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IndexAbreu, Aleixo de95–97Addlakha, Remu273adibasi272aetiology14, 47–53, 77agony uncle140ailment13, 54, 62, 98, 102, 288mental43, 59, 60, 93, 143, 228physical10, 43, 44, 77, 269alcohol28, 81, 100–101, 146, 215, 230, 278, 284, 288Alderotti, Taddeo60Alexander University (Helsinki)118Algeria26Alston, Edward1, 277–278, 286, 288, 289–293Ambaca99amoebiasis95–96Angola26, 89, 92–108anti-psychotic drugs199, 211Antiquity4, 10, 39–40, 44anxiety12, 16, 56, 79, 80, 85, 103, 128, 130, 134Apoplexia52apothecary54Arab-Islamic45, 58Aristotle48, 56Askgaard, Vagn168–169, 180–182asylum(s)8, 14, 16, 17–19, 22–23, 25–27, 55, 58, 116–122, 124–125, 131, 134, 136, 156, 171, 196–197, 200–201, 258–261, 264, 265, 267, 269, 280, 281, 286, 293criticism of19, 129, 132–133, 198experience121–129, 130–134Atlantic slave trade26, 88, 105–107Attachment Theory241–242Avicenna96Ayurveda274Bálint, Mihály237, 244Bangladesh255banzo (melancholy)26–27, 94–108, 282Barrera, Francisco91, 105Bartholomaeus Anglicus48, 55Baruk, Henri190Bedlam (Bethlem)58, 120Bengal262, 268, 270, 272Benguela103Bihar262, 268Bion, Wilfred244blackwater fever287–288, 289blood-letting45Bluteau, Raphael92–93Bologna44, 45, 46Bologna, Father Giacinto de97–98Boon, Sonja142Bowlby, John241–242Bowzer, Dr. H. C.271–272Brazil26, 282, 89–91, 93, 95–97, 105–108British Central Africa (Malawi; Nyasaland) 3, 28, 277, 280Budapest Police237, 240Burma255Cadornega, Antonio Oliveira de97Caenda, Soba Damião Lopes99Capuchins (missionary order)99care17, 18, 55, 83, 118, 130, 133, 185, 209, 230, 236family based17–18, 40, 44, 51, 57, 75, 118, 123, 209, 259, 274humane135–136institutional19, 57, 62, 119–121, 129, 130, 148n34, 157, 196, 198n4, 215, 265–266medical13, 26, 53, 57–59, 62, 119mental19, 115, 124, 126, 156non-institutional128–129, 198of the mentally ill11, 17–18, 27, 51, 58, 84, 116, 119, 134, 185, 191, 196–197, 265pastoral9n27, 11–12, 80–81psychiatric27, 117, 274Carrera, Elena12–13Cartesian dualism14Central African Planter288Central Hospital (Bucharest, Rumania)206Child Guidance Centres (Hungary) 230–232, 237, 242–247child psychology230, 236, 244choleric10Chlorpromazine187, 211Christianity40, 45, 124–125, 286church11, 40, 69, 74, 124, 131, 139, 230–231, 233Church Law of 1686 (Sweden)75, 79–80clergy / clergymen11–12, 14, 44, 46, 53, 54, 69, 73, 74, 75, 79, 84–85, 124, 143n16, 148, 150‘clinical gaze’6, 140–141Cohen, David1, 3Cold War24, 226, 228colonialism26, 27, 257, 270, 279, 280–283, 286community2, 12, 15, 40, 196, 242, 247, 248, 259, 272, 273hospital55, 125, 202–203, 209, 217local14, 15–16, 17–19, 23, 25–26, 40, 43, 120, 142–143, 199, 209, 259therapeutic202, 217congenital idiots49Conolly, John200consent to Cardiazol chock and ICT170, 179, 181–182, 189–190Constantine the African48Constantinus61consultation20, 54, 140–144, 149, 157–158Corpus Hippocraticum4Cosme, Francisco Damião99–108Counter-Revolution232, 236, 238, 247Court of law53, 69–72, 127–129, 189–190Coutinho, D. Francisco Inocencio de Souza 100, 104Crisis4–6, 13, 26–29, 95, 115, 144, 248, 280in psychiatry164, 189mental56, 278, 280, 291, 293of 1956227, 247personal115, 142–143Crozier, Anna281–282Cubbon, Sir Mark257Cumming, Gordon291Cupping59Cuttack268, 269, 271Danish National Health Service170, 181, 189Danish Psychiatric Society165–166, 185–186, 191Das, Pravakar271–271degeneration139n1, 144, 145n24, 147Delirium tremens277–278Dementia paralytica179, 189demoniacs49Denmark3, 49, 163–195depression, depressed56, 89–91, 93–95, 108, 152, 154, 155, 174Deventer, Jacob van125Devil18, 69, 78, 80, 85, 155Dhenkanal269–270diagnosis2, 4, 5, 7, 47, 51, 53, 54, 71, 84, 124, 131, 152, 179, 186, 206, 213, 246, 278–282, 285dietetics10, 149n35Directorate of the State Mental Hospitals (Denmark)170, 176, 179, 180nn50, 52, 181, 183, 184n63, 185, 189–191discipline120, 123–124, 133, 236disorder1, 3, 9–10, 39–41, 43–44, 46, 47, 49–50, 52, 54, 59, 62–63, 80–81, 100, 102, 117–118, 134, 143, 155, 174, 186, 189, 247Don (Alston’s collie)289–290Dowbiggin, Ian16drugs46, 171, 166, 187, 199, 211, 269, 284, 285–288, 212, 269, 284–286Duodecim (The Finnish Medical Society) 144Eilola, Jari12, 14electroshock (ECT),therapyemotion(s)4, 12–13, 22–23, 48, 53, 54, 56, 62, 76, 88–89, 108, 115, 143, 176–177, 239–240, 278–279, 281, 289–293emotional catastrophe240emotional ties240Encephalitis epidemica179England (the United Kingdom)Enlightenment16, 95, 100, 119Enroth, Elon196, 203–210, 212, 216epileptics49Erik XIV57Erikson, Erik H.4–5Ernst, Waltraud8, 27, 208, 209Esquirol134evil spirit12, 15, 72, 78experience6, 15, 28–29, 88–89, 91, 115–117, 135, 142–143, 169, 278–279, 292–293of confinement122–123, 128, 130–133Fabian, Johannes282–285, 292family2, 14, 15, 16, 17–18, 23, 40, 44, 49, 51, 57, 62, 72–73, 84, 120, 123, 126, 179, 181–182, 209, 230–231, 234–236, 259, 262, 274Fanon, Franz26, 281fear3–4, 22–23, 28, 48, 56, 93–94, 96, 148–149, 176–177, 189, 190–191, 241, 272, 278, 281–284, 286, 288, 290–293Feeney, Tom231Fennoman21, 145–147Ferenczi School237Finland16–23, 42, 49, 72Finnish Literature Society (est. 1831)145Flynn, Maureen12Foucault, Michel6, 28, 140, 260, 262, 267, 278, 280France44, 56, 120, 139n2, 184, 190, 200Franco, Francisco5–6frenzy50–51, 52, 53, 56Fritz, Jean-Marie50–51Galen4, 96, 100–101geographysymbolic8, 145geophagy (dirt-eating)90, 94Germany2n4, 5n15, 6n16, 7, 9, 11, 145n24, 150n40, 184, 199, 202, 204, 211n55, 230n23, 240, 266n37God11, 18, 69, 73, 77–78, 85, 98, 125, 135, 154, 155, 156, 243Gomory, Toni1, 3Gordon, Bernard de56Granfelt, Axel Fredrik121–125, 133, 135Granlund, Edla126–129, 131, 132, 135Granlund, Juho126Granlund, Simon126‘great confinement’19, 21, 262Griesinger, Wilhelm20, 201Hahnemann, Victor174–175Hakola, Panu213Halmesvirta, Anssi7, 13, 20–21, 279Hälsovännen140Harjamäki Mental Hospital (Finland) 22–23Harpestreng, Henrik49healers14, 26, 46, 47, 53, 55, 56, 259ecclesiastical9, 11–12, 53, 143n16folk / lay9, 26, 53, 61, 100, 143n16, 262, 280indigenous Indian259healing6, 9, 11, 14, 41, 53–55, 61, 124–125, 140, 143, 262, 274, 278–279health care18, 44, 69, 119–120, 140, 146, 198–199, 268mental7, 18, 27, 118, 120, 134, 148, 184–185, 191, 201–202, 214, 216–217, 230, 233–234Health Care Act 1879 (Finland)146Hendriksen, Valdemar180, 182Hippocrates45, 50, 56, 100Ho community (India)272Hodgkin, Katharine83Hokkanen, Markku28holistic41, 55, 62, 209, 292homosexuality155–156hooliganism235–236Horden, Peregrine41, 56hospice43, 57–58hospital(s)24, 25–26, 27, 118, 131–133, 148n34, 225, 256annual reports22, 199, 208community55, 125, 202–203, 209, 217early modern74–75, 91medieval40, 44, 55, 57–59, 62mental3, 22, 118–119, 123–124, 128, 148n34, 158, 164, 169, 196–199, 171–172, 178, 179–180, 183–185, 189–191, 196, 197–198, 201–202, 203, 215, 234, 262, 264psychiatric8, 16, 22, 23, 117Hospital of Wasa (Finland)126–129, 135hospitalisation (institutionalisation) 62, 115–116, 128, 217Huisman, Frank292humoral theory10–11, 26, 47, 50, 59, 95–96, 100Hungary24–25, 171–172, 225–254Hunter, Sir William Wilson268–270Husberg, Frans Ossian130–134, 135hydrotherapy163, 210hygiene49, 56, 100, 141, 146bodily20, 141colonial283, 286, 292racial20, 141, 157social7, 20, 146, 150–151, 152hysteria19, 292illness9, 11, 15, 39, 40, 46, 52, 54, 62–63, 69, 70, 76, 80, 81, 85, 97–99, 100, 108, 143, 144, 148, 155, 280, 282, 286–288, 290, 291corporeal / physical11, 81, 82–83, 94, 96, 125, 290mental2–4, 6, 9–12, 16, 17, 25–26, 27–28, 29, 39, 40, 47, 54, 55, 61, 69, 70, 74, 76, 79, 85, 90–94, 96, 97–99, 100, 108, 118, 123, 125, 128, 134, 136, 141–142, 150, 155, 156–157, 178–179, 200, 226, 230, 231, 247, 256, 259, 269, 278–282, 284–288, 292spiritual11, 15, 46, 82–83, 128India2, 8, 27, 95, 281Indianisation, of medical services27, 273Indua (poison ordeal)99infanticide90infirmary58inner management117, 134insane2, 15, 17–19, 21, 25, 27, 28, 40, 69, 71–72, 73, 74–75, 76, 78, 79, 80–81, 82, 84–85, 96, 116–117, 120, 124, 128, 134–135, 148, 196–197, 260, 267, 281, 285,insanity14, 51, 57, 69, 71, 72, 75, 76, 80, 82, 84, 139, 280, 281, 286cures of10, 133, 141definitions9–10, 12, 74, 82–83, 119–120, 281–283explanations70–71, 72, 76–77, 82–83, 85treating4, 6, 11, 69insomnia39, 43, 53, 56, 60, 61, 62, 176institutionalisationof medicine23, 45of patients (hospitalisation) 62, 74–75, 83, 123, 240–241, 274institutional treatment (care)insulin coma therapy, (therapy)Isidore of Seville48, 52, 53Italy43, 55, 139n2Jackson, Will281Jalama, Raimundo106Járó, Dóra236Jesus Christ150Joannes61Johannes II Platearius48‘judicial gaze’69, 83Jul Nielsen, Otto166–168Jung, Carl61Juvenile delinquency25, 227, 235–236, 247Kalevala145Kalinowsky, Lothar188Kananoja, Kalle26, 27, 282Kádár, János229, 233Keller, Richard280Kellokoski Distrcit Mental Hospital (Finland) 99, 204, 205n28Kennedy, Dane281–282Kenya26, 281Kingdom of Kongo97Kinnunen, Lyyli199Kirk, John287Kirk, Stuart1–2, 3Koselleck, Reinhart4Krishna Chandra Bhanj Deo 270Kritsotaki, Despo248Kumpulainen, Martti212Lahore Lunatic Asylum259Laine-Frigren, Tuomas24Lancelot46Langfeld, Gabriel168Language4, 5, 20–21, 25, 27, 40, 61, 94, 139, 145–146, 148–149, 150, 158, 247, 278, 293of madness21, 28, 78, 82, 143–144, 154, 278religious79, 82, 85Lankester, Edwin Ray147Lapinlahti Mental Hospital 118–119, 122–123, 125, 130–134, 148n34Law72–73Laws, Jennifer200Lederer, David82, 83lethargy51, 53, 94Lévy-Bruhl, Lucien61Lewis, Aubrey173, 190Liebermann, Lucy237, 242, 244–245Lind, Karl Johan122–126, 133Livingstone, David286–287lobotomy163Lönnrot, Elias145Luanda93, 99–100, 103, 106–107lunacy43, 52Lunn, Villars183, 186madness (insanity) 1, 7, 15, 16, 17, 21, 29, 46, 48, 52, 53, 56, 70, 71, 73, 79, 83, 85, 94, 115, 116, 117–118, 120–121, 124, 125, 129, 134, 141–142, 151–152, 260, 278causes of80, 85colonial25, 28, 278, 280–287, 292conceptions of1, 8, 139, 279definitions of50–51, 125, 279, 280explanations of49–50, 71, 81, 134–136histories of2, 4, 8, 23, 28, 116, 128, 248, 278–279, 282, 293holy15, 46–47language of28, 78meanings of133temporary80–81, 84, 291Madras266, 272magic41, 46, 61Majláth, György240–242malaria28, 100, 163, 269, 283–284, 285–288Malawi (British Central Africa) 286Malchus61mania9, 39, 47, 48–49, 50, 174, 287Manic-depressive disorder186Mapother, Edward190Marks, Shula280Martinianus61masturbation150, 151–153Mateer, Samuel261–262Maximianus61Mayurbhanj269, 270–271Mbona286McCracken, John291medicalisation121, 139, 278, 280, 282, 284medical practitioners2, 9, 14, 20, 42, 44, 50, 54–55, 57, 84, 140n5, 199, 262medical recipes42, 43, 53, 55, 59–61medicine2, 9, 11, 12, 14, 19, 20, 22, 83, 91, 95, 97, 99, 100, 108, 124, 141, 143, 145, 150, 155, 158, 226, 262, 267, 271–272, 273–274, 282–284, 287–288Galenic9, 44, 83household9, 15–16, 84lay / folk9, 40, 84medical department, Travancore260–264medical expenditure, in Travancore 262–240medical subordinates260Meduna, Ladislaus von171–174, 188Melancholia/melancholy9, 10, 26, 43, 39, 47–49, 51–53, 56, 62, 77, 79memory47, 51, 59, 60, 70, 154Mendes, Afonso97Mendes, Luis Antonio de Oliveira91, 105–107mental health1–2, 5, 9, 16, 19, 24, 27–29, 47, 62, 89, 94–95, 117–118, 139, 199, 217, 226, 233, 248, 267, 273–274, 292and colonialism279, 281, 285, 287care7, 18, 118, 120, 134, 148, 184–185, 191, 201–202, 214, 216–217history of6, 20, 27, 28, 200, 279of Africans94–95, 280of children230–231, 233–236, 244–247policy198, 248problems118programmes24, 228provision23, 256, 262–263services233, 248, 267Mental Health Act 1889 (Finland)18mental illnessexperience of115, 130–131, 142, 148–149, 154–155methodology1–8, 28–29, 141–144, 277–280, 292Miasma theory146Middelfart State Mental Hospital (Denmark) 170, 182, 189Middle Ages9–10, 12, 39–63, 73Midelfort, H. C. Erik15missionaries98, 261–262, 282Mlozi291Montpellier42, 44, 45, 54, 56mood disorders174mortalityand slave trade94, 102–103, 106and somatic treatments183, 184, 187mother blame239Moya, Lily280Mozambique277Mukharji, Projit272Müller, J. P.150Müller, Max167, 173, 190–192Münnich, Ferenc233muscular nationalism145Muslims256Mysore265–268mystical10, 47Naantali monastery42, 43, 49, 59Napier, Richard117narrative2, 3, 6, 15, 19, 29, 44, 46, 71, 85, 115–118, 130, 135, 157–158, 225–226, 241–243, 248National Board of Medicine (Finland)129, 134, 148n34, 157National Council of Child and Youth Protection (Hungary)232–236Nazi occupation (Denmark)184, 191Németh, Nóra242–243Netherlands7, 18, 119, 228,neurasthenia (‘weak nerves’) 19, 144, 151, 153tropical281–282neurosciences19, 139neurosis5–6, 19, 20newspapers17, 115–136, 185Nigeria279–280Niuvanniemi Mental Hospital (Finland) 119, 201, 202nomenclature47–53Nordic countries (Scandinavia) 2, 8, 16, 17, 19, 22, 43, 189nosology9, 77nostalgia86, 91, 92–93, 105Not Either an Experimental Doll280Nyasaland (British Central Africa) 26, 286–287obsessive-compulsive neurosis177O’Malley. L. S. S.268Orissa States267–270Orta, Garcia de95Out of Our Minds: Reason and Madness in the Exploration of Central Africa283–284Packalén, Anna204Padua44, 45, 57Pakistan255Palmer, Mabel280Paris (France)43–44, 43n17passions4, 12, 96, 101–103, 106, 108, 155, 286Pati, Biswamoy255n1patient(s)54, 127, 170–171, 174, 181, 203, 210, 216–217records6, 17, 22–23, 163–164, 169, 176, 178, 189, 199–200, 204, 207–209, 212, 214’s view / voice6, 42, 116–118, 130–131, 149–150, 169–170, 176, 189–190, 279–280philanthropy121, 124, 126, 127phobia9, 47, 53, 176physicians9–10, 11, 12, 14, 15, 39, 43, 48, 53–54, 56, 62–63, 69–70, 83, 89, 92, 95, 100, 118, 126–127, 179–183, 185, 202, 260, 265physiological10–11, 39, 62, 94, 105, 226, 246, 280Pietikäinen, Petteri25Pinel, Philippe117, 134, 200, 201n16Pitkäniemi Mental Hospital (Finland)119, 202Pliny48poor relief18, 75, 83, 196–197Popper, Péter237–240Porter, Roy6, 27–28, 120, 128, 130, 134, 143n18, 278, 279Princely States (India)27, 256–257professionalisation3, 22, 44, 232Promitzer, Christian7psyche,soulpsychiatry2, 8, 17–23, 118, 121, 124, 125, 134, 139, 164, 166, 171, 173, 174, 181, 183–185, 188–191, 199, 212, 215, 237, 247–248, 256, 279, 282colonial26, 267, 273, 280–281history of7, 21, 116–117, 163, 226, 267, 292social198–199, 217,psychoanalysis185, 191, 226, 228, 231, 237, 244, 248Psychogenic psychosis186psychology132–133, 225–227, 228–232and problems of adaptation240–242and ‘soft dictatorship’229–230, 247–248psychopathia178–179psychosis15, 167, 168–169, 177, 186, 188psychotherapy39, 185, 230–232, 241, 243–244, 244–247, 248quinine154, 286–288, 289race26, 88–90, 91–92, 99, 105, 147, 268, 280–281Racey, R. R.286Rai Gouri Laksmi Bai257–258Raj255–256, 267Ranchi Indian Mental Hospital269reform socialism229–231rehabilitation (work) 22, 199, 211–212, 212n58, 214–215, 217ReijoWaara (Relander), Konrad20–21, 140–162Reinholm, Sofia128–129religion / religious4, 8, 12–15, 18, 19, 21, 28–29, 41–42, 55, 57, 58–59, 61, 63, 79, 81, 85, 121, 125–126, 128–129, 134–136, 143, 149, 154, 200, 242–243, 263, 268, 278Renaissance74Rhodes, Cecil385Rio de Janeiro93Rissanen, Anu7, 22, 23Roffe, David51–52Rømer, Ludewig Ferdinand98–99Ross, Dr. A. E.260–261Roy, Kamakhyaprasad272royalty, Indian255–256, 268Runeberg, Lorenzo127–129sadness3, 4, 10, 12–13, 39, 47, 48, 49, 56, 96–97, 98, 292Sadowsky, Jonathan279–280Saelan, Th.134Sakel, Manfred166–168, 171, 186, 188Sandman, Emil126–127, 129sanguine10Scandinavia (Nordic countries) 45, 60, 168Science9, 16, 19, 41, 83, 125, 288and Christianity41–42, 121, 123–124Schizophrenia166–167, 171and shock therapy178, 186, 188Schou, Hans Jakob164Scull, Andrew117–118, 120seizures170, 172, 174, 187self-observation21, 148–149Serapion61Shore, Miles F.285Shorter, Edward201Shuger, Dale15, 71Shuttleworth, Sally124Siddha274Sikhs256, 290Simon, Herman (active work therapy) 22, 23, 197, 202–203, 204, 207, 216Simpson, Allan287sitophobia (fear of eating)176slave resistance26, 89, 90–91slavery26, 88–108Sobhanan, B.257Soininen, Aarne204somatic treatments22–23, 163–195, 212soul9n27, 12, 13, 14, 18, 41, 48, 55, 70, 83, 98, 101, 102, 106, 124–125, 132–133, 143n16, 150, 155Sourander, Christer212–213South Africa26, 280Soviet Union (USSR)226, 243–244, 246, 229Spain, Spanish5–6, 44, 55, 58, 71, 85, 91, 95, 105spiritual5–6, 9–12–14, 45–46, 47, 49, 55, 57, 69–70, 79, 82–83, 122, 125, 128, 135Stalinism234, 242Stobart, Anne84Strengell, Karl Albert129Stürup, Georg173suffering2–3, 8, 19, 26, 108, 115, 290source materials of17, 28, 70, 279–280, 130, 141–144suicide108Suomen Terveydenhoitolehti140, 151surgical, surgery45–46, 50, 54, 69, 91, 189Svedberg, Gunnel7Sweden7, 16, 18, 20, 22, 57, 60, 69, 119–120, 179–180, 214, 228therapeutic determination84therapy54–55, 59, 62, 63, 133, 163, 164, 199, 200, 212, 245–246, 247bed rest201, 210Cardiazol shock therapy163–166, 171–184, 186–190, 199, 205cold wet packing210electro convulsive (ECT)163, 216Hermann Simon’s active work197, 199, 202–206, 216insulin coma (ICT)163–170, 179–184, 186–191, 199, 205moral124–125, 200, 201–202occupational (OT)199, 210–215 217work7, 22–23, 197, 201–205, 209, 210, 212–213, 216–217Tipu Sultan257Travancore27, 256–267, 268, 272treatmentmoral18, 117, 133, 135, 196, 200risk164, 179–184, 187, 189–190shock3, 23–24, 158, 163–195, 205, 212, 216somatic22, 163–164, 167, 185, 187, 189–191, 212trepanation50, 59Tristan46Trubeta, Sevasti7Tuke, William120, 124, 200Tuohela, Kirsi18–19, 20–21, 148, 279Turda, Marius7Unani274Vaczy Kragh, Jesper17, 22–23, 205Vasa, Gustav57Vaughan, Megan281, 286vernaculars40, 145violence70–71, 72, 74, 77–78, 108, 123, 126–127, 133, 234, 241colonial26, 290–293Vordingborg State Mental Hospital (Denmark)168, 173, 174, 176, 177, 183Waasan Lehti128Waller, Horace286–287war5, 6, 24, 233Wasa Tidning128Waya288‘weak nerves’151, 153, 155welfare state23, 24, 199, 214, 217, 225, 228n14, 231, 237, 239, 248West Central Africa92–95witchcraft76, 77, 81, 85Wylly, H. P.271York Retreat120, 124, 200Young Finnish Party145, 146Zomba286, 289–290

Encountering Crises of the Mind

Madness, Culture and Society, 1200s-1900s

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