


Ibn Razīk, History, pp. 102 ff.; Wilkinson, Imamate Tradition, pp. 13, 220.


Ibn Razīk, History, pp. 105–122; Wilkinson, Imamate Tradition, p. 223.


Ibn Razīk, History, pp. 122–130; Wilkinson, Imamate Tradition, pp. 351 f. n. 37.


Ibn Razīk, History, pp. 131–145; Wilkinson, Imamate Tradition, pp. 223 f.


Ibn Razīk, History, pp. 145–155; Wilkinson, Imamate Tradition, p. 13.