This paper discusses the role played by metal procurement and distribution in the intense relationships established between mobile, pastoral communities of the northern and north-eastern Anatolian mountains and the Upper and Middle Euphrates populations in the second half of the fourth and first half of the third millennium bc. These relations seem to have been first managed by emerging early state centers of the Euphrates Valley such as Arslantepe. It seems that the Euphrates valley became an attractive place and a meeting point for these mobile populations, also creating an opportunity for them to come into contact with the Syro-Mesopotamian world. The remarkable increase in metal demand and production documented at Arslantepe and in the whole Eastern Anatolian region from the second half of the fourth millennium onwards goes hand in hand with the intensification of their relations with the northern and north-eastern pastoral groups. The similarity in technology, metal composition, and types of metal objects in all the areas involved, as well as the continuity shown by the Arslantepe metal products at the beginning of the third millennium, when Kura Araxes-linked cultures dominated the scene, support this hypothesis.