Appendix 7 Chronology—Timeline

In: An Azanian Trio
Free access

Azanian Trio Timeline

Pharaoh Sahure (2553–2541 B.C.) conducted maritime expedition on East African coast.1

c. 1493/2 B.C.

Pharaoh Hatsheput expedition to Punt.2

Late 8th–early 7th centuries B.C.

Minean Mukarribs Yathʿamar and Kariba-il.3

c. 750 B.C.

Sabaean Kingdom 1st period.4

c. 700 B.C.

Minaean Kingdom with centre in Jawf. Capital Qarnaw.5

Pre 700 B.C.

Ausan traded with E.A. Coast.6

c. 610 B.C.

Sabaean Kingdom 2nd period.7 Capital Maʾrib.

Pre 550 B.C.

Minneans conquered by Saba.8

c. 550 B.C.

Arabs from Yemen cross Red Sea and settle in Habash9

c. 510 B.C.

Egyptian voyages to Punt.10

c. 450 B.C.

Mālik Kariba-il Watar.11 Ḥaḍramawt Kingdom. Capital Shabwah.12

c. 400 B.C.

Qataban Kingdom. Capital Tamnaʿ (Kuḥlan)13

4th century A.D.

Axum Palace & Steles.14

115 B.C.–525 A.D.

Himyar15 Capital Ẓafar

c. 41–54 A.D.

Diogenes voyages along East African coast.16

c. 106 A.D.

Periplus. Kharibaël Himyari Tubba ruler of former Ausan kingdom.17

273–297 A.D.

ʿAbd Kelal king of Yemen.18

c. 320–355 A.D.

Aezanas son of Ella Amida, king of Axum.19

333 A.D.

Aezanas adopts Christian tradtion.20

c. 340–378 A.D.

Axumite occupation of Himyar.21

c. 385–420 A.D.

Abū Karib Asʿad alias Abū Karib Asʿad Kāmil.22

c. 467 A.D.

Sharahbil Yakkuf Himyar ruler.23

c. 514–543 A.D.

Caleb (Ela Atsheba) king of Axum.24

517–525 A.D.

Dhū Nuwās Ḥimyarī Tubbaʿ

517 A.D.

Caleb sends fleet against Himyar.25

525 A.D.

Dhū Nuwās, the last Himyari Tubbaʿ died.26

Cosmas Indicopleustes.27

525–570 A.D.

Axum rules Himyar.28

531 & c. 540 A.D.

Byzantine missions to Aksum.29

564 A.D.

Julianus sent by Emperor Justinian (527–565) to Himyarite kingdom.30

c. 570 A.D.

Axumite defeat at Mecca.31

572–628 A.D.

Sāsānid domination of Arabia.32

615 A.D.

Muslims seek refuge in Aksum.33

691 A.D.

Sulaymān and Saʿīd leave ʿUmān for East Africa.34

c. 696 A.D.

Syrians settlements at Pate, Lamu, etc.35

730 A.D.

Arab settlement in Pemba.36

c. 740 A.D.

Zaydīs settle on East African coast.37

c. 766 A.D.

Caliph al-Manṣūr’s expedition to East Africa.38

c. 786–809 A.D.

Caliph Hārūn al-Rashīd said to have established settlements on the East African coast.39

837 A.D.

Caliph Abū ʾl-Abbās ʿAbdallah al-Maʾmūn sent a military expedition to Malindi.40

c. 850 A.D.

Tuan Ch’eng-shih description of East Africa.41

c. 887 A.D.

Foundation of Mogadishu.

c. 915 A.D.

Al-Masʿūdī’s description of East Africa.42

9th–15th centuries omitted in Kitāb al-Zunūj.43

1071 A.D.

Zanj visit to China. Also 1081–1083.44

c. 1100 A.D.

Several Muslim settlements on East African coast. Stone mosques.45

498/1105

First dated Muslim epitaph at Barāwa.46

500/1107

Kizimkazi Mosque inscription.47

c. 1150

Al-Idrīsī’s description of East Africa.48

614/1217

Earliest epitaphs at Mogadishu.49

1204

Traditional founding date of Pate and Vumba. Sulṭān Yūsuf b. Alawi at Tumbatu.50

1224

Yāqūt b. ʿAbdallah al-Ḥamāwi al-Rūmi’s description of Pemba.51

1225

Chao Ju-kua, Chu-fan-chi—Gazetteer of Foreigners.52

c. 1300

Abū ʾl-Fida’s description of East Africa.53

1238

Mogadishu Friday Mosque minaret completed.54

c. 1250

Fakhr al-Dīn dynasty established in Mogadishu.55

1265

Final date for a hoard of Chinese coins, Zanzibar.56

1268

Arbaʿa Rukun mosque mihrāb, Mogadishu completed.57

1269

Fakhr al-Dīn mosque, Mogadishu completed.58

1286

Ibn Saʿīd records Indian settlers in Eastern Africa.59

c. 1291–1339

Fumomadi the Great, Sultan of Pate.60

1322

Abū Bakr b. Muḥammad, Sultan of Mogadishu issues dated coins in East Africa.61

c. 1330

Sor Leone Vivaldi in Mogadishu.62 Jordanus describes East Africa as ‘India tertia’.63

1331–1332

Ibn Baṭṭūṭa’s visit.64

1339–1392

ʿUmar b. Muḥammad I, Sultan of Pate claims control of coast from Mogadishu to Kerimba islands.65

1364

First mention of pillar tomb in East Africa.66

c. 1390

Nabhānī mosque built on Songo Mnara Island.67

c. 1415

Embassy from Malindi to China.68

1417–1419 & 1421–1422

Chinese naval expeditions to East Africa.69

1488–1491

Pedro da Covilhao visit to East Africa.70

1498

Vasco da Gama’s visit.71 Siyu founded prior to this date.72

1499

Vasco da Ganma’s return from India.73

c. 1500

Galla driven out of Ogaden and Banādir.74

1500

Shehe Mvita Dynasty in Mombasa. Pedro Alvares Cabral’s visit to East Africa. Muzaffarid Dynasty in Mogadishu.75

1502

Vasco da Gama’s second visit to East Africa.76

1503

Ruy Lourenço Ravasco visit to Zanzibar.77

1505

Dom Francisco d’ Almeida visit to East Africa.78 The sack of Mombasa.79

1506–1508

João Gomez and João Sanchez in Malindi. 80

1517

Duarte Barbosa’s description of the East African coast.81

1521

Lamu pays tribute in Venetian silver currency.82

1528

Mombasa, Mṭangata & Utondwe revolt.83

1537

Galla enter Bali Province.84

1540

Turkish raids in East Africa.85

1542

Francis Xavier’s visit to East Africa.86

1569

Construction of Fort Jesus in Mombasa begun. Father Monclaro visits the coast.87

c. 1580

Fumo Liongo Sultan of Ozi.88

c. 1585

van Linschoten’s description of Mombasa.89

1585

Amir Ali Bey drives Portuguese from Mombasa.90

1586–1593

Bwana Tamu Mkuu. Pate.91

1588

Bwana Bashir, Lamu executed by the Portuguese. Amir Ali Bey in Mombasa. Zimba hordes on East African coast.92

1591

Sir James Lancaster in East African waters.93

1593–1596

Construction of Fort Jesus.94

c. 1593

Stambuli dynasty, Faza.95

c. 1596

Augustianians and Misericordia Brethren in Mombasa, Faza, Lamu, Zanzibar.96

c. 1598

Al-Ḥasan b. Aḥmed, Sulṭan of Malindi & Mombasa.97

Post 1600

Galla invasion of the coast.98

1607

Yūsuf b. al-Ḥasan born. Stephen son of Philip king of Pemba sent to Goa for education.99

1606

Fra Gaspar de S. Bernandino visits the coast.100

Post 1612

Pemba subject to Malindi.101

1614

Al-Ḥasan of Mombasa visits Goa.102

1615

Al-Ḥasan of Mombasa murdered. Son Yūsuf sent to Goa for education.103

1624

Fr Jerome Lobo at Malindi and Juba.104

c. 1627

Yūsuf b. al-Ḥasan returns to Mombasa as sultan.105

1631

Mombasa rebellion. Pedro de Leitão, captain of Mombasa murdered by Yūsuf b. al-Hasan.106

1632

Arrival of Portuguese fleet from Goa. Yūsuf b. al-Hasan abandons Mombasa.107

1633

Arrival of second Portuguese fleet from Goa.108

1634

de Rezende’s description of Mombasa.109

1635

Francisco de Seixas de Cabreira Captain of Mombasa.110

1636

Punitive expeditions and treaties imposed on Pate, Siyu, Manda, Luziwa, Faza and Lamu.111

1643

Sulṭan of Faza complains of Portuguese conduct. Captain Afonso Manoel sent to Goa for trial. Tension between Faza and Pate.112

1644

War between Pemba and Faza.113

1649

Sulṭan b. Sayf of Muscat invited to intervene against Portuguese.114

1652

ʿUmānīs raid Portuguese in Pate and Zanzibar. Pemba ruler raids Mafia and Kwale Island. Rulers of Zanzibar, Pemba and Utondwe pay tribute to ʿUmān. Composition of the Hamziyya.115

1653

Seixas de Cabreira reinstated as Captain of Mombasa. Reoccupation of Zanzibar. Destruction of Pemba flotilla.116

1660

ʿUmānī raiders at Faza and supported by Pate, Siyu, Manda, Lamu, Simio, Mwera, Jasa & Oja.117

1661

ʿUmāni raiders capture Mombasa.118

1667

William Alley visits Mombasa.119

1670

ʿUmānīs raid the East African coast.120

1678

Portuguese punitive expedition against Pate. Rulers of Pate, Lamu, Siyu and Manda beheaded.121

1679

ʿUmānīs compel Portuguese in Pate to withdraw to Mozambique. Pemba revolt. Ruler expelled.122

1686

Pate rebels against the Portuguese. Ruler sent as prisoner to Goa.123

1688

ʿUmānī Arabs occupy Pate.124

1694

Pemba independent.125

1696

Sayf b. Sulṭān of ʿUmān lays siege to Fort Jesus.126

1698

ʿUmānīs capture Fort Jesus. Mogadishu temporarily occupied by ʿUmānīs. Naṣīr b. ʿAbdullah b. Muḥammad b. ʿAbdullah b. Kaḥlan wālī of Mombasa.127

1699

ʿUmānīs seize Zanzibar. Faṭṭūma bt Yūsuf exiled to Muscaṭ. Galla raids near Malindi.128

1700

ʿUmāni governor installed in Zanzibar.129

c. 1710

Ḥasan b. ʿAbdallah, Mwinyi Mkuu of Zanzibar and Bin Sulṭān of Pemba acknowledge Portuguese sovereignty.130

1711

Naṣīr b. ʿAbdallah al-Mazrūʿī re-instated as wālī of Mombasa by Sayf b. Sulṭān I (Qāʾid al-Arḍ).131

1729

Portuguese driven out of the coast down to Cape Delgado.132

1739

Muḥammnad b. ʿUthmān b. ʿAbdallah b. Muḥammad b. ʿAbdullah Kaḥlān wālī of Mombasa.133

1745

ʿAlī b. ʿUthman b. ʿAbdallah b. Muḥammad b. ʿAbdallah b. Kaḥlān wālī of Mombasa.134

1754

Masʿūd b.Nasīr b. ʿAbdallah b. Muḥammad b. ʿAbdallah b. Kaḥlān wālī of Mombasa.135

1779

ʿAbdullah b. Muḥammad b. ʿUthmān b. ʿAbdallah al-Mazrūʿī wālī of Mombasa.136

1780

Aḥmad b. Muḥammad b. ʿUthmān b. ʿAbdullah b. Muḥammad al-Mazrūʿī wāly of Mombasa.137

c. 1790

Saada Taji li Arifina first Swahili poetess.138

c. 1798

Naṣīr ibn ʿAbdallah ibn Muḥammad ibn ʿAbdallah ibn Kaḥlān wālī of Mombasa.139

c. 1800

Yāqūt b. Ambar al-Habshī wālī of Zanzibar. (d. before 1820). Succeeded by Ambar b. Sulṭān al-Habshī (died after two years); succeeded by ʿAbdalla b. Jumʿa al-Barwānī (al-Ḥarthī) (dismissed by 1819). Succeeded by ʿAlī b., Nasser al-Jabri (d. after 3 years). Succeeded by Khalfan b. Sulaymān al-Abri (died in prison). Succeeded by M. b. Nāṣir al-Mawlā; succeeded by Nāṣir b. Ḥamad al-Bū Saʿīdi who was in Zanzibar 1828 when Saʿīd arrived. Khālid b. Saʿīd appointed governor.140

1802

Saʿīd al-Bū Saʿīd first visit to Zanzibar.141

1804

P. Dallon in Zanzibar.142

1808

Battle of Shela.143

1811

James Prior in East Africa.144

1814

ʿAbdallah b.Aḥmad al-Mazrūʿī wali of Mombasa.145

1823

Ḥamad b. Aḥmad al-Bū Saʿīdi arrives with fleet.146

1823

Ḥamad b. Aḥmad captures Pemba.147 Sulaymān b.ʿAlī b. ʿUthmān al-Mazrūʿī wālī of Mombasa. Mombasa Chronicle.148

c. 1824

J.B. Emery in Mombasa.149

1826

Owen’s Protectorate rescinded.150

1826

Sulaymān b. ʿAlī abdicates as wālī in favour of Salīm b. Ḥemed/Aḥmed.151

1828

Sayyid Saʿīd’s visit to Mombasa.152 Ḥasan b. Aḥmad al-Alawi, Mwenyi Mkuu of Zanzibar.153

1829

Sayyid Saʿīd attacks Mombasa.154

1832

Sayyid Saʿīd settles in Zanzibar155

1833

Sayyid Saʿīd attacks Mombasa.156

1834

Kamis b. Ḥamad wālī of Mombasa.157

1835

Rāshīd b. Sālim b. Ḥamad al-Mazrūʿī wālī of Mombasa.158

1836

Shaykh Mshirazi elected leader of the “Three Tribes”.159

1837

Saʿid b. Sulṭān breaks the power of the Mazrūʿī. Deports Rashīd and leading Mazāriʿa to Bandar ʿAbbās.160 R.P. Waters, first US consul in Zanzibar.161

1838

End of Mazrūʿī rule in Mombasa.162

1839

Mazrūʿī of Gazi under Khasa binti Aḥmed, Sālim’s sister attacks Tanga.163

1841

Atkins Hamerton first British conul in Zanzibar.164 Nāṣir ibn Khalaf wālī of Pemba.165

1844

M. Broquant first French consul in Zanzibar.166

1845

Ḥasan b. Aḥmad, Mwinyio Mkuu of Zanzibar died 1845. Succeeded by Muḥammad b. Aḥmad al-ʿAlawī as Mwinyi Mkuu of Zanzibar.167

1848

Muḥammd b. Shaykh Sulṭān of Pate deposed.168

c. 1850

Galla dominate the Tana River region.169

1850

Mubārak b. Rashīd al-Mazrūʿī wālī of Gazi. Rashīd b. Khamis wālī of Takaungu. ʿAbdallah b. Khamīs made wālīof Gazi.170

1856

Mājid b. Sāʿīd sultan of Zanzibar.171

1850

Barghash b. Sāʿīd attempts coup d’ état and exiled to Bombay.172

1859

Mājid b. Sāʿīd signs treaty with Hanseatic Republics of Lübeck, Bremen and Hamburg. Appointment of J. Witt as consul.173

c. 1860

Belezoni Canal built between the Ozi and Tana rivers.174

1861

Siyu rebellion against Zanzibar.175

1862

Aḥmad b. Fumolati (Nabhānī) sultan of Witu.176 Simba of Witu seeks Treaty with Hanseatic States.

1865

Aḥmad b. Muḥammad, the last Mwinyi Mkuu of Zanzibar.177

1870

Barghāsh b. Sāʿīd sultan of Zanzibar.178 ʿAlī b. Nāṣir wālī of Mombasa.179

1872

Zanzibar, Pemba, Mafia hurricane. Mubārak of Gazi rebels against Zanzibar.180 M. b. ʿAbdallah b. Mubārak Bakhashwayni (al-Akida) wālī of Mombasa.

1873

John Kirk British consul in Zanzibar. Bartle Frere Mission to Zanzibar. Abolition of slave-trade.181

1874

Sālim b. Khalfān Walad Sheba wālī of Mombasa.

1875

Sālim b. Khamīs wālī of Takaungu. Barāwa, Kisimayu and Lamu annexed by Egypt.182

1876

Mombasa riots.183 Egyptian withdrawal from Barawa, Kismayu and Lamu.184

1877

General Matthews trains Zanzibar regular army.185

1880

Siti binti Saad Swahili poetess.186

1884

G. Rohlfs first German consul-general in Zanzibar.187 Severe famine on the coast.188

1885

German treaty with Witu.189

1886

Anglo-German agreement confirming Witu’s right to the coast from Kipini to Kiwayu.190

1888

Sayyid Khalīfa bin Sāʿīd sultan of Zanzibar.191 Al-Bushīrī rebellion.192 Imperial British East Africa Co. leases “coastal strip”.193

1889

Fumo Bakari sultan of Witu. German Protectorate declared for the area between Kiwayu and Kismayu.194

1890

Sayyid ʿAlī sultan of Zanzibar. British Protectorate over Zanzibar proclaimed.195 German Protectorate over Witu withdrawn.196

1893

Sayyid Ḥamīd b. Thuwaynī sultan of Zanzibar.197

1895

Rāshid ibn Sālim al-Mazrūʿī installed at Takaungu.198 Muḥammad b. ʿAbdallah Ḥasan settles at Berbera propagating Ṣālihiyyah doctrines.199 British Protectorate Kenya.200

1896

Sayyid Hamūd ibn Muḥammad sultan of Zanzibar.201 British bombardment of Zanzibar.202

1899

Muḥammad b. ʿAbdallah Ḥasan rebellion in “Somalia”.203

1902

Sayyid ʿAlī Ḥamūd sultan of Zanzibar.204 Recognition of Italian sovereignty of the Banādir Coast.

1903

Saada binti Maawia al-Maawy’s Utendi wa Kiama.205

1905

Maji-Maji rebellion.206

1907

Roman script replaces Arabic script for Swahili.207

1911

Sayyid Khalīfa ibn Ḥarūb sultan of Zanzibar.208

1913

Zanzibar incorporated into British East African Protectorate.209

1

R. Hennig, Terrae Incognitae. Eine Zusammenstellung und kritische Bewertung der wichtigsten vorcolumbischen Entdeckungsreisen an Hand der darüber vorliegenden Originalberichte. Leiden: E.J. Brill, 1944, vol. 1, pp. 5–13; Hitti, History of the Arabs, p. 34.

2

Hitti, History of the Arabs, p. 34.

3

Hitti, History of the Arabs, p. 52. Sabaean period 750–115 B.C.; Minaean c. 700–200 B.C.; Qataban c. 400–50 B.C.; Ḥaḍramawt c. 450 B.C.–100 A.D. Huzayyin 1941 p. 33.

4

Hitti, History of the Arabs, p. 52.

5

Hitti, History of the Arabs, pp. 52, 54 f.

6

Gray, History of Zanzibar, p. 11.

7

Hitti, History of the Arabs, p. 54.

8

Huzayyin 1941 p. 34.

9

G.S.P. Freeman-Grenville, Chronology of African History. London: Oxford University Press, 1973, p. 6.

10

Freeman-Grenville, Chronology, p. 7.

11

Hitti, History of the Arabs, p. 54. The Periplus dates him to c. 100 A.D. Is it a title or another person with the same name? See L. Casson, The Periplus Mais Erythraei. Princeton, University Press 1989 refers Beeston who maintains that the earliest inscriptions only allow a Himyar timeline from first century A.D.

12

Hitti, History of the Arabs, p. 55.

13

Hitti, History of the Arabs, p. 55.

14

Hitti (History of the Arabs, p. 57) dates this to the first century A.D.

15

Hitti, History of the Arabs, p. 60; Huzayyin 1942. p. 34; Gen. 10:3.

16

Freeman-Grenville, Chronology, p. 19.

17

Hennig, Terrae Incognitae, vol. 1, pp. 412–415.; Freeman-Grenville, Chronology, p. 20; Huntingford., Periplus, p. 151.

18

Hennig, Terrae Incognitae, vol. 2, p. 16.

19

Freeman-Grenville, Chronology, p. 25.

20

Freeman-Grenville, Chronology, p. 26.

21

Hitti 1961 p. 60.

22

Hitti, History of the Arabs, p. 60.

23

Moberg, Book of the Himyarites, p. lx.

24

Freeman-Grenville, Chronology, p. 31.

25

Freeman-Grenville, Chronology, p. 31.

26

A.I. Katsh, Judaism in Islam: Biblical and Talmudic Backgrounds of the Koran and Its Commentaries. Columbia: New York University Press, 1954, p. xviii.

27

Allen, Swahili Origins, p. 58; Moberg, Book of the Himyarites, p. lxviii; Freeman-Grenville, Chronology, p. 31.

28

Freeman-Grenville, Chronology, p. 31; Hennig, Terrae Incognitae, vol. 2, p. 50.

29

Freeman-Grenville, Chronology, pp. 31, 32.

30

Hennig, Terrae Incognitae, vol. 2, p. 52.

31

Freeman-Grenville, Chronology, p. 32.

32

Freeman-Grenville, Chronology, p. 32. Sāsānid dynasty 226–641.

33

Freeman-Grenville, Chronology, p. 33.

34

Freeman-Grenville, Chronology, p. 36.

35

Freeman-Grenville, Chronology, p. 37. Cerulli, Somalia, vol. 1, pp. 238, 266, 303, 333: Caliph ʿAbd al-Mālik bin Marwān (65/685–686/705) sent a military expedition to East Africa in 75/694.

36

Freeman-Grenville, Chronology, p. 38.

37

Freeman-Grenville, Chronology, p. 38.

38

Freeman-Grenville, Chronology, p. 40. Cerulli, Somalia, vol. 1, pp. 238, 267: Caliph Abū Jaʿfar ʿAbdallah al-Manṣūr (136/754–158/775) sent a representative to East Africa 149/766.

39

Freeman-Grenville, Chronology, p. 40. CerullI, Somalia, vol. 1, pp. 239, 267, 304, 334: Caliph Hārūn al-Rashīd (170/786–193/809) sent military expedition to the East African coast in 189/804.

40

Cerulli, Somalia, vol. 1, pp. 239, 267, 304, 334: Caliph Abū ʾl-ʿAbbās ʿAbd Allah al-Maʾmūn (198/813–218/833).

41

Allen, Swahili Origins, p. 26: Tuan Ch’eng-shih (d. 863); P. Wheatley, “Analecta Sino-Africana recensa”, in H.N. Chittick and R.O. Rotberg (eds), East Africa and the Orient: Cultural Syntheses in Pre-Colonial Times. New York: Africana, 1975, 76–114, p. 82; Freeman-Grenville 1962 p. 8.

42

Freeman-Grenville, East African Coast, pp. 14–17: Abū ʾl-Ḥasan ʿAlī al-Masʿūdī (d. 956).

43

Cerulli, Somalia, vol. 1, pp. 239, 267, 269.

44

Horton, Archaeology, p. 21.

45

H.N. Chittick, “The ‘Shirazi’ Colonization of East Africa”, in J.D. Fage & R.A. Oliver (eds), Papers in African Prehistory. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1970, 257–276, p. 275.

46

Freeman-Grenville, Chronology, p. 52; Horton, Archaeology, p. 419.

47

Kirkman 1957 p. 23; Kirkman, Men and Monuments, pp. 16, 175 f.; Chittick, “ ‘Shirazi’ Colonization”, p. 241.

48

Freeman-Grenville, East African Coast, pp. 19–20: Abū ʿAbdallah Muḥammad ibn Muḥammad al-Idrīsī (d. 1166).

49

Freeman-Grenville & Martin 1973 p. 102.

50

Gray, History of Zanzibar, p. 16; Freeman-Grenville, Chronology, p. 58.

51

Gray, History of Zanzibar, pp. 16 ff.

52

Wheatley, “Analecta”, p. 86; Freeman-Grenville, East African Coast, pp. 21–22.

53

Freeman-Grenville, East African Coast, pp. 23–24.

54

Freeman-Grenville, Chronology, p. 59.

55

Freeman-Grenville, Chronology, p. 60.

56

Freeman-Grenville, Chronology, p. 61. See also Freeman-Grenville, Medieval History, pp. 35, 175, 184, 185.

57

Freeman-Grenville, Chronology, p. 61.

58

Freeman-Grenville, Chronology, p. 61.

59

Freeman-Grenville, Chronology, p. 61.

60

Freeman-Grenville, Chronology, p. 63.

61

Freeman-Grenville, Chronology, p. 67.

62

Cerulli, Somalia, vol. 1, p. 167.

63

Freeman-Grenville, Chronology, p. 67.

64

Cerulli, Somalia, vol. 1, pp. 19, 41; vol. 2, p. 241; Freeman-Grenville, East African Coast, pp. 27–32.

65

Freeman-Grenville, Chronology, p. 67.

66

Freeman-Grenville, Chronology, p. 69.

67

Freeman-Grenville, Chronology, p. 71.

68

Freeman-Grenville, Chronology, p. 73.

69

Wheatley, “Analecta”, pp. 90 f.

70

Freeman-Grenville, Chronology, p. 79.

71

Freeman-Grenville, East African Coast, pp. 50–56.

72

Allen, Swahili Origins, p. 119.

73

Freeman-Grenville, East African Coast, pp. 57–58.

74

Freeman-Grenville, Chronology, p. 81.

75

Freeman-Grenville, East African Coast, pp. 59–63; Freeman-Grenville, Chronology, p. 81.

76

Freeman-Grenville, East African Coast, pp. 66–75.

77

Freeman-Grenville, East African Coast, pp. 76–79.

78

Freeman-Grenville, East African Coast, pp. 80–104.

79

Freeman-Grenville, East African Coast, pp. 108–111.

80

Freeman-Grenville, Chronology, p. 83.

81

Freeman-Grenville, East African Coast, pp. 131–134.

82

Freeman-Grenville, Chronology, p. 87.

83

Freeman-Grenville, Chronology, p. 87.

84

Freeman-Grenville, Chronology, p. 89.

85

Freeman-Grenville, Chronology, p. 89.

86

Freeman-Grenville, East African Coast, pp. 135–137.

87

Freeman-Grenville, Chronology, p. 93; Freeman-Grenville, East African Coast, pp. 138–143.

88

Freeman-Grenville, Chronology, p. 95; Knappert, Four Centuries, pp. 66 ff.

89

Freeman-Grenville, East African Coast, pp. 144 f.

90

Hinawy, Al-Akida and Fort Jesus, p. 10; Freeman-Grenville, Chronology, p. 95.

91

Freeman-Grenville 1958 p. 17. Kirkman (Men and Monuments, p. 65) has 1586.

92

Freeman-Grenville, Chronology, p. 97; Freeman-Grenville, East African Coast, pp. 146–151.

93

Freeman-Grenville, East African Coast, pp. 151–154.

94

Freeman-Grenville, Chronology, p. 97.

95

Freeman-Grenville, Chronology, p. 97.

96

Freeman-Grenville, Chronology, pp. 97, 99.

97

Freeman-Grenville, Chronology, p. 99.

98

Freeman-Grenville, Chronology, p. 99.

99

Freeman-Grenville, Chronology, p. 99.

100

Freeman-Grenville, Chronology, p. 99; Freeman-Grenville, East African Coast, pp. 155–164.

101

Freeman-Grenville, Chronology, p. 101.

102

Freeman-Grenville, Chronology, p. 101.

103

Freeman-Grenville, Chronology, p. 101.

104

Freeman-Grenville, Chronology, p. 103.

105

Freeman-Grenville, Chronology, p. 105.

106

Freeman-Grenville, East African Coast, pp. 169–174; Freeman-Grenville, Chronology, p. 105.

107

Freeman-Grenville, Chronology, p. 105.

108

Freeman-Grenville, Chronology, p. 107.

109

J. Gray, “Rezende’s Description of East Africa in 1634”, Tanganyika Notes and Records 23 (1947): 2–29; Gray, Early Portuguese Missionaries, pp. 27 ff.

110

Freeman-Grenville, Chronology, p. 107.

111

Freeman-Grenville, Chronology, p. 107.

112

Freeman-Grenville, Chronology, p. 107.

113

Freeman-Grenville, Chronology, p. 109.

114

Freeman-Grenville, Chronology, p. 107.

115

Freeman-Grenville, Chronology, p. 111.

116

Freeman-Grenville, Chronology, p. 111.

117

Freeman-Grenville, Chronology, p. 111.

118

Freeman-Grenville, Chronology, p. 111.

119

Freeman-Grenville, East African Coast, pp. 187–190; Freeman-Grenville, Chronology, p. 113.

120

Freeman-Grenville, Chronology, p. 113.

121

Freeman-Grenville, Chronology, p. 115.

122

Freeman-Grenville, Chronology, p. 115.

123

Freeman-Grenville, Chronology, p. 117.

124

Freeman-Grenville, Chronology, p. 117.

125

Freeman-Grenville, Chronology, p. 119.

126

Freeman-Grenville, Chronology, p. 119.

127

Freeman-Grenville, Chronology, p. 119; al-Mazrūʿī, History, p. 30.

128

Freeman-Grenville, Chronology, pp. 119, 121.

129

Freeman-Grenville, Chronology, p. 121.

130

Gray, History of Zanzibar, pp. 84, 159.

131

Al-Mazrūʿī, History, pp. 30, 34.

132

Freeman-Grenville, Chronology, p. 142.

133

Al-Mazrūʿī, History, p. 38 n. 11; Nicholls (Swahili Coast, p. 380) has 1730.

134

Al-Mazrūʿī, History, p. 48 n.e 24; Nicholls (Swahili Coast, p. 380) has 1744.

135

Al-Mazrūʿī, History, p. 53 n. 3.

136

Al-Mazrūʿī, History, p. 58 n. 21.

137

Al-Mazrūʿī, History, p. 60 n. 1; Nicholls 1971 has 1782.

138

Knappert, Four Centuries, p. 192.

139

Nicholls, Swahili Coast, p. 380.

140

Gray, History of Zanzibar, pp. 126 ff. For Yāqūt, see Smee 1811 in Burton, Zanzibar, vol. 2, pp. 458–493; Nicholls (Swahili Coast, pp. 27, 271, 288) has a different listing.

141

Nicholls, Swahili Coast, p. 246 n. 1.

142

Freeman-Grenville, East African Coast, pp. 198–201.

143

Al-Mazrūʿī, History, p. 67.

144

Freeman-Grenville, East African Coast, pp. 202–212.

145

Al-Mazrūʿī, History, p. 73 n. 1.

146

Al-Mazrūʿī, History, p. 80 nn. 22, 24.

147

Al-Mazrūʿī, History, p. 6.

148

Al-Mazrūʿī, History, p. 75 n. 6.

149

Freeman-Grenville, East African Coast, pp. 213–219; Al-Mazrūʿī, History, p. 94 n. 10.

150

Coupland, East Africa and Its Invaders, pp. 217–294.

151

Al-Mazrūʿī, History, p. 91 n. 1 (d. 1835); Nicholls (Swahili Coast, p. 380) has 1825.

152

Al-Mazrūʿī, History, p. 97 n. 20.

153

Freeman-Grenville, Chronology, p. 151.

154

Nicholls, Swahili Coast, pp. 306 f.

155

Nicholls, Swahili Coast, p. 247; Freeman-Grenville, Chronology, p. 153.

156

Nicholls, Swahili Coast, p. 307.

157

Al-Mazrūʿī, History, p. 121.

158

Nicholls, Swahili Coast, p. 380.

159

Nicholls, Swahili Coast, p. 310.

160

Al-Mazrūʿī, History, p. 121.

161

Gray, History of Zanzibar, p. 200; Nicholls, Swahili Coast, p. 327.

162

Nicholls, Swahili Coast, p. 308.

163

Nicholls, Swahili Coast, pp. 312 f.

164

Gray, History of Zanzibar, p. 205.

165

Nicholls, Swahili Coast, p. 312.

166

Gray, History of Zanzibar, pp. 184 f.

167

Gray, History of Zanzibar, p. 162; Freeman-Grenville, Chronology, p. 159.

168

Gray, “Zanzibar and the Coastal Belt”, p. 235.

169

Freeman-Grenville, Chronology, p. 161.

170

Freeman-Grenville, Chronology, p. 161.

171

Freeman-Grenville, Chronology, p. 165.

172

Reusch, History of East Africa, p. 286; Freeman-Grenville, Chronology, p. 167.

173

Gray, “Zanzibar and the Coastal Belt”, pp. 234 f.

174

Salim, Swahili Speaking Peoples, p. 64.

175

Freeman-Grenville, Chronology, p. 167.

176

Freeman-Grenville, Chronology, p. 169; Gray, “Zanzibar and the Coastal Belt”, p. 236.

177

Gray, History of Zanzibar, pp. 168 f. d. 1873; Nicholls, Swahili Coast, p. 285.

178

Freeman-Grenville, Chronology, p. 173.

179

Nicholls, Swahili Coast, p. 309.

180

Freeman-Grenville, Chronology, p. 173.

181

Freeman-Grenville, Chronology, p. 175.

182

Freeman-Grenville, Chronology, p. 175 (d. 1895).

183

Freeman-Grenville, Chronology, p. 175.

184

Freeman-Grenville, Chronology, p. 175.

185

Freeman-Grenville, Chronology, p. 177.

186

L. Fair, Historia ya jamii ya Zanzibar na nyiumbo za Siti binti Saad. Limuru: Twaweza Communications, 2013; Freeman-Grenville, Chronology, p. 179 (d. 1950).

187

Coupland, Exploitation of East Africa, p. 398.

188

Salim, Swahili Speaking Peoples, p. 53.

189

Gray 1963 pp. 371, 374; Salim, Swahili Speaking Peoples, p. 53.

190

Salim, Swahili Speaking Peoples, p. 59.

191

Hollingsworth, Zanzibar, pp. 22 ff.

192

Coupland, Exploitation of East Africa, pp. 482 ff.

193

Freeman-Grenville, Chronology, p. 185; Reusch (History of East Africa, pp. 305 ff.) has 1886.

194

Salim, Swahili Speaking Peoples, p. 65.

195

Freeman-Grenville, Chronology, p. 187.

196

Salim, Swahili Speaking Peoples, p. 66.

197

Hollingsworth, Zanzibar, pp. 80 ff.

198

Freeman-Grenville, Chronology, p. 191.

199

Lewis, Peoples of the Horn of Africa, p. 142; Cerulli, Somalia, vol. 1, pp. 151 ff.

200

Freeman-Grenville, Chronology, p. 191.

201

Hollingsworth, Zanzibar, pp. 160 ff.

202

Freeman-Grenville, Chronology, p. 191.

203

Cerulli, Somalia, vol. 1, pp. 153 ff.

204

Hollingsworth, Zanzibar, pp. 177 ff.; Freeman-Grenville, Chronology, p. 199.

205

Allen, J.W.T. 1971 p. 430.

206

Reusch, History of East Africa, pp. 323 f.

207

Freeman-Grenville, Chronology, p. 201.

208

Hollingsworth, Zanzibar, p. 190.

209

Freeman-Grenville, Chronology, p. 205.