African Charter on Human and Peoples’ Rights
American Convention on Human Rights
African Commission on Human and Peoples’ Rights
Protocol Additional to the Geneva Conventions of 12 August 1949, and relating to the Protection of Victims of International Armed Conflicts, 8 June 1977, alias Protocol I
Protocol Additional to the Geneva Conventions of 12 August 1949, and relating to the Protection of Victims of Non- International Armed Conflicts, 8 June 1977, alias Protocol II
Additional Protocols to Geneva Convention I to IV
The 1980 Convention on Prohibitions or Restrictions on the Use of Certain Conventional Weapons Which May be Deemed to be Excessively Injurious or to Have Indiscriminate Effects, alias Convention on Certain Conventional Weapons (1980)
Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights
Extraordinary Chambers in the Courts of Cambodia
Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms, alias European Convention on Human Rights
European Court of Human Rights
Geneva Convention for the Amelioration of the Condition of the Wounded and Sick in Armed Forces in the Field, 12 August 1949, alias Geneva Convention I
Geneva Convention for the Amelioration of the Condition of Wounded, Sick and Shipwrecked Members of Armed Forces at Sea, 12 August 1949, alias Geneva Convention II
Geneva Convention Relative to the Treatment of Prisoners of War, 12 August 1949, alias Geneva Convention III
Geneva Convention Relative to the Protection of Civilian Persons in Time of War, 12 August 1949, alias Geneva Convention IV
Geneva Convention I to IV
Inter-American Commission on Human Rights
Inter-American Court of Human Rights
International Criminal Court
International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights
International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights
International Court of Justice
International Committee of the Red Cross
International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda
International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia
International Humanitarian Law
International Human Rights Law
International Law Commission
International Military Tribunal
International Military Tribunal for the Far East
Mechanism for International Criminal Tribunals
North Atlantic Treaty Organization
Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights
Permanent Court of Arbitration
Permanent Court of International Justice
San Remo Manual on International Law Applicable to Armed Conflicts at Sea, 12 June 1994
Special Court for Sierra Leone
Special Tribunal for Lebanon
Universal Declaration of Human Rights
United Nations General Assembly
United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees
United Nations Security Council
United Nations Secretary-General
United Nations Transitional Administration in East Timor
Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties
Plutarch, Lysander, 11.6–11.7.
Xenophon, Hellenica, Book 2, Chapter 1, Sections 31–32; Plutarch, Lysander, 13. Even earlier, sovereigns considered the merits of humanitarian protection when capturing enemy cities. See for instance H. Abtahi, Reflections on the Ambiguous Universality of Human Rights: Cyrus the Grea’s Proclamation as a Challenge to the Athenian Democracy’s Perceived Monopoly on Human Rights, in Abtahi and Boas, Dynamics of International Criminal Justice (2006).
A brief account of the events in English is contained in T. Hippler, Bombing the People: Giulio Douhet and the Foundations of Air-Power Strategy (2013), p. 1.
For the expression (though used in the wholly different context of Nazi mass crimes), see H. Arendt, Letter to Karl Jaspers of 17 August 1946, in H. Arendt, K. Jaspers, Correspondence, 1926–1969 (1992), p. 54.
ICC, Prosecutor v. Mahmoud Mustafa Busayf Al-Werfalli, Arrest Warrant, 15 August 2017, ICC-01/11-01/17-2 (referring to social media videos). See also (though not directly in connection to IHL violations) STL, Prosecutor v. Ayyash et al., Decision on Appeal by Counsel for Mr Oneissi Against the Trial Chamber’s Decision on the Legality of the Transfer of Call Data Records, 28 July 2015, STL-11-01/T/AC/AR126.9 (referring to call data records).
C. Webster, N. Frankland, The Strategic Air Offensive against Germany 1939–1945, Vol. 3 (1961), p. 112.
G. Acquaviva, ‘International Criminal Courts and Tribunals as Actors of General Deterrence? Perceptions and Misperceptions’, 96(895/896) IRRC (2014), p. 784.
See, among others, the reflections and references in V. Bernard, ‘Tactics, Techniques, Tragedies: a Humanitarian Perspective on the Changing Face of War’, 97(900) IRRC (2015), p. 959; Coming Soon…? A Reappraisal of the Legal and Ethical Implications of Autonomous Weapons Systems (AWS) ahead of the First Meeting of the CCW Group of Governmental Experts on Lethal AWS, in Questions of International Law, 31 October 2017, available at: http://www.qil-qdi.org/coming-soon-reappraisal-legal-ethical-implications-autonomous-weapons-systems-aws-ahead-first-meeting-ccw-group-governmental-experts-lethal-aws/.
See the reflections and further references in R. Sparrow, Ethics as a Source of Law: The Martens Clause and Autonomous Weapons, Humanitarian Law and Policy Blog, 14 November 2017, available at: http://blogs.icrc.org/law-and-policy/2017/11/14/ethics-source-law-martens-clause-autonomous-weapons/.
While the English and French languages use the same word for these two concepts, other groups, educated for instance in the Russian language (where the expressions are, respectively, человечествo and человечность) have a more precise understanding of these two sides of the concept of “humanity”, and therefore paradoxically experience some difficulty in translating expressions such as “laws of humanity” and “crimes against humanity”.
Bernard, supra note 8.