Abbreviations

ACHPR

African Charter on Human and Peoples’ Rights

ACHR

American Convention on Human Rights

ACmHPR

African Commission on Human and Peoples’ Rights

API

Protocol Additional to the Geneva Conventions of 12 August 1949, and relating to the Protection of Victims of International Armed Conflicts, 8 June 1977, alias Protocol I

APII

Protocol Additional to the Geneva Conventions of 12 August 1949, and relating to the Protection of Victims of Non- International Armed Conflicts, 8 June 1977, alias Protocol II

APs

Additional Protocols to Geneva Convention I to IV

CCW

The 1980 Convention on Prohibitions or Restrictions on the Use of Certain Conventional Weapons Which May be Deemed to be Excessively Injurious or to Have Indiscriminate Effects, alias Convention on Certain Conventional Weapons (1980)

CESCR

Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights

ECCC

Extraordinary Chambers in the Courts of Cambodia

ECHR

Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms, alias European Convention on Human Rights

ECtHR

European Court of Human Rights

GCI

Geneva Convention for the Amelioration of the Condition of the Wounded and Sick in Armed Forces in the Field, 12 August 1949, alias Geneva Convention I

GCII

Geneva Convention for the Amelioration of the Condition of Wounded, Sick and Shipwrecked Members of Armed Forces at Sea, 12 August 1949, alias Geneva Convention II

GCIII

Geneva Convention Relative to the Treatment of Prisoners of War, 12 August 1949, alias Geneva Convention III

GCIV

Geneva Convention Relative to the Protection of Civilian Persons in Time of War, 12 August 1949, alias Geneva Convention IV

GCs

Geneva Convention I to IV

IACmHR

Inter-American Commission on Human Rights

IACtHR

Inter-American Court of Human Rights

ICC

International Criminal Court

ICCPR

International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights

ICESCR

International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights

ICJ

International Court of Justice

ICRC

International Committee of the Red Cross

ICTR

International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda

ICTY

International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia

IHL

International Humanitarian Law

IHRL

International Human Rights Law

ILC

International Law Commission

IMT

International Military Tribunal

IMTFE

International Military Tribunal for the Far East

MICT

Mechanism for International Criminal Tribunals

NATO

North Atlantic Treaty Organization

OHCHR

Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights

PCA

Permanent Court of Arbitration

PCIJ

Permanent Court of International Justice

SAN REMO MANUAL

San Remo Manual on International Law Applicable to Armed Conflicts at Sea, 12 June 1994

SCSL

Special Court for Sierra Leone

STL

Special Tribunal for Lebanon

UDHR

Universal Declaration of Human Rights

UN

United Nations

UNGA

United Nations General Assembly

UNHCR

United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees

UNSC

United Nations Security Council

UNSG

United Nations Secretary-General

UNTAET

United Nations Transitional Administration in East Timor

VCLT

Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties

Deputy Registrar, Kosovo Specialist Chambers. The views expressed are those of the author alone and do not necessarily reflect the views of the Kosovo Specialist Chambers.

Plutarch, Lysander, 11.6–11.7.

Xenophon, Hellenica, Book 2, Chapter 1, Sections 31–32; Plutarch, Lysander, 13. Even earlier, sovereigns considered the merits of humanitarian protection when capturing enemy cities. See for instance H. Abtahi, Reflections on the Ambiguous Universality of Human Rights: Cyrus the Grea’s Proclamation as a Challenge to the Athenian Democracy’s Perceived Monopoly on Human Rights, in Abtahi and Boas, Dynamics of International Criminal Justice (2006).

A brief account of the events in English is contained in T. Hippler, Bombing the People: Giulio Douhet and the Foundations of Air-Power Strategy (2013), p. 1.

For the expression (though used in the wholly different context of Nazi mass crimes), see H. Arendt, Letter to Karl Jaspers of 17 August 1946, in H. Arendt, K. Jaspers, Correspondence, 1926–1969 (1992), p. 54.

ICC, Prosecutor v. Mahmoud Mustafa Busayf Al-Werfalli, Arrest Warrant, 15 August 2017, ICC-01/11-01/17-2 (referring to social media videos). See also (though not directly in connection to IHL violations) STL, Prosecutor v. Ayyash et al., Decision on Appeal by Counsel for Mr Oneissi Against the Trial Chamber’s Decision on the Legality of the Transfer of Call Data Records, 28 July 2015, STL-11-01/T/AC/AR126.9 (referring to call data records).

C. Webster, N. Frankland, The Strategic Air Offensive against Germany 1939–1945, Vol. 3 (1961), p. 112.

G. Acquaviva, ‘International Criminal Courts and Tribunals as Actors of General Deterrence? Perceptions and Misperceptions’, 96(895/896) IRRC (2014), p. 784.

See, among others, the reflections and references in V. Bernard, ‘Tactics, Techniques, Tragedies: a Humanitarian Perspective on the Changing Face of War’, 97(900) IRRC (2015), p. 959; Coming Soon…? A Reappraisal of the Legal and Ethical Implications of Autonomous Weapons Systems (AWS) ahead of the First Meeting of the CCW Group of Governmental Experts on Lethal AWS, in Questions of International Law, 31 October 2017, available at: http://www.qil-qdi.org/coming-soon-reappraisal-legal-ethical-implications-autonomous-weapons-systems-aws-ahead-first-meeting-ccw-group-governmental-experts-lethal-aws/.

See the reflections and further references in R. Sparrow, Ethics as a Source of Law: The Martens Clause and Autonomous Weapons, Humanitarian Law and Policy Blog, 14 November 2017, available at: http://blogs.icrc.org/law-and-policy/2017/11/14/ethics-source-law-martens-clause-autonomous-weapons/.

While the English and French languages use the same word for these two concepts, other groups, educated for instance in the Russian language (where the expressions are, respectively, человечествo and человечность) have a more precise understanding of these two sides of the concept of “humanity”, and therefore paradoxically experience some difficulty in translating expressions such as “laws of humanity” and “crimes against humanity”.

Bernard, supra note 8.

Table of Contents

Index Card

Metrics

Metrics

All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 0 0 0
Full Text Views 18 18 0
PDF Downloads 0 0 0
EPUB Downloads 0 0 0

Related Content