My dedication is to eight women of Black Toledo because their friendship served as a major motivational force for my work on this book: Odessa Lynch, Connie Howard, Deborah Hamilton, Renee’ Dunnavant, Pauline Kynard, Gwen Briggs, Judy Jones and Thelma Williams.

Abdul Alkalimat

I dedicate this book to my lovely wife, Glenda, who passed away on October 8, 2017. When we boarded the Amtrak to Toledo in 1992, with only a few bags, we had no plans to remain there for more than twenty years. In Toledo, while I was starting a new career as an academic at the University of Toledo in the Sociology and Anthropology Department, Glenda secured a part-time position teaching several anthropology courses in the same Department. She did graduate work in medical and biological anthropology at Howard University and at Wayne State University. For over twenty years, collectively, she worked in the area of community health at Detroit’s Karmanos Cancer Institute and at the University of Michigan’s Medical School. A community-oriented person through and through, Glenda worked tirelessly to improve the health of members of black and under-resourced communities. For African American females from working-class backgrounds, a Glenda Sneed Fellowship in medical sociology will be established at Howard University and a Glenda Sneed Scholarship in health and environment will be established at her alma mater, Carter High School in Dallas. Our love for our professional work, which sought to make a difference in other people’s lives, was only eclipsed by our love for one another and our dedication to one another’s happiness. I miss my sweetie dearly.

Rubin Patterson

Black Toledo

A Documentary History of the African American Experience in Toledo, Ohio