in Black Toledo
ContentsForeword XIIINikki M. TaylorAcknowledgements XVList of Illustrations XVIIntroduction 1Abdul Alkalimat and Rubin PattersonThree Key Theoretical Issues 2How This Book Is Organized 4How This Book May Be Used 6Origin (1787–1900) 7Abdul Alkalimat and Rubin PattersonFounding Documents (Documents 1–5) 7The First Law: The Northwest Ordinance (1787) 10The Second Law: Ohio Black Laws (1804) 1113th Amendment to the u.s. Constitution (1865) 13Reconstruction: Civil Rights Act (1875) 13Supreme Court Overturns Civil Rights Act (1883) 14Dialectics of Settlement (Documents 6–14) 15Underground Railroad in Toledo 16Taking Boats to Freedom in Canada 16Elijah Anderson: General Superintendent of the Underground Railroad in Northwest Ohio 17Lathrop House (1835–2005) 18James Ashley’s Eyewitness Account of the Hanging of John Brown (1859) 19The Toledo Riot of 1862 25Frederick Douglass and Sojourner Truth Speak in Toledo (1864) 28The Blade, the Black Man, and the Vote (1867) 29Toledo School Desegregation (1871) 40Emergence of a Community Vanguard (Documents 15–18) 41Founding of Warren ame Church (1864) 42Prince Hall Freemasonry in Toledo (1864) 44Moses Fleetwood Walker (1857–1919) 49Stagecoach Mary (1832–1914) 52Formation of Community Life (1900–1950) 55Abdul Alkalimat and Rubin PattersonEconomics of Survival (Documents 19–27) 56Toledo’s Black Labor Force (1890–1910) 57Black Population Growth 1910–1930 60Industrial Status of Employment 1936 63Neighborhood Segregation 64Black Access to Housing (1940–1950) 65Toledo’s Black Middle Class (1926) 70Toledo’s Black Middle Class (1936) 71The Pinewood Avenue District (1929) 73East Toledo 77Cultural Capital (Documents 28–31) 78Paul Laurence Dunbar Reads in Toledo (1900) 78Art Tatum Performs in Toledo 81The Depression 83The Culture of Black Baseball 85Organization and Leadership (Documents 32–42) 90The Frederick Douglass Community Center 90Interracial Activities in Toledo (1922) 95Club Life in Toledo (1900–1920) 97Henrietta Society (1883–present) 98Fighting the Toledo Klu Klux Klan (1915–1944) 101Housing and Racial Violence (1929) 102Blacks in Toledo Schools (1927) 104J.B. Simmons: Toledo’s First Black Councilman 105James Slater Gibson: A Lawyer Who Pursued Social Justice 110Cornelius Edwoods: Publisher of The Observer Newspaper (1920s) 115Frances Alexander Belcher (1912–1963) 117Community Development and Struggle (1950–2000) 119Abdul Alkalimat and Rubin PattersonCommunity and Consciousness (Documents 43–48) 121Dorr Street: Toledo’s Black Downtown 121A Report on Black Life in Toledo (1950s) 124When the Projects Were New: Brand Whitlock (1940s–1950s) 130The Late 60s: Black Pain and Gain 135House of Day Funeral Service 138Henry’s Jeweler & Giftware 138Culture and Education (Documents 49–69) 138The Study Hour Club 140Shops Promoted Afro-Culture (1968) 143Rev. Al Reed Opens Negro History Book Store (1970) 144Hines Farm Blues Club 145Art Tatum and Toledo’s Popular Culture in the Twenties 149Jon Hendricks First Begins Singing in Toledo 150Murphy’s Place 151wxts: Radio Jazz from High School 155Tension at Scott after Negro Homecoming Queen Elected (1957) 156The Declaration of the ut Black Student Union (1970) 158Hiring Blacks at tu (1986) 159Flute Rice: First Black Principal of Scott High School (1968) 160Afro Ball Celebrates Heritage (1981-present) 161Crystal Ellis Named First African American Superintendent of Toledo Schools 163Wilbert “Skeeter” McClure 165Chuck Ealey 168Black Leadership: Sycophants and Taunters 169Blacks at ut Protest “Injustice” 172ut President Meets with Black Students (1994) 175Jeff Johnson, Black Student Leader at ut (1994) 177Abdul Alkalimat Appointed Head of Africana Studies at ut 178Leadership and Vision (Documents 70–79) 180Ardella Law Reed (1918–1989) 180Ella P. Stewart (1893–1987) 183Robert V. Franklin, Jr.: Leader in Law and Society 188Civic Leader Cordelia Martin 189Wayman Palmer 190Black Panthers Patrol Dorr Street 192Local Black Leaders Hail King Holiday (1983) 193Jimmy Jackson, Sports Hero and Businessman 194Social Cyberpower in the Everyday Life of an African American Community (2004) 196Powell’s Beauty & Barber Supplies 202Survival during Deindustrialization (2000–2016) 203Abdul Alkalimat and Rubin PattersonFacing Poverty and Twenty-first-century Racism (Documents 80–83) 207Population 208Nazi March 214Black Males 217The Importance of Black Business 218The Challenges of Black Leadership (Documents 84–90) 220Jack Ford 220Michael Bell 224Paula Hicks-Hudson 226Edna Brown 227Coalition of Black Trade Unionists 228Top Toledoans of 2009 229Black Women Physicians and Dentists 242Diverse Black Education Leaders and Activities (Documents 91–100) 245Ella P. Stewart Academy 245Romules Durant, School Superintendent 248Helen Cooks and Toledo Excel 249Simmie Blakney: First Black Department Chair at the University of Toledo 251Pauline Kynard 252Angela Siner 256Green Column and Green Africana Studies 257Edwina Kofi-Opata and Green Africana Studies 260Improving African American Male Graduation Rates: Eliminating the BlackWhite Graduation Gap 262Retention and Graduation Taskforce: Diversifying Student Retention and Academic Success 268Revitalization of Community (Documents 101–110) 269Restoring the Afro-Ball 270Steppin in Toledo 272Steel Guitar Sacred Music 273Charles Welch 274African American Festival 277Toledo Horsemen Club 278History of the African American Legacy Project 278Black Lives Matter Resolution 279Name Change at Scott High School 279Art Tatum African American Resource Center 281Fletcher Word 285James Cooks 285Black Toledo: The Historical Impulse toward Social Justice 286Abdul Alkalimat and Rubin PattersonTheoretical Reflection 286Historical Periodization and Social Transformation 286Dialectics of Urbanization and Proletarianization 288Dialectics of Inequality and Democracy 289Culture and Social Solidarity 290Memory and Community Sustainability 291Situating Black Toledo vis-à-vis Other Books on Urban Black Experiences 291Available African American Materials 297Donna ChristianBibliography 306Index 312

Black Toledo

A Documentary History of the African American Experience in Toledo, Ohio