FORMAL AND EXISTENTIAL ANALYSIS OF SUBJECT AND PROPERTIES

in Essays in Logic and Ontology
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The paper is a contribution to the object ontology. The general approach assumed in the investigation is that of Roman Ingarden’s The Controversy Over the Existence of the World where an object is the subject-of-properties. The analysis of the form and the mode of existence of properties leads to the rejection of both negative and general properties. Each property is an individual qualitative moment of a particular object. Its form reveals existential heteronomy: the quality of the property is not immanent but refers to the object. The subject of properties has not its own qualitative content: its form is just the internal causality establishing the unity of an object. An object is not causally isolated from other objects, but external causation differs from internal either by being ramified in case of the composition and destruction of an object or reciprocal in case of interaction between coexisting objects.

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